Colon Microflora in Infants Fed Formula with Galacto- and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: More Like Breast-Fed Infants

ArticleinJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 40(1):36-42 · February 2005with49 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/00005176-200501000-00007 · Source: PubMed
The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by Bifidobacteria. We aimed to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) is able to establish a bifido-dominant microflora, not only in numbers but also with respect to the metabolic activity in the colon. Two groups of infants fed infant formula with 0.8 g/100 ml GOS/FOS in a ratio of 9:1 (OSF group), or control formula (SF group) were evaluated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study. A breast-fed group was studied in parallel. At study onset and after 4 and 6 weeks, faecal samples were examined for the number of bifidobacteria, pH, short chain fatty acids and lactate. After 6 weeks, the mean proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the OSF group (59.6% versus 49.5% in the SF group; P < 0.05). Compared with controls, infants in the OSF group had a lower stool mean pH and an increased proportion of acetate and a decreased proportion of propionate. The mean pH in the OSF and SF groups were 5.7 and 6.3, respectively (P < 0.001). The addition of the prebiotic GOS/FOS mixture to an infant formula has a stimulating effect on the growth of bifidobacteria and on the metabolic activity of the total intestinal flora. The changes in short chain fatty acids, lactate and pH in the prebiotic group represent a fermentation profile that is closer to that observed in breast-fed infants compared to infants fed control formula.
    • "Only the enzymatic synthesis of some prebiotic such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) is a feasible alternative to produce them in the food industry. Particularly, it has been shown that the addition of different amounts of GOS, FOS or GOS/FOS mixtures to IF stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (Ben et al., 2008; Boehm et al., 2002; Moro et al., 2002), produces changes in the short chain fatty acids, making the profile of these acids closer to that observed in breast-fed infants (Knol et al., 2005), improves the stool characteristics (frequency, pH and softening) (Ben et al., 2008; Fanaro et al., 2005; Moro et al., 2002 ) and reduces the incidence of allergic manifestations and infections during the first two years of life (Arslanoglu et al., 2008). IFs are composed basically by carbohydrates (54–61 g/100 g of product) and proteins (11–15 g/100 g of product). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8 g/100 g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.
    Article · Aug 2016
    • "Actually, FOS are extensively used as prebiotic ingredients for dietary or pharmaceutical applications, while GOS have been increasingly introduced as prebiotics in the last few decades (Fanaro et al., 2005; Macfarlane et al., 2006; Roberfroid, 2007). The addition of FOS and GOS mixtures to infant formulas stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria and Ondarza 98 metabolic activity in the colon, thus reproducing the bifido-dominant microbiota of breast-fed infants (Knol et al., 2005; Rinne et al., 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a better understanding of the central function of the intestinal flora, we must know that intestines are constituted naturally by nearly 100 trillions of bacteria, which by the way represents more than 10 times the number of totally cells in our whole body. Those trillions of bacteria are distributed by 500 or 1000 different species that form our intestinal microbiota or flora. Speaking about the fragile equilibrium of our intestinal flora, it is well known that our intestinal flora´s quality is define from the first days of our lives, it is alive and it evolutes according to nutrition, sickness and drugs taken. If you eat a lot of transform ailments, your intestinal bacteria will suffer since those ailments will destroy the healthy microbiota. In view of this exposition to pollutants which affects us more and more every day, nutritionists recommend to seed regularly good bacteria in our intestines through the nourishment of fermented ailments or by taking supplementary probiotics and to ingest prebiotics promotting beneficial effects to this concern, cactus mucilages and more precisely oligosaccharides are a promising ailment that seems to promote either nutritional and health benefits to the human intestinal microbiota.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016 · Environmental Microbiology
    • "A 50-fold increase in the titre of viable Bifidobacterium was seen in term infants fed with a formula supplemented with 4 and 8 g l −1 GOS/FOS compared with that in control formula (Moro et al., 2002). However, another group observed with the same GOS/ FOS mixture only a moderate increase in bifidobacteria, namely from 50% to 60% of total faecal bacteria, but no increase in faecal Bifidobacterium counts compared with that in standard formula (Knol et al., 2005). A transient increase of bifidobacteria was seen in children between 4 and 8 weeks of age with formula supplemented with 6 g of GOS/FOS l −1 compared with that in standard formula (70% vs 50% bifidobacteria of total faecal bacteria) (Bakker-Zierikzee et al., 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-digestible milk oligosaccharides were proposed as receptor decoys for pathogens and as nutrients for beneficial gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Bovine milk contains oligosaccharides, some of which are structurally identical or similar to those found in human milk. In a controlled, randomized double-blinded clinical trial we tested the effect of feeding a formula supplemented with a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides (BMOS) generated from whey permeate, containing galacto-oligosaccharides and 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose, and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain CNCM I-3446. Breastfed infants served as reference group. Compared to a non-supplemented control formula, the test formula showed a similar tolerability and supported a similar growth in healthy newborns followed for 12 weeks. The control, but not the test group differed from the breast-fed reference group by a higher fecal pH and a significantly higher diversity of the fecal microbiota. In the test group the probiotic B. lactis increased 100-fold in the stool and was detected in all supplemented infants. BMOS stimulated a marked shift to a bifidobacterium-dominated fecal microbiota via increases in endogenous bifidobacteria (B. longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. pseudocatenulatum).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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