Gohagan JK, Marcus PM, Fagerstrom RM, et al. Final results of the Lung Screening Study, a randomized feasibility study of spiral CT versus chest X-ray screening for lung cancer

Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., EPN 3064, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Lung Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.96). 02/2005; 47(1):9-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.06.007
Source: PubMed


The Lung Screening Study (LSS) was a pilot study designed to assess the feasibility of conducting a large scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) of low radiation dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) versus chest X-ray (CXR) for lung cancer screening. Baseline results of LSS have been previously reported. Here, we report on the findings at the year one screen and on the final results of the LSS study. A total of 1660 subjects were randomized to the LDCT arm and 1658 to the CXR arm. Compliance with screening declined from 96% at baseline to 86% at year one in the LDCT arm and declined from 93% at baseline to 80% at year one in the CXR arm. Positivity rates for the year one screen were 25.8% for LDCT and 8.7% for CXR. Cancer yield was significantly less at year one for LDCT, 0.57%, than at baseline, 1.9%; cancer yield for CXR increased from 0.45% at baseline to 0.68% at year one. Forty lung cancers in the LDCT arm and 20 in the CXR arm were diagnosed over the study period. Stage I cancers comprised 48% of cases in the LDCT arm and 40% in the CXR arm. A total of 16 stage III-IV cancers were observed in the LDCT arm versus nine in the CXR arm. The LSS has established the feasibility of a RCT comparing annual spiral CT to chest X-ray for lung cancer screening.

Download full-text


Available from: William G Hocking, May 30, 2015
  • Source
    • "Prior screening trials with chest radiographs have not found a reduction in lung cancer mortality [1], [2], [3]. Computer tomography (CT) is more sensitive than chest radiography and has recently been shown to be effective at reducing lung cancer mortality, although the feasibility and cost effectiveness of mass CT screening is still disputed [4], [5], [6]. CT imaging can detect pulmonary nodules as small as 2 to 3 mm, but current guidelines deem these small lesions clinically insignificant [7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To use primed infusions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd.DTPA (Magnevist), to achieve an equilibrium between blood and tissue (eqMRI). This may increase tumor Gd concentrations as a novel cancer imaging methodology for the enhancement of small tumor nodules within the low signal-to-noise background of the lung. A primed infusion with a delay before equilibrium (eqMRI) of the Gd(III) chelator Gd.DTPA, via the intraperitoneal route, was used to evaluate gadolinium tumor enhancement as a function of a bolus injection, which is applied routinely in the clinic, compared to gadolinium maintained at equilibrium. A double gated (respiration and cardiac) spin-echo sequence at 9.4T was used to evaluate whole lungs pre contrast and then at 15 (representative of bolus enhancement), 25 and 35 minutes (representative of eqMRI). This was carried out in two lung metastasis models representative of high and low tumor cell seeding. Lungs containing discrete tumor nodes where inflation fixed and taken for haematoxylin and eosin staining as well as CD34 staining for correlation to MRI. We demonstrate that sustained Gd enhancement, afforded by Gd equilibrium, increases the detection of pulmonary metastases compared to bolus enhancement and those tumors which enhance at equilibrium are sub-millimetre in size (<0.7 mm(2)) with a similar morphology to early bronchoalveolar cell carcinomas. As Gd-chelates are routinely used in the clinic for detecting tumors by MRI, this methodology is readily transferable to the clinic and advances MRI as a methodology for the detection of small pulmonary tumors.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Overall, the LC yield of our CXR screening (0.61%) was similar to that recorded in the PLCO study (0.7%) [31] and in the Lung Screening Study (0.68%) [32]; the slightly lower LC yield in our screening was likely due to lower pack-years and lower compliance. In participants, we found that only about half (51%) of LCs were screen-detected, a proportion similar to that recorded in the PLCO trial (53%) [31]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Case-control studies of mass screening for lung cancer (LC) by chest x-rays (CXR) performed in the 1990s in scarcely defined Japanese target populations indicated significant mortality reductions, but these results are yet to be confirmed in western countries. To ascertain whether CXR screening decreases LC mortality at community level, we studied a clearly defined population-based cohort of smokers invited to screening. We present here the LC detection results and the 10-year survival rates. The cohort of all smokers of > 10 pack-years resident in 50 communities of Varese, screening-eligible (n = 5,815), in July 1997 was invited to nonrandomized CXR screening. Self-selected participants (21% of cohort) underwent screening in addition to usual care; nonparticipants received usual care. The cohort was followed-up until December 2010. Kaplan-Meier LC-specific survival was estimated in participants, in nonparticipants, in the whole cohort, and in an uninvited, unscreened population (control group). Over the initial 9.5 years of study, 67 LCs were diagnosed in screening participants (51% were screen-detected) and 178 in nonparticipants. The rates of stage I LC, resectability and 5-year survival were nearly twice as high in participants (32% stage I; 48% resected; 30.5% 5-year survival) as in nonparticipants (17% stage I; 27% resected; 13.5% 5-year survival). There were no bronchioloalveolar carcinomas among screen-detected cancers, and median volume doubling time of incidence screen-detected LCs was 80 days (range, 44-318), suggesting that screening overdiagnosis was minimal. The 10-year LC-specific survival was greater in screening participants than in nonparticipants (log-rank, p = 0.005), and greater in the whole cohort invited to screening than in the control group (log-rank, p = 0.001). This favourable long-term effect was independently related to CXR screening exposure. In the setting of CXR screening offered to a population-based cohort of smokers, screening participants who were diagnosed with LC had more frequently early-stage resectable disease and significantly enhanced long-term LC survival. These results translated into enhanced 10-year LC survival, independently related to CXR screening exposure, in the entire population-based cohort. Whether increased long-term LC-specific survival in the cohort corresponds to mortality reduction remains to be evaluated. ISRCTN90639073.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · BMC Cancer
  • Source
    • "There are now a number of CT-based screening studies that have been published and several randomised trials underway. The first major lung cancer randomised controlled trial (RCT) screening trial utilising low-dose CT (LDCT) was the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), which is a combination of two trials, one set up by the US NCI and the other by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN).13 14 Between 2002 and 2004, 53 456 former and current smokers were randomised to either LDCT or chest radiograph annually for 3 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The UK Lung Screen (UKLS) is a randomised controlled trial of the use of low-dose multidetector CT for lung cancer screening. It completed the Health Technology Appraisal (HTA)-funded feasibility stage in October 2009 and the pilot UKLS will be initiated in early 2011. The pilot will randomise 4000 subjects to either low-dose CT screening or no screening. The full study, due to start in September 2012, if progression criteria are met, will randomise a further 28,000 subjects from seven centres in the UK. Subjects will be selected if they have sufficient risk of developing lung cancer according to the Liverpool Lung Project risk model. The UKLS employs the 'Wald Single Screen Design', which was modelled in the UKLS feasibility study. This paper describes the modelling of nodule management in UKLS by using volumetric analysis with a single initial screen design and follow-up period of 10 years. This modelling has resulted in the development and adoption of the UKLS care pathway, which will be implemented in the planned CT screening trial in the UK.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Thorax
Show more