ArticleLiterature Review

The genus Ardisia: A novel source of health-promoting compounds and phytopharmaceuticals

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Abstract

Approximately 500 species of Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several of those Ardisia species have been used as ornamental plants, food and medicines. Due to taxonomic confusions, correct identification and acquisition of plant materials remain difficult for some species. Although species of Ardisia are a rich source of novel and biologically potent phytochemical compounds, such as bergenin and ardisin, the utilization of Ardisia species or their phytochemical constituents have not been fully explored, resulting in underexploitation of their uses. The present article reviews the usage and biological activities of Ardisia compounds, as well as recent progress regarding the use of this genus in clinical research. The information presented here also illustrates the potential of the genus as a source of therapeutic agents.

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... [1] The whole plants of A. japonica are listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 version) as a traditional Chinese medicine to cure phlegm, cough, jaundice, edema, and bruise. [2][3][4] Previous studies have demonstrated A. japonica possessing various biological effects, such as anti-HIV, [5] antioxidant, [6,7] and anticancer activities. [4,8,9] The chemical constituents have been reported benzoquinones, phenols, flavonoids, chromones, triterpenoids, and triterpenoid saponins, among which triterpenoid saponins were the main bioactive components. ...
... Six triterpenoid saponins: ardisiacrenoside A (1), cyclamine (2), ardisiacrispin A (3), ardisiacrispin B (4), 3β-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl)-cyclamiretin A (5) and 3β-O-β-Dglucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-Dglucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-13β,28-epoxy-16 α-hydroxyoleanane (6), were selected as the reference compounds, and were obtained in our previous phytochemical work ( Figure 1). [4] Their purity > 98% were confirmed by the 1 H-NMR spectra and HPLC analysis. ...
... A quick, easy, and reliable method was constructed and validated by LC-ESI-MS in SIM mode for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of six triterpenoid saponins (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) in A. japonica. The validation study discovered that the developed method was accurate, precise, recoverable, and sensitive for quantifying the six compounds. ...
... The genus Ardisia (Primulaceae) is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, and, for along time, its roots have primarily been used as traditional medicines [1]. In previous phytochemical investigations, the chemical constituents of the genus Ardisia were reported to be saponins, isocoumarins, peptides, quinones and alkylphenols [1]. ...
... The genus Ardisia (Primulaceae) is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, and, for along time, its roots have primarily been used as traditional medicines [1]. In previous phytochemical investigations, the chemical constituents of the genus Ardisia were reported to be saponins, isocoumarins, peptides, quinones and alkylphenols [1]. The roots of Ardisia species appeared to be a rich source of triterpenoid saponins, which have been isolated from various Ardisia species, including A. crenata, A. crispa, A. mamillata and A. pusilla. ...
... The roots of Ardisia species appeared to be a rich source of triterpenoid saponins, which have been isolated from various Ardisia species, including A. crenata, A. crispa, A. mamillata and A. pusilla. For example, novel triterpenoid saponins, ardisicrenosides A-B and ardisiacrispins A-B, were previously isolated from A. crenata and A. crispa, respectively [1]. Phytochemical investigations revealed that triterpenoid saponins are the main constituents of the genus Ardisia, and have significant cytotoxic activities [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
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Ardisiacrispin D–F (1–3), three new 13,28 epoxy bridged oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, together with four known analogues (4–7) were isolated from the roots of Ardisia crispa. The structures of 1–7 were elucidated based on 1D and 2D-NMR experiments and by comparing their spectroscopic data with values from the published literatures. Ardisiacrispin D–F (1–3) are first examples that the monosaccharide directly linked to aglycone C-3 of triterpenoid saponins in genus Ardisia are non-arabinopyranose. In the present paper, all compounds are evaluated for the cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and U87 MG) in vitro. The results show that compounds 1, 4 and 6 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against Hela and U87 MG cells with IC50 values in the range of 2.2 ± 0.6 to 9.5 ± 1.8 µM. The present investigation suggests that roots of A. crispa could be a potential source of natural anti-tumor agents and their triterpenoid saponins might be responsible for cytotoxicity.
... The genus Ardisia is the largest in the family Primulaceae found throughout the subtropical and tropical regions of the world (Anh et al. 1996, Kobayashi andde Mejia 2005). ...
... These qualities are preserved almost all year round and for this reason, the species is used for ornamental purposes (Liu et al.2013). Also, its leaves and branches were used for the medicinal purpose (Anh et al. 1996, Huong et al. 2020, An and Ziegler 2001, Do 2004, Kobayashi and de Mejia 2005, Phung et al. 2020. ...
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A simple and efficient protocol was developed for in vitroregeneration viacallus-mediated organogenesis of Ardisia silvestris Pitard. Leaf, nodal segments, and petiole explants from wild mature plants were used as initial materials for callus induction and plant regeneration. Effects of plant growth regulators, the types of explants on the formation of callus, and adventitious buds were studied. The research demonstrated that the optimal medium for callus induction from three type of explants was determined as Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal nutrients supplemented with 1.0 mg l -1 Thidiazuron (TDZ) and solidified with 0.8% agar. This medium achieved a callus induction rate of > 80%. The MS medium supplemented with 1 mg l-1 TDZ and 0.4 mg l -1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was most effective on shoot induction, with the highest shoot-induction rate and numbers of shoots on leaf explant (85% and 14.6, resp.). For rooting of shoots, MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l -1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the highest rooting regeneration rate (90%).
... It is widely used in the treatment of fits, eye pain, and also leaf used as vegetable, analgesic and cattle feed (Chandran et al. 2015). This plant is traditionally important in the treatment of fever, diarrhoea, pains, bacterial infections and liver disorders (Kobayashi and de Mejia 2005). Ardisia species has several biologically active phytochemicals including saponin, coumarins and quinines. ...
... Ardisia spp. has several biologically active phytochemicals, including saponins, coumarins and quinines, and is a rich source of biologically potent compounds, such as bergin and ardisin (Kobayashi and de Mejia 2005). The plants having phytochemicals possess medicinal value that can have physiological and pharmacological actions on human body (Hossain et al. 2016). ...
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Ardisia solanacea is a large evergreen shrub growing up to a height of 1.5 to 4 meter tall and native to Bangladesh, China, India, Malaya, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. A. solanacea is a one of the important herb reported to contain an array of phytochemicals and is widely used as food and in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to analyze the phytochemicals present in the dried leaf samples and to evaluate its antibacterial and antifungal properties. For the evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties, agar well diffusion method was used. Phytosterols, phenols and tannins were present in all solvent extracts. Higher antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous hot leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 mm), Escherichia coli (12 mm) and Xanthomonas campestris (12 mm) and methanol cold extract showed the highest activity against Bacillus cereus (8 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10 mm) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (8mm). Only methanol hot extract showed antifungal properties against Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichophyton rubrum.
... In Bangladesh, it is locally called as Ban Jam and widely distributed in different regions of this country especially in hilly areas of Chittagong forest, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Sylhet and other evergreen forests. It is generally a small or glabrous tree that can reach a maximum height of 6 meters under the ordinary conditions [21]. This plant has potential antibacterial, neuropharmacological, oral hypoglycemic, cytotoxic, and antiviral properties were reported by the different research team [21,22]. ...
... It is generally a small or glabrous tree that can reach a maximum height of 6 meters under the ordinary conditions [21]. This plant has potential antibacterial, neuropharmacological, oral hypoglycemic, cytotoxic, and antiviral properties were reported by the different research team [21,22]. In this regard, the present study procedures mainly focused on to determine anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, antithrombotic, and anthelmintic properties of A. solanacea leaf extract. ...
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Objective: This study aims to uncover the anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, thrombolytic, and anthelmintic activities of methanol extract of A. solanacea (ASME) and its soluble n-hexane fraction in methanol (ASNH). Materials and Methods: The phytochemical assessment of this plant was performed by using the standard method. The anti-diarrheal property was screened by castor oil induced diarrhea in Swiss albino mice and plant extract was administered into mice by oral gavage. The antioxidant property was being investigated by two different in vitro methods such as ferric reducing effect assay and superoxide scavenging activity assay. The thrombolytic activity was evaluated by in vitro clot lysis procedure, and the anthelmintic study was carried out on earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results: In castor-oil induced diarrhea, ASME and ASNH induced a significant decrease (** P<0.005) in the total number of defecation within 4 hours of the testing period (200 and 400 mg/kg) when compared to the standard drug loperamide. During the evaluation of the antioxidant property, ASME showed promising reducing power with an IC50 value of 79.14 µg/mL when compared to the standard ascorbic acid in ferric reducing effect assay. After that, ASME displayed significant scavenging effect with the IC50 value of 154.36 µg/mL when compared to standard curcumin in superoxide scavenging activity assay. In the thrombolytic activity, different doses of ASME and ASNH were used. These extracts produced considerable clot lysis of human blood, showed significant (P<0.001) result in a concentration dependent manner. The crude ASME displayed anthelmintic activity in adult earth worm in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: It can conclude that compared to standard drugs, A. solanacea have potential anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, thrombolytic, and anthelmintic activity.
... Moreover, the root, stem, and leaf of A. crenata var. bicolor contain a wide array of bioactive compounds, which have anti-tumor, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties [2][3][4][5][6] and are commonly used in traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and bronchitis. This plant plays a key role as a traditional folk herbal medicine in the ethnic minority region of southwest China and is used as an antidote for snake poison. ...
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Ardisia crenata var. bicolor is a multi-purpose plant and has important ornamental and medicinal properties. Conventional methods of propagating the species from seeds and cuttings have low efficiency because of the recalcitrant properties of seeds and low survival rate of high-quality cuttings. This work aims to study the in vitro regeneration protocol for direct organogenesis from nodal segments of A. crenata var. bicolor on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, with different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The treatments used for the establishment and proliferation of shoots included MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of Benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). For rooting, IBA was used in combination with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in full- and half-strength MS media. Maximum shoot establishment (76.67%) and the highest shoot length (6.6 cm) were observed on MS medium with 1.0 mg·L−1 BAP with 0.5 mg·L−1 IBA, while BAP at 1.0 mg·L−1 with 0.25 mg·L−1 IBA obtained the highest shoot proliferation (4.5 ± 1.53). The best rooting response (83.33%) was achieved on half-strength MS including 1.0 mg·L−1 IBA with 0.25 mg·L−1 NAA, and the maximum survival rate of 84.4% was observed after acclimatization under 75% shading. To define their genetic stability, using eleven primers of ISSR markers to assess the genetic stability of the unstable leaf color samples compared with their mother plant, the ISSR markers demonstrated a level of genetic polymorphism in plantlets, but without other morphological variations. This indicates the genetic resemblance to the mother plant and the reliability of this protocol for the efficient micropropagation of A. crenata var. bicolor.
... Ardisia lindleyana D.Dietr, an evergreen dwarf shrub, mainly distributes in areas of the south China [1] and is known for its use as an important traditional Miao Minority medicine [2] and an ornamental shrub. It is a representative of genus Ardisia which is the largest member in the family Primulaceae. ...
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One new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin, ardisiapunine E ( 1 ), along with two known compounds were isolated from the root of Ardisia lindleyana D.Dietr. Their structures were elucidated by ¹ H and ¹³ C NMR, DEPT, HMBC, HSQC, ¹ H- ¹ H COSY and NOESY spectroscopic analyses, ESI-MS, and literature. Compounds 1 - 3 exhibited obvious anti-proliferative activities against HeLa cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner through inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in vitro , both consisting of pentacyclic triterpenes and sugar. Hence, this study identified a new and two known pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin promoting apoptosis as a potential therapeutic option for cancer.
... The wide range of action of bergenin can be demonstrated by its inhibitory effect on formation of kidney stones. Bergenin is a C-glycoside of 4-O-methyl gallic acid with an ionizing ability in buffer medium under neutral pH, whereas 4-O-methylglycoside (4-OMG) [102], the hydrolysis product of bergenin has negatively charged free carboxylate group, which enables it to bind with the calcium site of CaOx crystals and inhibit the growth and precipitation of CaOx crystals [89]. Similarly, other phenolic groups of B. ligulata such as arbutin and catechin also has the ability to interact with negatively charged oxalate ions by hydrogen bonds, which ultimately modulates the growth of CaOx crystals. ...
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Herbal products have been used in traditional systems of medicine and by ethnic healers for ages to treat various diseases. Currently, it is estimated that about 80% of people worldwide use herbal traditional medicines against various ailments, partly due to easy accessibility and low cost, and the lower side effects they pose. Bergenia ligulata, a herb ranging from the Himalayas to the foothills, including the northeastern states of India, has traditionally been used as a remedy against various diseases, most prominently kidney stones. The medicinal properties of B. ligulata have been attributed to bergenin, its most potent bioactive component. Apart from bergenin, the other compounds available in B. ligulata are arbutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, afzelechin, paashaanolactone, caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, β-eudesmol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, parasorbic acid, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, phytol, terpinen-4-ol, tannic acid, isovalaric acid, avicularin, quercetin, reynoutrin, and sitoinoside I. This review summarizes various medicinal properties of the herb, along with providing deep insight into its bioactive molecules and their potential roles in the amelioration of human ailments. Additionally, the possible mechanism(s) of action of the herb's anti-urolithiatic, antioxidative, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties are discussed. This comprehensive documentation will help researchers to better understand the medicinal uses of the herb. Further studies on B. ligulata can lead to the discovery of new drug(s) and therapeutics for various ailments.
... Ardisia lindleyana D. Dietr, a kind of evergreen dwarf shrub, belongs to the family of Myrsinaceae. It is mainly distributed across tropical America, the Pacific Islands, the eastern Indian Peninsula, Eastern Asia, and Southern Asia [1], and is grown for use in traditional Miao Minority medicine and as an ornamental shrub [2]. Previous research on the chemical constituents of this plant has led to the isolation of isocoumarins [3], quinones [4,5], and triterpenoids [3], some of which were found to have various bioactivities, including antiinflammatory and anti-tumor activities. ...
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Two new compounds, ardisiapunine B (1) and ardisiapunine C (2), were isolated from Ardisia lindleyana D. Dietr. Their structures were examined using HR–ESI–MS, IR, (1D, 2D) NMR spectroscopic analyses, single–crystal X–ray diffraction, and ECD calculation. It was found that the two new compounds belong to unusual oleanane-type triterpenes, with compound 1 bearing an acetal unit and a C–13–C–18 double bond, and compound 2 bearing a C–28 aldehyde group and a C–18–C–19 double bond. The anti-inflammatory properties of compounds 1 and 2 were tested on NO production and cellular morphology using RAW264.7 cells, and their anti-tumor properties were tested on cytotoxic activities, cellular morphology, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle. The results showed that compound 1 exhibited a potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 12.40 μM. Furthermore, it is possible that compound 1 inhibits cell proliferation by blocking the cell G2/M phase and promoting cell apoptosis. Compound 2 exhibited a potential anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the production of NO in LPS–stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Comparative analysis of the structures of compounds 1 and 2 revealed that the acetal structure and double bond positions were the main differences between them, and these are presumed to be the main reasons for the extreme differences in their cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activities. From these new findings, two promising lead compounds were identified for the future development of potential anti–inflammatory or anti–tumor agents.
... Since the 1970s, extensive research on the chemical components and pharmacological action of Ardisia has resulted in the discovery of many novel biologically active ingredients. Kobayashi and de Mejía (2005) have reviewed the chemical composition, biological activity, and pharmacological effects of many Ardisia plants. Ardisia species contain various physiologically active compounds, such as peptides, saponins, isocoumarins, quinones and alkylphenols I; therefore, it has high medicinal value with antitussive, anti-fertility, antiasthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor and insecticidal effects (Newell et al., 2010;Joaquín-Cruz et al., 2015). ...
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Pimpinella species are annual, biennial, and perennial semibushy aromatic plants cultivated for folk medicine, pharmaceuticals, food, and spices. The karyology and genome size of 17 populations of 16 different Pimpinella species collected from different locations in Iran were analyzed for inter-specific karyotypic and genome size variations. For karyological studies, root tips were squashed and painted with a DAPI solution (1 mg/ml). For flow cytometric measurements, fresh leaves of the standard reference (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Stupick, 2C DNA = 1.96 pg) and the Pimpinella samples were stained with propidium iodide. We identified two ploidy levels: diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x), as well as five metaphase chromosomal counts of 18, 20, 22, 24, and 40. 2n = 24 is reported for the first time in the Pimpinella genus, and the presence of a B-chromosome is reported for one species. The nuclear DNA content ranged from 2C = 2.48 to 2C = 5.50 pg, along with a wide range of genome sizes between 1212.72 and 2689.50 Mbp. The average monoploid genome size and the average value of 2C DNA/chromosome were not proportional to ploidy. There were considerable positive correlations between 2C DNA and total chromatin length and total chromosomal volume. The present study results enable us to classify the genus Pimpinella with a high degree of morphological variation in Iran. In addition, cytological studies demonstrate karyotypic differences between P. anthriscoides and other species of Pimpinella, which may be utilized as a novel identification key to affiliate into a distinct, new genus – Pseudopimpinella.
... There are about 500 species of plants in the genus Ardisia, which are widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions [1,2]. The Ardisia crenata Sims is a common evergreen shrub belonging to Ardisia of Myrsinaceae with red fruits at maturity [3]. ...
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Two new lactones, named Ardisicreolides A–B (1–2), together with four known flavonoids, Quercetin (3), Myricetrin (4), Quercitrin (5), Tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnoside (6), were isolated from the ethyl acetate portion of 70% ethanol extracts of dried leaves from Ardisia crenata Sims. These compounds were identified from Ardisia crenata Sims for the first time. The structures of 1–6 were elucidated according to 1D and 2D-NMR methods and together with the published literature. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro anti-microbial effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, compounds 1–2 were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by acting on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. The results showed that only compound 2 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 were found to significantly inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reduce the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The present data suggest that lactones from the leaves of A. crenata Sims might be used as a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents.
... Among saponins in A. kteniophylla, one has shown significant inhibitory effects on six different lines of tumor cells (Gu et al., 2014). Broadly, the Ardisia genus appears to represent a rich source of triterpene saponins (Kobayashi & De Mejía, 2005;Su et al., 2003;Zhang, 1994). ...
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Ardisia kteniophylla (Primulaceae) is highly valued in traditional medicine due to its production of the pharmacologically active secondary metabolites, especially triterpenoid saponins in its roots. Although A. kteniophylla is very important in traditional medicine, the genetic basis for its production of triterpenoid saponins remains largely unknown. Therefore, we sequenced transcriptomes of A. kteniophylla to identify putative genes involved in production of triterpenoid saponins in both leaves and roots, and we used the transcriptomes to compare expression levels of these genes between the two organ systems. The production of triterpenoid saponins in plants is usually induced through hormonal signaling on account of the presence of pests. Thus, we treated plants with the hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and used quantitative real‐time PCR (qRT‐PCR) to investigate expression levels of genes involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In total, we obtained transcriptomes for leaf and root tissues representing 52,454 unigenes. Compared with the leaf transcriptome, we found that 6092 unigenes were upregulated in the root, especially enzymes involved in the direct synthesis of triterpenoid saponins, while 6001 genes appeared downregulated, including those involved in precursory steps in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway. Our results from qRT‐PCR indicate that genes within the upstream parts of the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway may be upregulated under exposure to the applied hormones, but downstream genes are downregulated. This suggests possible conflicting effects of SA and MeJA in promoting the production of secondary metabolites on the one hand, and, on the other, limiting plant growth processes to devote energy to combating pests. We also performed an analysis of transcription factors (TFs) and found 997 unique transcripts belonging to 16 TF families. Our data may help to facilitate future work on triterpene saponins biosynthesis in A. kteniophylla with potential pharmacological and molecular breeding applications. We investigated the genetic basis for the production of triterpenoid saponins in the medicinal plant, Ardisia kteniophylla, using transcriptome sequences and qRT‐PCR. We found that genes involved in late stages of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis are upregulated in roots, which are traditionally regarded as the medicinal organ of the plant, compared with leaves. We also determined that exposure to certain plant hormones, which may be involved in triggering triterpenoid saponin production, did not yield an overall upregulation of genes involved in the synthesis pathway, possibly due to energetic tradeoffs.
... Since the 1970s, extensive research on the chemical components and pharmacological action of Ardisia has resulted in the discovery of many novel biologically active ingredients. Kobayashi and de Mejía (2005) have reviewed the chemical composition, biological activity, and pharmacological effects of many Ardisia plants. Ardisia species contain various physiologically active compounds, such as peptides, saponins, isocoumarins, quinones and alkylphenols I; therefore, it has high medicinal value with antitussive, anti-fertility, antiasthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor and insecticidal effects (Newell et al., 2010;Joaquín-Cruz et al., 2015). ...
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Ardisia plants have been used as medicinal plants for a long time in China. Traditional techniques such as morphological, microscopic, and chemical identification methods all have limitations in the species identification of Ardisia. For the sake of drug safety, four DNA barcodes (psbA-trnH, ITS, rbcL, and matK) were assessed for Chinese Ardisia plants using a total of 121 individuals from 33 species. Four criteria (The success rates of PCR amplification, DNA barcoding gap, DNA sequence similarity analysis and NJ tree clustering analysis) were used to evaluate the species identification ability of these four DNA barcodes. The results show that ITS had the highest efficiency in terms of PCR and sequencing and exhibited the most apparent inter- and intra-specific divergences and the highest species identification efficiency. There was no significant increase in species identification after combining the three cpDNA fragments with the ITS fragment. Considering the cost and experimental effectiveness, we recommend ITS as the core barcode for identifying Chinese Ardisia plants.
... The two plants forms clusters and glossy, drupe fruits 2 and produces red or white fruits 3,4 , the berries could adhere to maternal plant for 12 months or longer in weak-light environment, which is one of the most popular ornamental plants grown in houses or as an undergrowth companion species in gardens. In addition, its phytochemical constituents possess anti-tumor, anti-cancer, and anti-in ammatory properties [4][5][6][7][8] . In China, it has been widely used as a traditional folk herbal medicine for detoxi cation. ...
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Ardisia crenata var. bicolor is an ornamental shrub, owing to its declined wild population, recalcitrant seeds and few high-quality cuttings, the main objective of this study was to optimize an in vitro propagation protocol by using tip shoot and nodal segment as explants from senescent plant. Explants were sterilized and cultured on Muraghige and Skoog medium contained 1.0 mg·L ⁻¹ benzylaminopurine and 0.05 mg·L ⁻¹ 1-naphthaleneacetic acid for shoot initiation. For shoot proliferation, explants were cultured on MS medium with 1.0 mg·L ⁻¹ BAP, 0.1 mg·L ⁻¹ NAA, and 0.5 mg·L ⁻¹ kinetin, and the proliferation coefficient were 3.1 and 2.5. Rooting was achieved by two explants in half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg·L ⁻¹ indole-3-butyric acid + 0.1 mg·L ⁻¹ or 0.2 mg·L ⁻¹ NAA, and 0.5 g·L ⁻¹ activated charcoal. The highest rooting rate were 72.7% and 65.1% with the highest mean number of roots (4.2 and 2.8, respectively). After acclimatization, 83.3% and 81.2% of plants were survived in the greenhouse. The plant can be rejuvenated via in vitro propagation and provide a reference for supplying the planting materials quickly with an uniform genotype.
... Ardisia là một chi lớn nhất trong họ Myrsinaceae với khoảng 500 loài, phân bố rải khắp các vùng nhiệt và cận nhiệt đới như châu Mỹ, châu Á, số ít ở châu Úc, các đảo Thái Bình Dương và có tiềm năng ứng dụng trong đời sống [6]. Ở Việt Nam, chi này gồm 101 loài và nhiều loài được sử dụng làm thuốc [7]. Những nghiên cứu gần đây đã cho thấy, một số loài trong chi Ardisia có khả năng kháng khuẩn, chống oxi hóa [8], [9]. ...
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Theo ghi nhận của Globocan năm 2020, Việt Nam có tổng số ca ung thư mới mắc là 1.825.563 người, tổng số ca tử vong là 122.690. Điều trị ung thư dạ dày đã đạt được những tiến bộ rõ rệt trong những thập kỷ gần đây. Tuy nhiên, tỷ lệ sống sót 5 năm của các bệnh nhân ung thư dạ dày vẫn còn thấp, dưới 30%. Trong nghiên cứu này, chúng tôi tiến hành định tính các thành phần hóa học và đánh giá tác động ức chế ung thư dạ dày dòng tế bào MKN45 của dịch chiết ethanol từ loài Cơm nguội lông (Ardisia villosa). Kết quả định tính cho thấy, dịch chiết ethanol của loài Ardisia villosa chứa saponin, tanin nhưng không chứa triterpenoid và alkaloid. Dịch chiết ethanol của loài Ardisia villosa có khả năng ức chế tăng sinh và làm thay đổi kiểu hình của tế bào ung thư dạ dày dòng MKN45. Giá trị IC50 được xác định là 144,54 µg/mL. Nghiên cứu này của chúng tôi đã chỉ ra rằng, Ardisia villosa có tiềm năng ức chế sự tăng sinh của tế bào ung thư dạ dày.
... Here, we investigated the leaf-nodulated species A. crenata and P. punctata (Figure 1). A. crenata is an evergreen shrub native to India, East and Southeast Asia, which is widely cultivated for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The nodules inhabited by its species-specific endophyte Ca. C. crenata are restricted to the leaf margin (Kobayashi and De Mejía, 2005;Kitajima et al., 2006;Carlier et al., 2016). The rubiaceous species P. punctata is an understory shrub distributed throughout the subtropical regions of continental Africa and Madagascar. ...
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Root-microbe interaction and its specialized root nodule structures and functions are well studied. In contrast, leaf nodules harboring microbial endophytes in special glandular leaf structures have only recently gained increased interest as plant-microbe phyllosphere interactions. Here, we applied a comprehensive metabolomics platform in combination with natural product isolation and characterization to dissect leaf and leaf nodule metabolism and functions in Ardisia crenata (Primulaceae) and Psychotria punctata (Rubiaceae). The results indicate that abiotic stress resilience plays an important part within the leaf nodule symbiosis of both species. Both species showed metabolic signatures of enhanced nitrogen assimilation/dissimilation pattern and increased polyamine levels in nodules compared to leaf lamina tissue potentially involved in senescence processes and photosynthesis. Multiple links to cytokinin and REDOX-active pathways were found. Our results further demonstrate that secondary metabolite production by endophytes is a key feature of this symbiotic system. Multiple anhydromuropeptides (AhMP) and their derivatives were identified as highly characteristic biomarkers for nodulation within both species. A novel epicatechin derivative was structurally elucidated with NMR and shown to be enriched within the leaf nodules of A. crenata. This enrichment within nodulated tissues was also observed for catechin and other flavonoids indicating that flavonoid metabolism may play an important role for leaf nodule symbiosis of A. crenata. In contrast, pavettamine was only detected in P. punctata and showed no nodule specific enrichment but a developmental effect. Further natural products were detected, including three putative unknown depsipeptide structures in A. crenata leaf nodules. The analysis presents a first metabolomics reference data set for the intimate interaction of microbes and plants in leaf nodules, reveals novel metabolic processes of plant-microbe interaction as well as the potential of natural product discovery in these systems.
... Total saponins of Albiziae Cortex could induce S phase arrest and activate mitochondrial apoptosis in HCC cells (Qian et al., 2018). Shikonin extracts could induce apoptosis and DNA damage in HCC cells through activating caspases and increasing intracellular Ca 2+ concentration (Wang, Liu, Li, Zhao & Guan, 2017 Ardisiae Japonicae Herba (AJH), native to South East Asia and North America, has been widely used to treat HCC, bronchitis conjunctivitis and trauma for thousands of years (Kobayashi & de Mejía, 2005). Clinical studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal formula containing AJH, Scutellaria barbata D. Don, Hedyotis diffusa Willd, and other 23 herbs could improve the clinical outcome and induce the quality of life in HCC patients (Zeng et al., 2019). ...
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Objective The aim of this study is to discover the possible working mechanisms of Ardisiae Japonicae Herba (AJH) on hepatoma carcinoma (HCC). Methods In this study, ethanol extract of AJH was prepared and used to treat HCC cell in vitro. Furthermore, a genomic wide RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to screen deregulated genes in HCC cells after the treatment of AJH extract. The gene and protein expression related to lipid metabolism in HCC cells were also investigated to validate the results obtained from RNA-seq. Results AJH extract could inhibit HCC cell proliferation in vitro. RNA-seq analysis has identified 1,601 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, fold change ≥ 2.0 or fold change ≤ 0.5, P < 0.05) in HCC after AJH extract treatment, which included 225 up-regulated genes and 1,376 down-regulated genes. KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs demonstrated that lipid metabolism was a potential pathway related to AJH treatment. In agreement with the RNA-seq data, qPCR and Western-blot analysis indicated that expression of genes and proteins related to lipid metabolism (SREBP1, ACC, ACLY and FASN) were significantly down-regulated in AJH treatment group as compared with the control group. Furthermore, AJH extract could also decrease lipid contents and cellular free fatty acid levels in HCC cells. Conclusion Ethanol extract of AJH could inhibit HCC cell proliferation in vitro, the possible mechanism may be related to the inhibition of lipid metabolism.
... Ardisia crispa roots have also been identified with an isomeric mixture of viminalol (also known as αand β-amyrin) and a 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activities [28]. Preceding phytochemical studies of Ardisia crispa roots have reported long chain alkyl-1,4-benzoquinones as major constituents that are potential for phytopharmaceuticals [26,28,29]. This plant possesses various pharmacological activities, including antipyretic, antihyperalgesic, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties [26,28,30,31]. ...
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Background Ardisia crispa (Thunb.) A.DC (Primulaceae), is a medicinal herb traditionally used by Asian people as remedies to cure inflammatory related diseases, including rheumatism. The plant roots possess various pharmacological activities including antipyretic, anti-inflammation and antitumor. Previous phytochemical studies of the plant roots have identified long chain alkyl-1,4-benzoquinones as major constituents, together with other phytochemicals. Hexane fraction of the plant roots (ACRH), was previously reported with anti-angiogenic and anti-arthritic properties, while its effect on their anti-arthritic in vitro , is yet unrevealed. Considering the significance of angiogenesis inhibition in developing new anti-arthritic agent, thus we investigated the anti-arthritic potential of Ardisia crispa roots by suppressing angiogenesis, in vitro. Methods Ardisia crispa roots hexane extract (ACRH) was prepared from the plant roots using absolute n -hexane. ACRH was fractionated into quinone-rich fraction (QRF) and further isolated to yield benzoquinonoid compound (BQ), respectively. In vitro experiments using VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and IL-1β-induced human fibroblast-like synoviocytes for rheumatoid arthritis (HFLS-RA) were performed to evaluate the effects of these samples on VEGF-induced HUVECs proliferation and tube formation, and towards IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis, respectively. Therapeutic concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 μg/mL) tested in this study were predetermined based on the IC 50 values obtained from the MTT assay. Results ACRH, QRF, and BQ exerted concentration-independent antiproliferative effects on VEGF-induced HUVECs and IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA, with IC 50 values at 1.09 ± 0.18, 3.85 ± 0.26, and 1.34 ± 0.16 μg/mL in HUVECs; and 3.60 ± 1.38, 4.47 ± 0.34, and 1.09 ± 0.09 μg/mL in HFLS-RA, respectively. Anti-angiogenic properties of these samples were verified via significant inhibition on VEGF-induced HUVECs tube formation, in a concentration-independent manner. The invasiveness of IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA was also significantly inhibited in a concentration-independent manner by all samples. ACRH and BQ, but not QRF, significantly enhanced the apoptosis of IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA elicited at their highest concentration (5 μg/mL) ( P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings highlight the bioactive fractions and compound from Ardisia crispa roots as potential anti-arthritic agents by inhibiting both HUVECs and HFLS-RA’s cellular functions in vitro, possibly mediated via their anti-angiogenic effects.
... Around the world, almost 500 species of Ardisia are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Several of those species have been used as ornamental plants, medicines and foods (Kobayashi et al., 2005). Ardisiasolanacea (Poir) Roxb.(Family: ...
... It is widely cultivated as an undergrowth companion species in gardens and as a house plant. Medicinally, its phytochemical constituents possess signi cant anti-tumor, anti-cancer, and anti-in ammatory properties (Kobayashi and de Mejía 2005;Liu et al. 2016;Ma et al. 2015;Podolak et al. 2019;Raina et al. 2014). ...
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Aims This research investigated the acclimation of Ardisia crenata Sims var. bicolor at different elevations, and evaluated both soil and plant responses to altitude. Methods We collected rhizosphere soil and upper canopy leaves from this evergreen shrub during the plant blooming phase from six different altitudinal ranges on the Gaoligong Mountain. We measured soil nutrients and enzyme activities. Spectrophotometry was used to investigate twelve indicators of leaves, including the antioxidant enzyme activities. Results Soil physicochemical analysis showed that soil pH was negatively correlated with altitude and decreased with soil depth, whereas there were positive correlations between altitude and soil water content, organic matter, and soil nutrients, including organic carbon, total N, and total P. Total K at high elevations showed an increase with soil depth but not significant. Soil urease, saccharase, amylase, catalase, and peroxidase activities were significantly positively correlated with altitude and organic matter, and these enzymes were sensitive to environmental changes. In contrast, specific enzyme activity provided more ecological information and responded more clearly to altitudinal changes, thus playing a crucial role in the study of interactions between soil nutrients and enzymes. Ardisia crenata var. bicolor showed significant differences in physiological compounds (except for anthocyanin); the concentrations of all compounds increased with altitude. Conclusions Our results indicate that plant-soil interactions with elevation changes significantly affect plant distribution and restrict plant growth and reproduction, which contribute to an understanding of the habitat and physiological characteristics and provide a theoretical basis for the effective cultivation and management of this species.
... The genus has been recognized for a number of biological activities like anthelmintic, antimicrobial (Mohammad et al., 2015), analgesic (Shah et al., 2011), anticonvulsant, antiinflamatory (Yang et al., 2001), antioxidant, antitumor (Newell, 2010;Ramirez-Mares et al., 2010), antiplatelet, cytotoxic, trypanocidals (Fujioka et al., 1988;Jia et al., 1994), antifungal, piscicidal and insecticidal activities (Berenbaum, 1995;Kessler and Baldwin, 2002). A large number of species of the genus Ardisia are used in the traditional medicine system for different ailments like to cure stomachache and it has a folkloric history in the treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation, fever, intestinal worms, rheumatism, scabies, snakebites, cholera, and cancer treatment (Hideka and De-Mejia, 2005). Ardisia solanacea Roxb. ...
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The objectives of this research were to investigate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Ethyl Acetate Root Extract of Ardisia solanacea Roxb. (EREAS) and estimation of its biological activities. Phytochemical screening of EREAS showed the abundance of total phenolics, flavanoids, ortho-dihydric phenols, alkaloids, diterpenes and triterpenes etc. The quantitative analysis of EREAS was also carried out by GC/MS and α-amyrenone (13.3%) was found to be the major component. Antifeeding activity monitored through no choice leaf dip method against Spilosoma oblique. The results revealed dose and time dependent antifeeding activity, where the 100% mortality was observed signifying the intense insecticidal activity. The herbicidal activity of extracts was evaluated against the Raphanus raphanistrum seeds. Accordingly, EREAS showed effective herbicidal activity in terms of inhibition of seed germination, coleoptile length and the radical length. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed via DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating of Fe2+ activities. EREAS possessed potential antioxidant property and revealed good anti-inflammatory activity.
... Moreover, this study used the crude plant extract from an Ardisia species which is currently being studied by the authors for its potential molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi snails (unpublished data). is plant is a native species in the Philippines and commonly known as "tagpo". Many Ardisia species are well studied for their health-promoting activity [20]. e purpose of including tagpo extract as a test substance is to show that mpt can be used to test crude plant extracts. ...
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To expedite the discovery of novel molluscicides in the laboratory, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of a new molluscicidal assay. This assay is based on Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi snails and is called miniaturized plate test or mpt. To perform this assay, a 12-well plate, 3 snails per well, and 24-h exposure period were used. The performance of mpt was evaluated using niclosamide and Ardisia plant extract (tagpo extract) as test substances while WHO’s guidelines for a conventional plate test (cpt) served as standard. One cpt and four mpt independent trials were performed for niclosamide and tagpo extract. Probit analysis of dose–response data was run in R to generate lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), while lethal ratio test was performed to detect significant difference between paired LC50s (or LC90s). Using niclosamide, the calculated LC50 values were 0.104, 0.127, 0.136, 0.139, and 0.140 g/m2 for cpt, mpt 1, mpt 2, mpt 3, and mpt 4, respectively, while the LC90 values were 0.266, 0.268, 0.244, 0.251, and 0.261 g/m2, using the same sequence, respectively. For tagpo extract, the LC50 values were 1.467, 1.547, 1.659, 1.797, and 1.659 g/m2, for cpt, mpt 1, mpt 2, mpt 3, and mpt 4, respectively, and the LC90s were 2.188, 2.195, 2.501, 2.358, and 2.501 g/m2, respectively. The lethal ratio test revealed that a significant difference exists between the LC50s of cpt and mpt 1 when using niclosamide with a lethal ratio and confidence limits of 0.820 (0.663, 0.977, p
... Mexico is one of the countries with the highest plant diversity worldwide. Particularly, the genus Ardisia belonging to Primulaceae family has remarkable bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical value (Ibarra-Manríquez and Cornejo-Tenorio, 2010; Kobayashi and de Mejía, 2005). Different metabolites of pharmacological interest have been isolated from several Ardisia species. ...
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The influence of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phytochemicals from Ardisia compressa Kunth on the antioxidant capacity was investigated. The factors evaluated were: ultrasound extraction time (10, 20 and 30 min), ethanol concentration (0, 35, 70 %) and solid/liquid ratio (1:4, 1:8 and 1:12 g mL−1). The L9 (3)3 array was applied, and the DPPH• scavenging capacity of treatments was evaluated to obtain optimal extraction conditions. Finally, the phytochemicals were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Ten minutes of ultrasound extraction using 0 % of ethanol and solid/liquid ratio 1:12 g mL−1 were the optimal conditions of extraction. The HPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of gluconic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, demethylligstroside, ponicidin, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, and galloyl-hexoside. The optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were defined by applying the Taguchi methodology. The phytochemicals identified in A. compressa fruits suggest its use as a potential source of bioactive compounds. : Bioactive compound; Antioxidant; phenolic compound; Chemical composition of food; biochemical characterization of food; Phenolic compounds; Antioxidant capacity; Ultrasound-assisted extraction; Chromatography; Mass spectrometry. Keywords: Bioactive compound, Antioxidant, Phenolic compound, Chemical composition of food, Biochemical characterization of food, Phenolic compounds, Antioxidant capacity, Ultrasound-assisted extraction, Chromatography, Mass spectrometry
... Hen's eyes (Ardisia crenata Sims), also known as coral ardisia, was introduced into Florida as an ornamental shrub in the early 1900s (Dozier 1999;Hutchinson et al. 2011;Niu et al. 2012;Sellers et al. 2007). There are more than 500 species within the genus Ardisia that are native to tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Asia, where some are ornamental or used for food and medicine (Hutchinson et al. 2011;Kobayashi and de Mejía 2005). In 1982, A. crenata was recognized as escaped from cultivation into native habitats in Florida (Langeland et al. 2008;Wunderlin 1982) and is now listed as a Category 1 invasive exotic plant by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2019) and a noxious weed by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2016). ...
Article
Hen’s eyes ( Ardisia crenata Sims) is a shade-tolerant invasive shrub displacing native understory in forests of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Few studies have explored herbicide effectiveness on A. crenata , with foliar applications of triclopyr amine or triclopyr ester typically referenced as the standard treatments. This study evaluated efficacy of eight foliar herbicide treatments and a nontreated check at three locations at 12 mo after the first treatment (12MAT1) and 12 mo after the second treatment (12MAT2) on established (greater than 8-cm high) and seedling (less than 8-cm high) A. crenata . Treatments were four triclopyr formulations: amine, ester, choline, and acid (all at 4.04 kg ae ha ⁻¹ ); imazamox (1.12 and 2.24 kg ae ha ⁻¹ ); flumioxazin (0.43 kg ai ha ⁻¹ ); and triclopyr amine plus flumioxazin (4.04 + 0.43 kg ae ha ⁻¹ ). At 12MAT1, triclopyr ester, the high rate of imazamox, and triclopyr acid resulted in greater control of established A. crenata than any other herbicide (68%, 66%, and 64%, respectively). At 12MAT2, all herbicides except flumioxazin resulted in some control of A. crenata . Triclopyr ester, triclopyr acid, and the high rate of imazamox provided 95%, 93%, and 92% control, respectively. Triclopyr choline did not perform as well as the acid or ester formulations, and the tank mix of flumioxazin and triclopyr amine did not improve control over triclopyr amine alone. This study identified triclopyr acid and imazamox (2.24 kg ae ha ⁻¹ ) as new options for A. crenata control and indicated variation in the performance among the four triclopyr formulations.
... In West Java, Lampeni leaves are used to treat skin diseases and the fruit is used as an anthelmintic and heart tonic (PROSEA, 2003). Additionally, it is reported that the leaves and fruit of this plant can treat tuberculosis, lung disease, hepatitis, chronic bronchitis, and menstrual irregularities in women (Kobayashi and Mejia, 2005). Lim (2012) stated that this plant has phytochemical activities that are beneficial to human health such as anticancer, antiviral, antiplatelet, antibacterial, and anti plasmoidal activity. ...
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Ardisia humilis (Myrsinaceae), known as Lampeni (in Indonesia), is part of the wild flora in Southeast Asia and is known as a weed in some countries. The leaf has medicinal properties for some diseases. The leaves and fruit of this plant are believed to be a treatment for tuberculosis, lung disease, hepatitis, chronic bronchitis, and menstrual irregularities in women. Research into the cultivation of Lampeni is needed to support its usage in Indonesia. The objectives of the research reported here were to find the types and rates of manure to promote leaf production. An experiment was carried out at IPB Experimental Station, Cikarawang Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia, from December to June 2016. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with manure types (chicken and cow manure) as main plots and application rates (0, 5, 10, and 15 t ha-1) as sub-plots. The results of the experiment showed that vegetative growth increased with manure application. Total branch number, LAI, leaf fresh and dry weight were higher with 15 t.ha-1 chicken manure or 5 t.ha-1 cow manure application. Leaf analysis showed that pigment concentration responded negatively to increasing manure application and the highest pigment concentration was found on the plants without manure application.
... It is well known for its medicinal values and has the potential for the development of novel phytopharmaceuticals. The whole plant of this species has been used in folk medicine to eliminate blood stasis, disperse swelling, improve blood circulation, and also as an analgesic (Kobayashi and de Mejia 2005). However, largely due to anthropogenic over-cutting and natural habitat's fragmentation of species, the wild resources of A. gigantifolia have been dramatically decreased and need urgent protection and restoration. ...
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Ardisia gigantifolia (Myrsinaceae) is a perennial shrub and widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is well known for its medicinal values and has the potential for development of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Here, we first report and characterize its complete chloroplast genome based on Illumina paired-end sequencing data. The complete plastid genome was 156,216 bp, which contained inverted repeats (IR) of 26,047 bp separated by a large single-copy (LSC) and a small single-copy (SSC) regions of 85,725 bp and 18,397 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contains 134 genes, comprising 88 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, 8 rRNA genes, and 1 processed pseudogene. The overall GC content of the plastome is 37.3%. The phylogenetic analysis of 17 selected chloroplast genomes demonstrated that A. gigantifolia is closely related to the congeneric A. polysticta.
... (Family: Primulaceae; sub-family Myrsinoideae) is a glabrous shrub or small tree that reaches a maximum height of 20 ft under habitat conditions. The plant has potential pharmaceutical applications (such as antibacterial and antiviral properties) from extracts of plants from the genus Ardisia were noted by Kobayashi and de Mejia [11]. More specifically, antibacterial activity against four serovars of salmonella were observed with plant extracts from A. solanacea [12] and there were positive effects on the reduction of breast cancer cells [13]. ...
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Background The Bangladeshi rural and hilly areas people have long tradition to use various medicinal plants for treating different diseases. That’s why, the crude methanolic leaf extract of Ardisia solanacea with its different fractions (petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, n-hexane and chloroform fractions) were subjected to investigate bioactivities in swiss albino mice; namely analgesic, CNS, and Oral hypoglycemic activities, while in-vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity. Methods Central nervous system activity was investigated by various method such as Elevated plus maze, Hole board, Hole cross and Open field test apparatus. Analgesic activity was evaluated by both acetic acid induced and tail immersion method. Hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and cytotoxicity was evaluated by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results In CNS activity, among others fractions, ASCF fraction produced a significant anxiolytic activity in both elevated plus maze and Hole board test. During open-field test almost all the fractions of A. solanacea leaves extract display decreased locomotor activities that indicates significant sedative activity. The ASME and ASCF showed significant peripheral analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight (p < 0.05). In tail immersion method, among others extracts chloroform fractions exhibited significant (p < 0.05) elongation of reaction time 30 min after oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. The methanolic and n-hexane extracts reduced blood glucose level significantly after 90 min with value of 53.94% and 48.15% respectively (p < 0.05). In case of cytotoxicity activity, among other fractions carbon tetrachloride fraction showed lowest LC50 values. Conclusions From the above results, it is clear that different fractions of A. solanacea showed significant pharmacological potentiality in different in-vitro and in-vivo study model. So, it will be very much possible source for an isolating lead compound for curing the numerous disorders.
... Chagalapoli (Ardisia compressa subsp. Myrsinaceae) belongs to the Myrsinaceae family, an extensive family of trees with approximately 500 species [1]. e chagalapoli fruit has a round shape of approximately 12 mm in diameter, with a purple red color that turns black once it reaches maturity; its shell is smooth and delicate, its seed represents up to 50% of its total weight, and the ripe fruit has a bittersweet, mildly astringent taste [2]. ...
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Chagalapoli fruit ( Ardisia compressa ) is similar to Vaccinium myrtillus (berries) with high-polyphenol content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of Chagalapoli fruit and to determine the conditions for the preparation of a fermented beverage using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, evaluating the impact on sensory properties. The fermentation process lasted 4 days at 27°C, with absence of light and a fixed pH of 3.8. The phenolic contents obtained in samples were 1.27 epicatechin mg/mL in filtered juice, 1.59 epichatechin mg/mL in filtered fermented beverage, 1.91 epichatechin mg/mL in partially filtered juice and 3.19 epichatechin mg/mL in partially filtered fermented beverage. An affective test was carried out to determine the sensory acceptability of the final product, evaluating the flavor, color and aroma parameters. The fermented beverage with the greatest preference on color and flavor attributes was the partially filtered fermented beverage.
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This datasheet on Ardisia crenata covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
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This datasheet on Ardisia elliptica covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
Article
Background: Radix Ardisia (Jab Bik Lik Jib) is a common Miao medicine and is widely distributed in the Guizhou region of southern China. The botanical origin of Radix Ardisia includes the dry root and rhizome of Ardisia Crenata Sims (ACS) or Ardisia Crispa (Thunb.) A.DC. (AC), which are closely related species morphologically. However, the secondary metabolites in their roots are different from one another, especially the flavonoids, and these differences have not been thoroughly explored at the molecular level. This project preliminarily identified regulatory molecular mechanisms in the biosynthetic pathways of the flavonoids between ACS and AC using a multi-omics association analysis. Methods: In this study, we determined the total levels of saponin, flavonoid, and phenolic in Radix Ardisia from different origins. Integrated transcriptome and metabolome analyses were used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed metabolites (DEM). We also performed conjoint analyses on DEGs and DEMs to ascertain the degree pathways, and explore the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Results: The total flavonoid and phenolic levels in ACS were significantly higher than in AC (P < 0.05). There were 17,685 DEGs between ACS vs. AC, 8,854 were upregulated and 8,831 were downregulated. Based on this, we continued to study the gene changes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and 100 DEGs involving flavonoid biosynthesis were differentially expressed in ACS and AC. We validated the accuracy of the RNA-seq data using qRT-PCR. Metabolomic analyses showed that 11 metabolites were involved in flavonoid biosynthesis including: Naringenin, Luteolin, Catechin, and Quercetin. A conjoint analysis of the genome-wide connection network revealed the differences in the types and levels of flavonoid compounds between ACS and AC. The correlation analysis showed that Naringenin, Luteolin, Catechin, and Quercetin were more likely to be key compounds in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway also including 4CL, AOMT, CHS, CHI, DFR, F3'5'H, FLS, and LAR. Conclusions: This study provides useful information for revealing the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and the regulatory relationship between metabolites and genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Radix Ardisia from different origins.
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Immunomodulators are substances found in nature that aid in immune system regulation. They are concoction operators that take part in insusceptible frameworks of the immune system. Commonly present immunomodulators were less significant compared to therapeutic immunomodulators. Immunomodulatory medicines, like 6-mercaptopurine and mycophenolate mofetil, conceal the safe framework and minimise irritation in the stomach tract in persons with inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis Crohn’s disease. Their advantages come from their capacity to invigorate conventional and versatile safeguard systems, a kind of cytokines that empower the whole body. Immunosuppressants and immunostimulants are two categories of immunomodulators. Immunosuppressants are involved in smothering the invulnerable framework and handle neurotic safe reactions in the immune system like sickness and unite dismissal. Immunostimulants are agents that enhance the body’s resistance in case of infections. It also improves the immune response, and people with the depletion of response are immunotherapeutic operators. For example, various scatters, such as immunodeficiency state, immune system sickness, malignant growth, and viral contamination, can be treated with immunostimulants. In the subsequent decades of the twenty-first century, immunomodulators will become a viable assist in generating modalities that will provide a unique approach for treating irresistible diseases.
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Objective: Ardisiae Japonicae Herba (AJH), the dried whole herb of Ardisia japonica (Thunb.) Blume [Primulaceae], has been used in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. However, the material basis and molecular mechanisms of AJH against COPD remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to establish a systematic approach to elucidate the material basis and molecular mechanisms through compound identification, network analysis, molecular docking, and experimental validation. Methods: Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometry (UPLC-Orbitrap Fusion MS) was used to characterize the chemical compounds of AJH. The SwissTargetPrediction, String and Metascape databases were selected for network pharmacology analysis, including target prediction, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct a component-target-pathway network to screen out the main active compounds. Autodock Vina software was used to verify the affinity between the key compounds and targets. TNF-α-stimulated A549 cell inflammation model was built to further verify the anti-inflammatory effects of active compounds. Results: Altogether, 236 compounds were identified in AJH, including 33 flavonoids, 21 Phenylpropanoids, 46 terpenes, 7 quinones, 27 steroids, 71 carboxylic acids and 31 other compounds. Among them, 41 compounds were selected as the key active constituents, which might exhibit therapeutic effects against COPD by modulating 65 corresponding targets primarily involved in inflammation/metabolism/immune-related pathways. The results of molecular docking showed that the key compounds could spontaneously bind to the receptor proteins with a strong binding ability. Finally, the anti-inflammatory effects of the three active compounds were validated with the decreased levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in TNF-α-induced A549 cells model. Conclusion: This study clarified that AJH may exert therapeutic actions for COPD via regulating inflammation/immune/metabolism-related pathways using UPLC-Orbitrap Fusion MS technology combined with network pharmacology for the first time. This study had a deeper exploration of the chemical components and pharmacological activities in AJH, which provided a reference for the further study and clinical application of AJH in the treatment of COPD.
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Medicinal plants are considered to be a critical source of novel compounds and pharmacophores. The genus Ardisia, consisting of approximately 500 species, is the largest genus in the Myrsinaceae family. Ardisia species are widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and have been used for the treatment of cancer, hypertension, irregular menstruation, gonorrhea, diarrhea and postnatal syndromes, among others. Phytochemical studies of Ardisia species have resulted in the isolation and identification of 111 compounds, including triterpenoid saponins, quinones, phenols, coumarins, cyclic depsipepetide and flavonoids. Crude extracts and isolates from Ardisia have been reported to have in vitro and in vivo efficacies, including but not limited to anticancer, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and antidiabetic, antitubercular compounds. This review focuses on the medical and functional uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological efficacies of Ardisia species over the past 15 years. This review will provide information indicating that Ardisia species represent an invaluable source of potential therapeutic compounds.
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Immunomodulation is basically a process that can alter the immune system of an organism by interfering with its functions. The current approach is to know about the medicinal plants that are biologically active and could potentially be of help in the development of modern and new immunomodulating agents. As in modern-day life, extensive exposure to industry-based pollutants/xenobiotics has resulted in the emergence of a variety of immune deficiencies or hypersensitivity situations, where immunology can play an important role. The inference results in either immune-stimulation, an enhancement of immune reactions, or immune-suppression imply mainly to reduce resistance against infection, stress which may be because of environmental or chemotherapeutic factors. Bioactive natural products provide the excellent raw material for the discovery and development of novel immune-modulatory compounds. A good number of bioactive natural products used as medicinal plants have stood the test of time, particularly for the treatment of allergic metabolic and degenerative diseases associated with aging. These bioactive natural products are believed to promote positive health and maintain organic resistance against infections by reestablishing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. A large variety of natural bioactive plants mentioned in Ayurveda for their immunomodulation, adaptogenic and rejuvenating properties have been under study.
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Ardisia elliptica Thunb. (AE) has been used as food and in traditional medicine to prevent and treat fever, diarrhea, chest pain, liver poisoning, and parturition complications in Southeast Asian countries. This study focused on phytochemical constituents of AE extracts and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro by evaluating nitric oxide production, and DPPH and FRAP radical scavenging activity. The bioactive compounds from different plant parts, including old leaves, young leaves, flowers, roots, and fruits, were identified. The results showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in the root extract among all extracts, which resulted in the most potent free radical scavenging activity revealed by the DPPH and FRAP assay. The roots and flowers showed the highest bergenin (3.36 ± 0.22 mg/g dry weight) and quercetin (2.99 ± 0.10 mg/g dry weight) content, respectively. In contrast, embelin was found only in the fruits. Interestingly, AE extracts significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Conclusively, the results suggest the natural products of AE extracts as effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents that can be utilized for food and pharmaceutical applications.
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This book focuses on a broad range of immunomodulators, including both natural and synthetic ones. It highlights their role in human health. The book discusses nanotechnology-based immunomodulators with special emphasis on different types of formulation to boost the immune system. It highlights the role of immunomodulators against different microbes. This book describes important topics such as Classification and uses of various immunomodulators; Potential role of herbs and spices on immune system; Immune booster activity of prebiotics; Recent advances of nutraceutical and functional foods in Immune health; Antioxidants and immunomodulation; Nanotechnology and immunomodulators in cancer; Immunomodulatory role for the treatment and management of tuberculosis; Immunomodulation in autoimmune disorders; Herbal immunomodulators and COVID-19; Role of Cytokines as Immunomodulators and Immunomodulatory effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. This book covers various aspects of product innovation, development, and launching of nutritional and pharmaceutical products with reference to immunomodulators. This book is meant for researchers and students in the field of immunology and pharmaceutical sciences.
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Herbal medicines have been in use since ancient times for the management of many complex diseases. The efficacy of herbal extracts depends largely on the biological actions of individual active principles at molecular levels. In recent times, investigative studies have been taken up to validate the safety and clinical efficacy of individual herbal biomolecules including their mechanism of action in the management of different health problems, including kidney stones. Renal stone formation is one of the oldest known diseases and referred to as nephrolithiasis. When the stone moves out of the pelvis and progresses toward the rest of the urinary system—such as ureter, bladder, and urethra—it gives rise to a condition called urolithiasis. In this chapter, we discuss various pharmacological effects of important antilithiatic biomolecules: lupeol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), quercetin, thymoquinone, and bergenin—that might be helpful in the management of kidney stones. We have also attempted to provide their molecular mechanism of action, to have a better understanding of how these antilithiatic biomolecules exert their effects. Their supplementation has the potential to reduce the size and number of renal calculi and may pose as less toxic and low-cost yet efficient alternatives. By combining these biomolecules with standard medical treatment and lifestyle modification, the clinician may be able to maximize the chances of restoring the normal function of kidneys. We have summarized the outcomes of already published reports on lupeol, EGCG, quercetin, thymoquinone, and bergenin, although we have not carried out any kind of dose–response relationship or toxicological study. Thus more clinical intervention trials are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of the biomolecules. Carefully designed dose–response human studies might be able to incorporate these biomolecules as potential alternatives in the clinical management of renal stones.
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Ardisia crenata Sims (Primulaceae) occurs in natural habitats in two varieties, bearing red or white fruits. While roots of the red-berried ardisia are valued as a medicinal product, the pharmacological activity of which is attributed to triterpene saponins, including ardisiacrispin A, data on the white-berried variety are scarce. A TLC-densitometric method was developed and validated to estimate the levels of saponins, calculated as ardisiacrispin A, in different plant parts in both varieties. Their content amounted to 22.17±4.75 and 25.72±1.46 mg/g d.w. in roots, and 2.64±0.74 and 3.43±0.70 mg/g d.w. in fruits of red-berried and white-berried ardisia, respectively. Assessment of cytotoxicity of ardisiacrispin A and A. crenata extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines revealed a similar effect of root extracts from both varieties, with the highest potency against melanoma WM793 and colon cancer Caco2. Thus, roots of the white-berried variety may be treated as a substitute for red-berried ardisia and serve as an alternative source for the acquisition of plant material rich in bioactive saponins.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance-In the Indian traditional system of medicine, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl has been used for treatment of urolithiasis. Its efficacious nature has led to its incorporation in various commercial herbal formulations such as Cystone and Neeri, which are prescribed for kidney related ailments. Aim of the study To assess whether ethanolic extract of B. ligulata can mitigate the cascade of inflammatory responses that cause oxidative stress and ultimately cell death in renal epithelial cells exposed to hyperoxaluric conditions, using renal epithelial cells as the model system. Material and Methods Bioactivity guided fractionation using solvents of varying polarities was employed to evaluate the potential of the extracts of B. ligulata to inhibit the crystallization process. Modulation of crystal morphology was visualized through Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Cell death was assessed using flow cytometry based assays. Alteration in the inflammatory mediators was evaluated using real time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Phytochemical characterization of the ethanolic extract was carried out using FTIR, LC-MS and GC-MS. Results Bioactivity guided fractionation for the assessment of antilithiatic activity revealed dose dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation process of calcium oxalate crystals in the presence of various extracts, however ethanolic extract showed maximum inhibition and was chosen for further experiments. Studies on renal epithelial NRK-52E cells, showed cytoprotective efficacy of B. ligulata extract against oxalate injury. SEM anaysis further revealed the potential of the extract to modulate the crystal structure and adhesion to renal cell surface. Exposure of the renal cells to the extract led to conversion of the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals to the less injurious calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) form. Expression analysis for oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in NRK-52E cells revealed up-regulation of Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), Osteopontin (OPN) and Nuclear factor- ĸB (NF-ĸB), in response to calcium oxalate insult; which was drastically reduced in the presence of B. ligulata extract. Flow cytometric evaluation pointed to caspase 3 mediated apoptotic cell death in oxalate injured cells, which was attenuated by B. ligulata extract. Conclusion Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of urolithiasis, ethanolic extract from B. ligulata can be a promising option for the management of kidney stones, as it has the potential to limit inflammation and the subsequent cell death.
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Ardisia Sw. is the largest genus of the family Primulaceae. Nomenclatural changes and synonymies make the genus taxonomically complex, hindering the complete revision of the genus and affecting the reliability of ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies. This study was aimed to provide a list of Ardisia species recorded in the Philippines along with their distribution, related ethnobotanical and pharmacological notes. The information from herbarium specimens and publications were the primary sources of nomenclatural correctness, distribution and related ethnobotanical notes. Seventy-four Ardisia species were recorded in the Philippines, of which 62 are endemic. Despite its diversity, only a limited number of ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies were locally conducted. It is therefore, imperative to have a systematic list of accepted species names to be used as reference for future local revision of the genus and other related studies such as the discovery of bioactive compounds.
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Introduction Ardisia elliptica Thunb. (Primulaceae) is a medicinal herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of fever, diarrhoea, measles and herpes. However, there is limited information regarding the correlation of its phytoconstituents with the bioactivity. Optimisation of solvent extraction is vital for maximising retention of bioactive molecules. Objective This study investigated the metabolite variations in A. elliptica leaves and the correlation with antioxidant activities. Methodology Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radicals scavenging assays were performed on A. elliptica leaves extracted with four different ethanol ratios (0%, 50%, 70% and absolute ethanol). The correlation of metabolites with antioxidant activities was evaluated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)‐based metabolomics approach. Results The results showed that the 50% and 70% ethanolic extracts retained the highest TPC, and the 70% ethanolic extract was the most active, exhibiting half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 10.18 ± 0.83 and 43.05 ± 1.69 μg/mL, respectively, in both radical scavenging assays. A total of 46 metabolites were tentatively identified, including flavonoids, benzoquinones, triterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The 50% and 70% ethanolic extracts showed similarities in metabolites content and were well discriminated from water and absolute ethanol extracts in a principal component analysis (PCA) model. Moreover, 31 metabolites were found to contribute significantly to the differentiation and antioxidant activity. Conclusion This study provides information on bioactive compounds in A. elliptica leaves, which is promising as a functional ingredient for food production or for the development of phytomedicinal products.
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Background: Uterine fibroids are a common type of solid tumor presenting in women of reproductive age. There are very few alternative treatment available from conventional treatment involving surgeries. Labisia pumila var. alata or locally known as 'Kacip Fatimah' was widely used as traditional medicine in Malaysia. This plant has been used to maintain a healthy female reproductive system. The present study aimed to evaluate anti fibroid potential of L. pumila extracts through in vitro apoptosis activity against uterine leiomyoma cells (SK-UT-1) and in uterine leiomyoma xenograft model. Evaluation of bioactive markers content were also carried out. Methods: Apoptotic induction of the extracts was determined by morphological examination of AO/PI dual staining assay by flourescent microscopy and flow cytometry analysis on Annexin V-FITC/PI stained cells. In vivo study was done in immune-compromised mouse xenograft model. HPLC analysis was employed to quantify marker compounds. Results: Morphological analysis showed L. pumila induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner against SK-UT-1 cells. In vivo study indicated that L. pumila significantly suppressed the growth of uterine fibroid tumor. All tested extracts contain bioactive marker of gallic acid and cafeic acid. Conclusion: This work provide significant data of the potential of L. pumila in management of uterine fibroids. .
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Chlorinated macrolides, haterumalide NA, B and NE, and a new haterumalide X, were produced by the soil bacterium Serratia plymuthica. Haterumalides NA, B and NE caused complete suppression of apothecial formation in sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at a concentration of 0.5 @mg ml^-^1. Ascospore germination of this fungus was inhibited in the concentration range 0.8-3.0 @mg ml^-^1. Haterumalides NA, B and NE prevented spore germination of several other filamentous fungi as well as Oomycetes at concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 40 @mg ml^-^1, but did not show any effect against the yeast Candida albicans. Inhibition data could not be collected for haterumalide X due to its rapid conversion to haterumalide NA. The bacterium also produced two other antifungal metabolites: pyrrolnitrin and 1-acetyl-7-chloro-1-H-indole, which in contrast to the haterumalides, did not inhibit the apothecial formation on sclerotia. Pyrrolnitrin, and haterumalide NA, B and NE effectively inhibited spore germination of tested filamentous fungi at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 50 @mg ml^-^1, whereas 1-acetyl-7-chloro-1-H-indole inhibited spore germination only at concentrations above 50 @mg ml^-^1. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the respective compounds needed for total inhibition of spore germination varied for the fungal species tested.
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Osteoclasts, cells primarily involved in bone resorption, originate from the hematopoietic precursor cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and differentiate into multinucleated mature forms. We developed an in vitro osteoclast culture system using embryonic chicken bone marrow cells. This culture system can be utilized in studies on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated in diverse cellular functions including proliferation, migration, and survival. Using the developed avian osteoclast culture system, we examined the involvement of these kinases in osteoclast differentiation by employing specific inhibitors of the kinases. We Found that the inhibition of the PI 3-kinase, p38, or ERK interfered with osteoclast formation, suggesting that the signaling pathways that involve these molecules participate in the process of chicken osteoclast differentiation.
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Although sesquiterpene lactones are terpenoid compounds characteristic of the Asteraceae (Compositae) they are also known from other angiosperm families as well as from some gymnosperms. The wide variety of chemical structures so far discovered is matched by a diversity of biological activities. Compounds that have cytotoxic, anti-tumourgenic, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties are widely distributed. Various sesquiterpene lactones are known to be toxic to human and animal parasites, insects and vertebrates. Many of these compounds or plants containing them are a cause of allergic contact dermatitis in humans but some of them have been used for their pharmacological activity. Sesquiterpene lactones also act as plant growth regulators and are responsible for allelopathic properties of many plants. Various activities of sesquiterpene lactones suggest their evolutionary significance in plants as deterrents against herbivores and anti-fungal, anti-bacterial allelopathic agents. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the biological activities of sesquiterpene lactones and their structure-activity relationships.
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Three new phenolic compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Viburnum dilatatum and their structures elucidated as 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-2-[2″-hydroxy-4″-(3″′-hydroxypropyl)]-1,3-propanediol I-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (erythro somer), neochlorogenic acid methyl ester and cryptochlorogenic acid methyl ester by spectroscopic studies.
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Five plants reputed to have pesticidal properties were extracted AND screened using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. An additional five medicinal plants were also extracted AND screened.
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The growth responses of nine human intestinal bacteria to liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris Link. Pt. (Ascomycotina: Clavicipitaceae) collected from a pupa of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were examined using spectrophotometric and impregnated paper disk methods and compared to those of tetracycline and chloramphenicol, as well as those of Coptis japonica root-derived berberine chloride. The biologically active constituent of the cultures was characterized as cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) by spectroscopic analysis. This compound revealed potent growth-inhibiting activity toward Clostridium paraputrificum and Clostridium perfringens at 10 mu g/disk without adverse effects on the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei, whereas tetracycline and chloramphenicol inhibited the growth of these lactic acid-producing bacteria, clostridia and Escherichia coli. However, C. militaris-derived materials revealed no growth stimulation on the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. These results may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of C. militaris. As a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, cordycepin could be useful as a new preventive agent against various diseases caused by clostridia.
Article
The roots of Clutia abyssinica have yielded three new diterpenes with a 6,7-secolabdane skeleton. Detailed structural assignments have been made from high-field NMR data, particularly nuclear Overhauser effects.
Article
The chloroform extract of the powdered whole root of Clutia abyssinica has yielded a complex mixture of 5-methylcoumarins, of which 10 have been isolated in pure form and identified, mostly by NMR.
Article
The structure of a new benzoquinone, cornudentanone, isolated fromArdisia cornudentata M. was determined.
Article
The proton nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) of seven naturally occurring hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids were analysed in order to obtain full sets of shift values and spin–spin coupling constants, as well as information about solution conformation. Based on this study, specific rules for proton substituent chemical shifts are derived, allowing the distinction of position isomers and single caffeoyl subunits in oligosubstituted quinic acids. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Four new compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Aristolochia constricta (Aristolochiaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical data to be 10-amino-1-carboxy-3,4-dimethoxy-6-hydroxyphenanthrene lactam N-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1); 10-amino-1-carboxy-3,4-dimethoxy-6-hydroxyphenanthrene lactam N-beta-D-(6'-trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (2); 10-amino-1-carboxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyphenanthrene lactam N-beta-D-glucopyranoside(3); 10-amino-1-carboxy-3,4,6-trihydroxyphenanthrene lactam N-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4).
Article
A Colony of Bulinus (Pbyopsis) globosus has been established in our laboratory for testing for molluscicidal activity in Nigerian medicinal plants. The snails were established with slight modification of the method of McClelland [7]. 181 plant extracts employed in Nigerian herbal medicine were screened for molluscicidal activity following the W. H. O. method [1] with laboratory reared snails of known age. Only 23 (12.7 %) of these plant extracts, however, showed 100 % mortatility to the snails at a concentration of 100 ppm of extract.
Article
Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1–5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (⩽2 mg/ml) against bacteria, three against yeasts, five against Microsporum gypseum and five against T. cruzi in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro and in vivo activity was demonstrated by Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity.
Article
The structure of FR900359, a novel cyclic depsipeptide from Ardisia crenata sims that shows inhibition of platelet aggregation and decrease of blood pressure, has been determined as 3-acetamido-22-benzyl-10-[1-[(3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-propionamidopentanoyl)oxy]-2- methylpropyl]-4-isopropyl-7-(1-methoxyethyl)-19-methylene-8,13,14,16,20- pentamethyl-1,5-dioxa-8,11,14,17,20-pentaazacyclodocosane-2,6,9,12,15,18,21- heptone by hydrolytic, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric studies. FR900359 consists of ten units: alanine, N-methylalanine, β-hydroxyleucine (three residues), 3-phenyllactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and the uncommon amino acids N-methyldehydroalanine and N,O-dimethylthreonine.
Article
The fruits of Crescentia cujete afforded eight new compounds, along with four known compounds, acanthoside D, β-d-glucopyransoyl benzoate, (R)-1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,3-octanediol, and β-d-fructofuranosyl6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-α-d-glucopyranoside. The structures of the new glycosides were established as three glycosides of (2R,4S)-2,4-pentanediol, two glycosides of (R)-4-hydroxy-2-pentanone, two glycosides of (R)-1,3-octanediol and 6-O-(p-hydroybenzoyl)-d-glucose, by spectroscopic and chemical methods.
Article
By means of 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy three flavone glycosides, obtained from Stachys recta, were identified as 7-O-(2″-O-6″′-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosides) of 4′-O-methylisoscutellarein, isoscutellarein and 3′-hydroxy-4′-O-methylisoscutellarein. The latter two compounds are isolated for the first time. Only mannose and glucose have been reported previously as sugar components of flavonoids of the genus Stachys.
Article
A novel flavone glycoside has been obtained from the whole plant of Veronica filiformis and identified by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy as isoscutellarein 4′-methyl ether 7-O-β-(6‴-O-acetyl-2″-O-allosylglucoside). The related isoscutellarein glycoside is also present. This is the first report of 2-allosylglucose as a disaccharide unit of flavonoids. 13`C NMR data on some A-ring trioxygenated flavonoids are also presented.