An appendix carcinoid tumor in a patient with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

ArticleinHuman Pathlogy 35(12):1564-7 · January 2005with25 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2004.09.017 · Source: PubMed
Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are often associated with other tumors, particularly colon adenocarcinomas; but the association between carcinoid tumors and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome has not yet been explored. We report an unusual case of a 28-year-old woman with HNPCC who underwent surgery for a transverse colon adenocarcinoma in whom an appendix carcinoid tumor was incidentally found. To assess whether the carcinoid tumor displayed the characteristic molecular features of HNPCC tumors, we investigated the expression of mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins and microsatellite instability (MSI) status in both tumors. Both tumors demonstrated normal expression of the MMR proteins hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hPMS2. Interestingly, the adenocarcinoma exhibited an MSI phenotype but the carcinoid tumor did not, indicating that these 2 tumors arose through different molecular pathways.
    • "As a consequence, various MMR-deficient tumors have been identified in organs that are not traditionally recognized as part of the spectrum of Lynch syndrome. These cancers include adrenocortical adenocarcinoma91011, thyroid carcinoma [10], peritoneal mesothelioma [11], malignant fibrohistiocytoma [12,13] , rhabdomyo- sarcoma [14], dermatofibrosarcoma [15] , leiomyosar- coma16171819, liposarcoma [19], carcinoid tumour [20], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [21], malignant melanoma [22], pancreas [11,23], prostate [24] and breast cancers252627282930313233343536373839. However, for these tumors except pancreatic cancer [40], an increase in risk for MMR gene mutation carriers compared with the population (or non-carriers) has not been observed. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Mutation carriers have a substantial burden of increased risks of cancers of the colon, rectum, endometrium and several other organs which generally occur at younger ages than for the general population. The issue of whether breast cancer risk is increased for MMR gene mutation carriers has been debated with evidence for and against this association. Methods Using the PUBMED, we identified all relevant studies of breast cancer associated with Lynch syndrome that were published by 15 December 2012. In the review, we included: (i) molecular studies that reported microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tumors of MMR gene mutation carriers; and (ii) risk studies that investigated risk of breast cancer for confirmed MMR gene mutation carriers or families or clinically and/or pathologically defined Lynch syndrome families. Results We identified 15 molecular studies and, when combined, observed 62 of 122 (51%; 95% CI 42 to 60%) breast cancers in MMR gene mutation carriers were MMR-deficient. Of the 21 risk studies identified, 13 did not observe statistical evidence for an association of breast cancer risk with Lynch syndrome while 8 studies found an increased risk of breast cancer ranging from 2- to 18-fold compared with the general population (or non-carriers). There is only one prospective study demonstrating an elevated risk of breast cancer for MMR gene mutation carriers compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio 3.95; 95% CI 1.59, 8.13). Conclusions Since breast cancer is a relatively common disease in the general population, more precise estimates of risk and gene-specific risks will need to utilize large prospective cohort studies with a long follow-up. While current data are inconclusive at a population level, individual tumor testing results suggest that MMR deficiency is involved with breast cancers in some individuals with Lynch syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 2% of all colorectal cancer occurs in the context of the autosomal dominantly inherited Lynch syndrome, which is due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Potential risk-reducing interventions are recommended for individuals known to have these mutations. To review cancer risks and data on screening efficacy in the context of Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) and to provide recommendations for clinical management for affected families, based on available evidence and expert opinion. A systematic literature search using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, reference list review of retrieved articles, manual searches of relevant articles, and direct communication with other researchers in the field. Search terms included hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, Lynch syndrome, microsatellite instability, mismatch repair genes, and terms related to the biology of Lynch syndrome. Only peer-reviewed, full-text, English-language articles concerning human subjects published between January 1, 1996, and February 2006 were included. The US Preventive Services Task Force's 2-tier system was adapted to describe the quality of evidence and to assign strength to the recommendations for each guideline. The evidence supports colonoscopic surveillance for individuals with Lynch syndrome, although the optimal age at initiation and frequency of examinations is unresolved. Colonoscopy is recommended every 1 to 2 years starting at ages 20 to 25 years (age 30 years for those with MSH6 mutations), or 10 years younger than the youngest age of the person diagnosed in the family. While fully acknowledging absence of demonstrated efficacy, the following are also recommended annually: endometrial sampling and transvaginal ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries (ages 30-35 years); urinalysis with cytology (ages 25-35 years); history, examination, review of systems, education and genetic counseling regarding Lynch syndrome (age 21 years). Regular colonoscopy was favored for at-risk persons without colorectal neoplasia. For individuals who will undergo surgical resection of a colon cancer, subtotal colectomy is favored. Evidence supports the efficacy of prophylactic hysterectomy and oophorectomy. The past 10 years have seen major advances in the understanding of Lynch syndrome. Current recommendations regarding cancer screening and prevention require careful consultation between clinicians, clinical cancer genetic services, and well-informed patients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 5-10% of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastroenteropancreatic system (GEP) have a hereditary background. The known inherited syndromes include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, neurofibromatosis type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and the tuberous sclerosis complex. This review discusses for each of these syndromes the: (1) involved genes and specific types of mutations, (2) disease prevalence and penetrance, (3) affected neuroendocrine tissues and related clinical syndromes, (4) special morphological features of NETs and their putative precursor lesions. In addition, GEP-NETs clustering in individual families or associated with other malignancies without known genetic background are discussed.
    Article · Sep 2007
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