Cotransplantation of Marrow Stromal Cells May Prevent Lethal Graft-versus-Host Disease in Major Histocompatibility Complex Mismatched Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Marrow stromal cells (MSC) produce a microenvironment supporting hematopoiesis and may contribute immune tolerance because of low immunogenicity and the suppressive effect of alloreactivity. We investigated whether cotransplantation of MSC could prevent lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in major histocompatibility complex mismatched allogeneic murine hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using female BALB/c (H-2d, recipient) and C3H/He (H-2k, donor) mice. MSC were obtained from C3H/He bone marrow cells (BMC). MSC and irradiated BALB/c splenocytes (SP) were cocultured with C3H/He SP or BMC. Nonirradiated MSC did not inhibit the proliferation of alloantigen-stimulated BMC and SP. However, irradiated MSC suppressed the proliferation of alloantigen-stimulated SP at a level comparable with that of immunosuppressive agents, and the suppression by MSC was reversed to a significant degree by interleukin 2. Lethally irradiated BALB/c mice received transplants of donor cells according to the following experimental groups (group A, BMC only; group B, BMC and SP; group C, BMC, SP, and MSC; group D, BMC and MSC). The survival rate in group D was higher than in the other groups (P = .0057), and the clinical GVHD scores and serum levels of interferon-gamma were low in group D. Our results suggest that cotransplantation of MSC in HSCT prevents lethal GVHD, possibly by immune modulation.
Available from: Andrea Wieck
- "Some clinical trials have sought to determine the potential role of MSCs in aGVHD prophylaxis, on the basis of preclinical trials attempting to reduce the incidence of aGVHD in murine models of allogeneic HLA-mismatched transplantation . The protocols of these trials have usually entailed co-transplantation of HSCs and third-party MSCs or transplantation of both cell types from the same donor. "
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being widely studied as potential cell therapy agents due to their immunomodulatory properties, which have been established by in vitro studies and in several clinical trials. Within this context, mesenchymal stem cell therapy appears to hold substantial promise, particularly in the treatment of conditions involving autoimmune and inflammatory components. Nevertheless, many research findings are still contradictory, mostly due to difficulties in characterization of the effects of MSCs in vivo. The purpose of this review is to report the mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease, particularly with respect to immunomodulation, migration, and homing, as well as report clinical applications described in the literature.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Murine models have been used to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of MSC in ameliorating (preventing and/or treating) GvHD. Such studies have revealed a mix of results with some showing immunomodulatory efficacy and others not (Chung et al., 2004; Sudres et al., 2006; Min et al., 2007; Tisato et al., 2007). However, they have highlighted a number of important questions which might impact the clinical efficacy of MSC as a cellular therapy for GvHD. "
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a cellular component of the supportive microenvironment (stroma) found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord, placenta, and adipose tissues. In addition to providing cellular and extracellular cues to support the proliferation and differentiation of cells that comprise functional tissues, MSC also contribute to tissue repair and have immunomodulatory properties. Their ability to modulate immunologic reactions while themselves not provoking immunologic responses from alloreactive T-lymphocytes and/or other effector cells, make MSC a potentially ideal therapeutic agent with which to treat graft versus host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic transplantation. Despite in vitro experiments confirming that MSC suppress mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and in vivo evidence from mouse models that show evidence that MSC can ameliorate GvHD, clinical trials to date using MSC to treat GvHD have shown mixed results. Whether this is a consequence of suboptimal timing and dose of administered MSC remains to be clarified. It is clear that immunomodulatory potential of MSC as a cellular therapy for GvHD remains to be realized in the clinic.
Available from: Jeffery Auletta
- "Minor GI protection seen with 4 M dose. Chung et al 2004  C3H/He / BALB\c 875 cGy 10 M BM, 5 M SPL Mouse BM-MSC 100 K MSC on day 0 with BMT Survival benefit when coinfused with BM, but not when coadministered with BM and SPC. "
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ABSTRACT: Regenerative stromal cell therapy (RSCT) has the potential to become a novel therapy for preventing and treating acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient. However, enthusiasm for using RSCT in allogeneic HSCT has been tempered by limited clinical data and poorly defined in vivo mechanisms of action. As a result, the full clinical potential of RSCT in supporting hematopoietic reconstitution and as treatment for GVHD remains to be determined. This manuscript reviews the immunomodulatory activity of regenerative stromal cells in preclinical models of allogeneic HSCT, and emphasizes an emerging literature suggesting that microenvironment influences RSC activation and function. Understanding this key finding may ultimately define the proper niche for RSCT in allogeneic HSCT. In particular, mechanistic studies are needed to delineate the in vivo effects of RSCT in response to inflammation and injury associated with allogeneic HSCT, and to define the relevant sites of RSC interaction with immune cells in the transplant recipient. Furthermore, development of in vivo imaging technology to correlate biodistribution patterns, desired RSC effect, and clinical outcome will be crucial to establishing dose-response effects and minimal biologic dose thresholds needed to advance translational treatment strategies for complications like GVHD.
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