Rituximab for the treatment of refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): Report of three cases
Comprehensive Cancer Center at Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, New York Medical College, Bronx, New York 10466, USA.American Journal of Hematology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 01/2005; 78(1):49-54. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.20243
Three patients (one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura [ITP] and two with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura [TTP]) were treated with rituximab (anti-CD20 chimeric antibody) at a dose of 325 mg/m2 administered weekly after they failed standard therapies. The patient with ITP who did not respond to steroids and anti-D antibody administration achieved augmentation of her platelet counts up to 180 x 10(3)/microL after four doses of rituximab. Six months later, when her counts started to decrease, she received maintenance therapy with an additional course of 4 standard doses of antibody that resulted in consolidation of her platelet counts around 100 x 10(3)/microL. One patient with TTP and concurrent idiopathic nephropathy who was previously treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and vincristine improved only after 4 weekly administrations of the antibody. Moreover, his nephrotic-range proteinuria resolved after he received rituximab. The other patient with chronic TTP who still relapsed after splenectomy received 5 doses of rituximab with concomitant plasmapheresis. His thrombocytopenia improved slowly, and his platelet count stabilized at 300 x 10(3)/microL. All three patients showed evidence of response to anti-CD20 antibody with improvement in clinical outcome as well as augmentation of platelet counts to normal levels. We conclude that rituximab is a useful immunomodulating adjunct in the treatment of refractory ITP and TTP.
Full-text previewDOI: · Available from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
Conference Paper: The view through a bamboo screen. From moire patterns to black holes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: X-ray astronomical imaging methods are discussed that use Moire fringes. The author describes his experiences in designing and operating X-ray astronomical detectors. His first experiment was an instrument flown onboard NASA's X-=15 rocket and used a rotating metal grid to distinguish between point and diffuse sources. Work on the precise location of various astronomical X-ray sources such as Sco X-1 is also described. The author also describes his work with a modulation collimator on Cyg X-1. Work involved in studying the Crab nebula and solar flares is also described
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Historically, the pathogenic role of B cells in autoimmune disease has been attributed to the formation of autoantibodies which, as soluble immunoglobulins or immunocomplexes, can trigger cellular damage and initiate the inflammatory cascade. Recent results from clinical trials applying B cell-directed therapeutics in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus have challenged such traditional views and encouraged novel ideas about the disease involvement of B cells. Suppression of disease activity, often disconnected from effects on autoantibody titers, has supported the notion that B cells may promote autoimmune disease by serving as antigen-presenting cells that sustain T cell activation. Likewise, B cells have been implicated in supporting the process of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, a mechanism that stabilises pathogenic immune responses in target tissues and thus contributes to disease chronicity. As a general rule, clinical effects of B cell-directed therapeutics have often been unanticipated and unpredicted by experimental models, emphasis-ing the need to explore and verify disease principles in the patient.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease that occurs mainly in young adults. Acquired cases are usually a result of antibodies directed against ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease [reprolysin type] with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13), a protease that cleaves the von Willebrand factor multimers. Prognosis has been improved by plasma therapy, but some acute severe forms are refractory to this treatment and achieving a sustained remission is still a challenge in chronic relapsing forms. We therefore conducted a multicentric open-label prospective trial to test the efficacy of rituximab, an anti-B-cell monoclonal antibody, as a curative and prophylactic treatment in patients with TTP as a result of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies. Six patients were included during an acute refractory TTP episode. Five patients with severe relapsing TTP and persistent anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies were prophylactically treated during remission. All patients received 4 weekly infusions of rituximab. The target of treatment was to restore a significant ADAMTS13 plasma activity (> 10%). Treatment with rituximab led to clinical remission in all cases of acute refractory TTP. In all patients, anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies disappeared, and a significant (18%-75%) plasma ADAMTS13 activity was detected following treatment. Tolerance of rituximab was good. Rituximab is a promising first-line immunosuppressive treatment in patients with acute refractory and severe relapsing TTP related to anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies.