Colon Microflora in Infants Fed Formula with Galacto- and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: More Like Breast-Fed Infants
The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by Bifidobacteria. We aimed to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) is able to establish a bifido-dominant microflora, not only in numbers but also with respect to the metabolic activity in the colon.
Two groups of infants fed infant formula with 0.8 g/100 ml GOS/FOS in a ratio of 9:1 (OSF group), or control formula (SF group) were evaluated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study. A breast-fed group was studied in parallel. At study onset and after 4 and 6 weeks, faecal samples were examined for the number of bifidobacteria, pH, short chain fatty acids and lactate.
After 6 weeks, the mean proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the OSF group (59.6% versus 49.5% in the SF group; P < 0.05). Compared with controls, infants in the OSF group had a lower stool mean pH and an increased proportion of acetate and a decreased proportion of propionate. The mean pH in the OSF and SF groups were 5.7 and 6.3, respectively (P < 0.001).
The addition of the prebiotic GOS/FOS mixture to an infant formula has a stimulating effect on the growth of bifidobacteria and on the metabolic activity of the total intestinal flora. The changes in short chain fatty acids, lactate and pH in the prebiotic group represent a fermentation profile that is closer to that observed in breast-fed infants compared to infants fed control formula.
Available from: Frederique Respondek
- "Most of the studies available have focused on a commercially available mixture containing short chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and a high molecular weight fraction of inulin in a ratio 9:1 (Agostoni et al., 2010). This mixture has been shown to reduce stool pH and stool viscosity (Kapiki et al., 2007; Mihatsch, Hoegel, & Pohlandt, 2006), to modify gut microbiota in preterm and term infants (Bruzzese et al., 2009; Knol et al., 2005; Salvini et al., 2011) and to modulate the immune response (Arslanoglu et al., 2007; Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2006; Bruzzese et al., 2009; Scholtens et al., 2008). Other studies reported that infant formula supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) alone influenced the gut microbiota colonization (Brunser et al., 2006; Euler, Mitchell, Kline, & Pickering, 2005; Paineau et al., 2014; Veereman-Wauters et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Few studies have assessed efficacy and safety of prebiotics in infants at the time of diversification. We investigated the beneficial effects of a follow-on milk formula supplemented with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) in healthy infants after 4 months of age. Subjects/methods 75 formula-fed healthy infants were included at the age of 4 months in a randomized, controlled, double blind study and received either a placebo or scFOS supplemented formula for six months. Faecal poliovirus sIgA after vaccination and bifidobacteria concentration, height, weight and digestive tolerance were monitored. Results After 1 and 2 months of supplementation, no significant difference was observed between the groups for the evolution of poliovirus sIgA concentration compared to baseline. A significant increase in bifidobacteria count was observed after 1 month of ScFOS supplementation, but this difference was no longer significant after 2 months. Breastfeeding history of infants was shown to have an impact on faecal bifidobacteria evolution. Tolerance and growth parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusions A follow-on milk formula supplemented with scFOS modulates intestinal microbiota via an increase of faecal bifidobacteria concentration, while no effect on sIgA concentrations could be demonstrated. scFOS addition elicited normal digestive tolerance and normal growth suggesting it can be used safely at 5 g/L in infants after 4 months of age. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Available from: Aletta D Kraneveld
- "The ceacal SCFA levels of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric and valeric acids were quantitatively determined as well as levels of lactic acids as described previously (Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2005; Knol et al., 2005). The SCFA were captured using a Shimadzu GC2010 gas chromatograph (Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a flame ionisation detector. "
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with evidence of genetic predisposition. Intestinal disturbances are reported in ASD patients and compositional changes in gut microbiota are described. However, the role of microbiota in brain disorders is poorly documented. Here, we used a murine model of ASD to investigate the relation between gut microbiota and autism-like behaviour. Using next generation sequencing technology, microbiota composition was investigated in mice in utero exposed to valproic acid (VPA). Moreover, levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid in caecal content were determined. Our data demonstrate a transgenerational impact of in utero VPA exposure on gut microbiota in the offspring. Prenatal VPA exposure affected Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) assigned to genera within the main phyla of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and the order of Desulfovibrionales, corroborating human ASD studies. In addition, OTUs assigned to genera of Alistipes, Enterorhabdus, Mollicutes and Erysipelotrichalis were especially associated with male VPA-exposed offspring. The microbial differences of VPA in utero-exposed males deviated from those observed in females and was (i) positively associated with increased levels of caecal butyrate as well as ileal neutrophil infiltration and (ii) inversely associated with intestinal levels of serotonin and social behaviour scores. These findings show that autism-like behaviour and its intestinal phenotype is associated with altered microbial colonization and activity in a murine model for ASD, with preponderance in male offspring. These results open new avenues in the scientific trajectory of managing neurodevelopmental disorders by gut microbiome modulation.
Available from: Nelly Romani Vestman
- "The power calculation for the parent study was based on body weight as main outcome  with a statistical power of 80% and a level of significance of 0.05% (unpublished data, Timby N, Hernell O, Lönnerdal B and Domellöf M). Based on previous investigations , the number of infants included in this study was sufficient to detect a difference in bacterial colonization pattern. "
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ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus species can contribute positively to general and oral health and are frequently acquired by breastfeeding in infancy. The present study aimed to identify oral lactobacilli in breast and formula-fed 4 month-old infants and to evaluate potential probiotic properties of the dominant Lactobacillus species detected. Saliva and oral swab samples were collected from 133 infants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study (n=240) examining the effect of a new infant formula on child growth and development. Saliva was cultured and Lactobacillus isolates were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Five L. gasseri isolates that differed in 16S rRNA sequence were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of selected oral bacteria and for adhesion to oral tissues. Oral swab samples were analyzed by qPCR for Lactobacillus gasseri.
43 (32.3%) infants were breastfed and 90 (67.7%) were formula-fed with either a standard formula (43 out of 90) or formula supplemented with a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction (47 out of 90). Lactobacilli were cultured from saliva of 34.1% breastfed infants, but only in 4.7% of the standard and 9.3% of the MFGM supplemented formula-fed infants. L. gasseri was the most prevalent (88% of Lactobacillus positive infants) of six Lactobacillus species detected. L. gasseri isolates inhibited Streptococcus mutans binding to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, and inhibited growth of S. mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a concentration dependent fashion. L. gasseri isolates bound to parotid and submandibular saliva, salivary gp340 and MUC7, and purified MFGM, and adhered to epithelial cells. L. gasseri was detected by qPCR in 29.7% of the oral swabs. Breastfed infants had significantly higher mean DNA levels of L. gasseri (2.14 pg/uL) than infants fed the standard (0.363 pg/uL) or MFGM (0.697 pg/uL) formula.
Lactobacilli colonized the oral cavity of breastfed infants significantly more frequently than formula-fed infants. The dominant Lactobacillus was L. gasseri, which was detected at higher levels in breastfed than formula-fed infants and displayed probiotic traits in vitro.
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