Article

IL-9 and its Receptor: From Signal Transduction to Tumorigenesis

Catholic University of Louvain, Лувен-ла-Нев, Walloon, Belgium
Growth Factors (Impact Factor: 3.39). 01/2005; 22(4):207-15. DOI: 10.1080/08977190410001720879
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

IL-9 is a multifunctional cytokine secreted by TH2 lymphocytes. Besides its role during immune responses, its growth factor and antiapoptotic activities on multiple transformed cells suggest a potential role in tumorigenesis. Indeed, IL-9 overexpression induces thymic lymphomas in mice, and IL-9 production is associated with Hodgkin disease and HTLV-I transformed T cells in humans. IL-9 activities are mediated by a specific receptor chain that forms a heterodimeric receptor with the common gamma chain also involved in IL-2,4,7,15 and 21 signaling. The IL-9 receptor and common gamma chains associate with JAK1 and JAK3, respectively and trigger the STAT-1, -3 and -5, IRS and RAS-MAPK pathways. Moreover, in vitro, dysregulated IL-9 response can lead to autonomous cell growth and malignant transformation of lymphoid cells associated with constitutive activation of the Jak/STAT pathway.

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Available from: Jean-Christophe Renauld, Jan 18, 2016
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    • "IL9R (OMIM * 300007) is a multifunctional cytokine secreted by TH2 lymphocytes with a general role during immune responses. It has been associated with the development of asthma and a potential role in tumorigenesis as suggested byKnoops & Renauld, (2004). An immediate link between this gene and clinical presentation of KS subjects is therefore not clear. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequent sex chromosomal disorder in males, characterized by at least one supernumerary X chromosome (most frequent karyotype 47,XXY). This syndrome presents with a broad range of phenotypes. The common characteristics include small testes and infertility, but KS subjects are at increased risk of hypogonadism, cognitive dysfunction, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and autoimmune disorders, which are present in variable proportion. Although part of the clinical variability might be linked to a different degree of testicular function observed in KS patients, genetic mechanisms of the supernumerary X chromosome might contribute. Gene-dosage effects and parental origin of the supernumerary X chromosome have been suggested to this regard. No study has been performed analyzing the genetic constitution of the X chromosome in terms of copy number variations (CNVs) and their possible involvement in phenotype of KS. To this aim, we performed a SNP arrays analysis on 94 KS and 85 controls. We found that KS subjects have more frequently than controls X-linked CNVs (39/94, [41.5%] with respect to 12/42, [28.6%] of females, and 8/43, [18.6%] of males, p < 0.01). The number of X-linked CNVs in KS patients was 4.58 ± 1.92 CNVs/subject, significantly higher with respect to that found in control females (1.50 ± 1.29 CNVs/subject) and males (1.14 ± 0.37 CNVs/subject). Importantly, 94.4% X-linked CNVs in KS subjects were duplications, higher with respect to control males (50.0%, p < 0.001) and females (83.3%, p = 0.1). Half of the X-linked CNVs fell within regions encompassing genes and most of them (90%) included genes escaping X-inactivation in the regions of X-Y homology, particularly in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) and Xq21.31. This study described for the first time the genetic properties of the X chromosome in KS and suggests that X-linked CNVs (especially duplications) might contribute to the clinical phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Andrology
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    • "It demonstrated pro-inflammatory activity and played a key role in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases and asthma [20]–[22]. Its activities are mediated via a heterodimeric receptor complex formed by the IL-9Rα chain, which associates with JAK1 and the IL-2Rγ chain, also known as γc (common γ chain), which associates with JAK3 [23]. JAK3 mutations are involved in the pathogenesis of NK/T cell lymphoma [24], [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is more functionally diverse than previously expected, especially with regards to lymphomagenesis. However, the relationship between IL-9 and the clinicopathological features of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is less well established. Patients with this lymphoma in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2003 and March 2013 were systematically reviewed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline serum IL-9 levels were determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A total of seventy-four patients were enrolled in this study. The mean concentration of serum IL-9 for all patients was 6.48 pg/mL (range: 1.38-51.87 pg/mL). Age, B symptoms and local lymph node involvement were found to be related to high serum IL-9 levels. Patients with low IL-9 levels tended to have higher rates of complete remission. Notably, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were longer in the low IL-9 level group than in the high IL-9 level group (PFS: 68.7 months vs. 28.3 months, P<0.001; OS: 86 months vs. 42.8 months, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed independent prognostic factors for PFS. Similarly, high IL-9 levels (P = 0.003) and old age (P = 0.007) were independently predictive of shorter OS. Serum IL-9 is closely related to several clinical features, such as age, B symptoms and local lymph node involvement. It can also be a significant independent prognostic factor for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, which suggests a role for IL-9 in the pathogenesis of this disease and offers new insight into potential therapeutic strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Furthermore, according to its growth/proliferative and anti-apoptotic activities on the different transformed cells, a potential role for this cytokine might be tumorigenesis.[34] In addition, over-expression of IL-9 induces thymic lymphomas in mice, and IL-9 production is associated with the Hodgkin disease and human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 transformed T-cells in human.[35] Nevertheless, this patient by herself is not affected by lymphoma. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of research in medical sciences
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