Information on prevalence, accumulation and variation of common mental disorders is essential for both etiological research and development of mental health service systems.
A representative sample (6005) of Finland's general adult (> or = 30 years) population was interviewed in the period 2000-2001 with the CIDI for presence of DSM-IV mental disorders during the last 12 months in the comprehensive, multidisciplinary Health 2000 project.
Depressive-, alcohol use- and anxiety disorders were found in 6.5%, 4.5 % and 4.1% of the subjects, respectively. A comorbid disorder was present in 19% of those with any disorder. Males had more alcohol use disorders (7.3 % vs. 1.4 %) and females more depressive disorders (8.3 % vs. 4.6 %). Older age, marriage and employment predicted lower prevalence of mental disorders and their comorbidity. Prevalences of alcohol use- and comorbid disorders were higher in the Helsinki metropolitan area, and depressive disorders in northern Finland.
Mental disorders and their comorbidities are distributed unevenly between sexes and age groups, are particularly associated with marital and employment status, and vary by region. There appears to be no single population subgroup at high risk for all mental disorders, but rather several different subgroups at risk for particular disorders or comorbidity patterns.
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"For example, the ability to recognize symptoms (a need factor) is closely related to age and the level of education (both predisposing factors), health related quality of life (e.g. when people do not experience a burden of disease they might not seek help) and the severity of symptoms (actual need) (Andersen and Newman, 2005; Sherwood et al., 2007). Furthermore, looking at (actual) need factors, research in the general population has shown that depressive disorders are often accompanied by alcohol use disorders, with depressed individuals having a 2-to-3-fold increased risk of alcohol use disorders (Burns and Teesson, 2002; Hasin et al., 2007; Pirkola et al., 2005). Research on help-seeking in people with and without an alcohol disorder is contradictory with some studies showing no difference in help-receiving (Ten Have et al., 2004) and others showing a reduced tendency to seek care in people with an alcohol disorder (Alonso et al., 2004; Ten Have et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subclinical depression is common. Although interventions have proven to be effective, participation rates are low. This study first aimed to get more insight in help-seeking and reasons for (not) seeking care. The second aim was to identify characteristics that distinguish people who receive help, those with an unmet need, or no perceived need for care.Methods
Respondents with a subclinical depression (n=162) were recruited from the general population. They were eligible for participation if they were aged 18 years or older, scored 20 or higher on the K10 screening instrument for depression, and did not meet the criteria for major depression.ResultsOf all participants, 27% received help, 33% had an unmet need, and 40% had no perceived need for care. Participants with no perceived need reported not to experience symptoms, were able to solve problems on their own, and could mobilize their own support. They were characterized by lower scores on neuroticism and an older age than those who received care.LimitationsThe response rate in this study was relatively low which may have caused a selection bias.Conclusion
Not all people with subclinical depression may need help for their symptoms, some are able to deal with problems on their own. However, others experience a need for care but do not receive any. Gaining insight into potential barriers for help seeking and receiving in people with an unmet need is important so appropriate measures can be taken to ensure that those who need care get the help they want.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Affective Disorders
"The sample with complete information on all study variables consisted of 3471 participants. Previously, it has been shown that the drop-outs had more depressive symptoms, were more often male, lived alone, and were more often economically inactive than those who participated [11,30]. The respondents received an information leaflet and gave their written informed consent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association.
The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not) and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility), sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions), and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity), were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers.
Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23) higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05). The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11) and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14). Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors.
These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · BMC Public Health
"In an attempt to avoid comparing two broad CIs with each other for every disorder, we did not use a specific comparison group for this study. Instead, to assist the reader to compare the prevalence rates between our sample and general population, we calculated 95% CIs based on binomial distribution for three previous large population-based studies, referred in the discussion, from their original data    . Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 8.00-software (SAS Institute, 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aimsBurning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical facial pain (AFP) are often persistent idiopathic pain conditions that mainly affect middle-aged and elderly women. They have both been associated with various psychiatric disorders. This study examined current and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric axis I (symptom-based) and II (personality) disorders in patients with chronic idiopathic orofacial pain, and investigated the temporal relationship of psychiatric disorders and the onset of orofacial pain.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Scandinavian Journal of Pain