Gene expression profiling of the rat superior olivary complex using serial analysis of gene expression

Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany.
European Journal of Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.18). 01/2005; 20(12):3244-58. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03791.x
Source: PubMed


The superior olivary complex (SOC) is an auditory brainstem region that represents a favourable system to study rapid neurotransmission and the maturation of neuronal circuits. Here we performed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) on the SOC in 60-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats to identify genes specifically important for its function and to create a transcriptome reference for the subsequent identification of age-related or disease-related changes. Sequencing of 31 035 tags identified 10 473 different transcripts. Fifty-seven per cent of the unique tags with a count greater than four were statistically more highly represented in the SOC than in the hippocampus. Among them were genes encoding proteins involved in energy supply, the glutamate/glutamine shuttle, and myelination. Approximately 80 plasma membrane transporters, receptors, channels, and vesicular transporters were identified, and 25% of them displayed a significantly higher expression level in the SOC than in the hippocampus. Some of the plasma membrane proteins were not previously characterized in the SOC, e.g. the purinergic receptor subunit P2X(6) and the metabotropic GABA receptor Gpr51. Differential gene expression between SOC and hippocampus was confirmed using RNA in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. The extensive gene inventory presented here will alleviate the dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying specific SOC functions and the comparison with other SAGE libraries from brain will ease the identification of promoters to generate region-specific transgenic animals. The analysis will be part of the publicly available database ID-GRAB.

Download full-text


Available from: Eckhard Friauf
  • Source
    • "The data suggest no correlation between energy metabolism and antioxidant activity. Our previous analysis had revealed a high abundance of genes involved in myelination in the SOC (Koehl et al., 2004). This observation is confirmed by the present comparison . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a very conspicuous structure in the mammalian auditory brainstem. It represents the first binaural processing center and is important for sound localization in the azimuth and in feedback regulation of cochlear function. In order to define molecular determinants of the SOC, which are of potential functional relevance, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of its transcriptome by serial analysis of gene expression in adult rats. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the SOC's gene expression profile compared to that of two other neural tissues, the striatum and the hippocampus, and with extraocular muscle tissue. This tested the hypothesis that SOC-specific or significantly upregulated transcripts provide candidates for the specific function of auditory neurons. Thirty-three genes were significantly upregulated in the SOC when compared to the two other neural tissues. Thirteen encoded proteins involved in neurotransmission, including action potential propagation, exocytosis, and myelination; five genes are important for the energy metabolism, and five transcripts are unknown or poorly characterized and have yet to be described in the nervous system. The comparison of functional gene classes indicates that the SOC has the highest energy demand of the three neural tissues, yet protein turnover is apparently not increased. This suggests a high energy demand for fueling auditory neurotransmission. Such a demand may have implications on auditory-specific tasks and relate to central auditory processing disorders. Ultimately, these data provide new avenues to foster investigations of auditory function and to advance molecular physiology in the central auditory system.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · The Anatomical Record Part A Discoveries in Molecular Cellular and Evolutionary Biology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship between structure and function is clearly illustrated by emerging evidence demonstrating the role of the neuronal cytoskeleton in physiological processes. For example, alterations in axonal caliber, a feature of the cytoskeleton, have been shown to affect reflex arc latencies and are prominent features of several neuropathological disorders. Even in the nonpathologic situation, however, axonal diameter may be a crucial element for the normal function of specialized auditory neurons. To investigate this relationship, we used serial analysis of gene expression and microarray analyses to characterize the expression of cytoskeletal genes in the central auditory system. These data, confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, identified differential expression of intermediate neurofilament transcripts (i.e., Nefh, Nef3, and Nfl) among the subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus. In situ hybridization was used to identify specific classes of neurons within the cochlear nucleus expressing these neurofilament genes. Robust neurofilament expression was seen in bushy cells and cochlear nerve root neurons, suggesting an association between cytoskeletal structure and rapid conduction velocities. Gene expression data were also identified for other classes of cytoskeletal and structural genes important in neuronal function. These results may help to explain some causes of hearing loss in hereditary neuropathies and provide an anatomic basis for understanding normal neuronal function in the central auditory system.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · The Anatomical Record Part A Discoveries in Molecular Cellular and Evolutionary Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cochlear nucleus is the first central pathway involved in the processing of peripheral auditory activity. The anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), posterior ventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) each contain predominant populations of neurons that have been well characterized regarding their morphological and electrophysiological properties. Little is known, however, of the underlying genetic factors that contribute to these properties and the initial steps in auditory processing. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), supported by microarray experiments, was performed on each subdivision of the rat cochlear nucleus to identify genes that may sub-serve specialized roles in the central auditory system. Pair-wise comparisons between SAGE libraries from the AVCN, PVCN and DCN were correlated with microarray experiments to identify individual transcripts with significant differential expression. Twelve highly correlated genes were identified representing cytoskeletal, vesicular, metabolic and g-protein regulating proteins. Among these were Rgs4 which showed higher expression in the DCN, Sst and Cyp11b1 with very high expression in the AVCN and Calb2 with preferential expression in the PVCN. The differential expression of these genes was validated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. These experiments provide a basis for understanding normal auditory processing on a molecular level and a template for investigating changes that may occur in the cochlear nucleus with hearing loss, the generation and percept of tinnitus, and central auditory processing disorders.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Neuroscience
Show more