Weight loss and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Universität Regensburg, Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 03/2005; 45(3):356-62. DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000154361.47683.d3
Source: PubMed


The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been causally implicated in obesity-associated hypertension. We studied the influence of obesity and weight reduction on the circulating and adipose tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in menopausal women. Blood samples were analyzed for angiotensinogen, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and angiotensin II. In adipose tissue biopsy samples, we analyzed angiotensinogen, renin, renin-receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensin II type-1 receptor gene expression. Obese women (n=19) had higher circulating angiotensinogen, renin, aldosterone, and angiotensin-converting enzyme than lean women (n=19), and lower angiotensinogen gene expression in adipose tissue. Seventeen women successfully participated in a weight reduction protocol over 13 weeks to reduce daily caloric intake by 600 kcal. Body weight was reduced by -5%, as were angiotensinogen levels by -27%, renin by -43%, aldosterone by -31%, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by -12%, and angiotensinogen expression by -20% in adipose tissue (all P<0.05). The plasma angiotensinogen decrease was highly correlated with the waist circumference decline (r=0.74; P<0.001). Weight and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system reductions were accompanied by a -7-mm Hg reduced systolic ambulatory blood pressure. These data suggest that a 5% reduction in body weight can lead to a meaningfully reduced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in plasma and adipose tissue, which may contribute to the reduced blood pressure.

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Available from: Stefan Engeli
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    • "Not only does adipose tissue have a local RAS (for review see Cassis et al., 2008; de Kloet et al., 2010; Frigolet et al., 2013) but serum levels of all the components of the RAS [renin, angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin (ANG) converting enzyme] are elevated in obesity (Cooper et al., 1998; Yasue et al., 2010). In addition, ANG receptors (Burson et al., 1994; Crandall et al., 1994; Cassis et al., 1996) and all the components of the RAS have been localized and been shown to be fully functional in adipose tissue (Cassis et al., 1988; Engeli et al., 1999; Fowler et al., 2009), and expression of these components has been shown to positively correlate with adiposity (Hainault et al., 2002; Engeli et al., 2005; see Kalupahana and Moustaid-Moussa, 2012 for review). The RAS has also been implicated in energy expenditure, a key component in energy balance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic metabolic condition with important public health implications associated with numerous co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. The renin angiotensin system (RAS), best known for its involvement in cardiovascular control and body fluid homeostasis has, more recently, been implicated in regulation of energy balance. Interference with the RAS (genetically or pharmacologically) has been shown to influence body weight gain. In this study we investigated the effects of systemic AT1 receptor blockade using losartan on ingestive behaviors and weight gain in diet induced obese (DIO) rats. Prior to losartan administration (30 mg/kg/day) body weight gain remained constant within the DIO animals (3.6 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8), diet resistant (DR) animals (2.1 ± 0.6 g/day, n = 8) and in the age-matched chow fed control (CHOW) animals (2.8 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8), Losartan administration abolished body weight gain in animals fed a high fat diet (DIO: -0.4 ± 0.7 g/day, n = 8; and DR: -0.8 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8) while chow fed animals continued to gain weight (2.2 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8) as they had previously to oral administration of losartan. This decrease in daily body weight gain was accompanied by a decrease in food intake in the HFD fed animals. Following the removal of losartan, both the DIO and DR animals again showed daily increases in body weight gain and food intake which were similar to control values. Our data demonstrate that oral losartan administration attenuates body weight gain in animals fed a HFD whether the animal is obese (DIO) or not DR while having no effect on body weight gain in age-matched chow fed animals suggesting a protective effect of losartan against body weight gain while on a HFD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Frontiers in Psychology
    • "It has been reported that renin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone, and ACE levels were higher in obese women compared to slim women and low angiotensinogen gene expression in their adipose tissues, suggesting a correlation between RAS components and body weight. Weight reduction (≅5%) was shown to reduce angiotensinogen, renin, and aldosterone levels; and decrease ACE expression.[23] "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and adiponectin and lipid profile in the ovariectomized-aged rats. Wistar albino rats were first divided into two groups; control (C) and ovariectomized (OVX). Bilateral ovariectomy were carried out on rats (n = 30) except control group (n = 10). After 6 weeks from ovariectomy, ovariectomized rats were subdivided into three groups; one group received no treatment (OVX), two groups received low dose (OVX + Cap5; 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (OVX + Cap20; 20 mg/kg/day) captopril (Cap). Body weights were monitored weekly. Adiponectin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. In the OVX group, body weights increased (P < 0.001). In the OVX + Cap20 group, body weights significantly decreased compared with the OVX group during weeks 5 and 6 (P < 0.05). While adiponectin levels increased in the OVX + Cap5 group (P = 0.014), triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased in the OVX + Cap20 group (P = 0.016 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to the OVX group. HDL-C and VLDL-C levels decreased only in OVX + Cap20 group (P < 0.005). ACE inhibitors may be decreasing the ovariectomy-induced weight gain by increasing adiponectin levels, and by affecting lipid profiles. The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be playing an important role in the development of adiposity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics
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    • "In the present study, HFD rats also presented with an elevation in ACE2 gene as well as protein expression in adipose tissue. It has been reported that the expression of RAS components, including angiotensinogen, renin, aldosterone, and ACE, increases in adipose tissue in animals and humans with obesity-related diseases [21–23], which can be regulated by HFD [24, 25]. Gupte et al. also reported that ACE2 gene expression increases in C57BL/6 mice after 16 weeks on a HFD [14] but not ACE2 protein expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can improve hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Angiotensin (Ang) II, the primary effector of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays vital roles in the development and progression of NASH. And some AngII-mediated effects can be regulated by TZDs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, a new component of RAS, can degrade Ang II to attenuate its subsequent physiological actions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of TZDs on ACE2 expression in insulin-sensitive tissues in NASH rats. Methods. Forty rats were divided into the normal control, high-fat diet (HFD), pioglitazone control, and HFD plus pioglitazone groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, we evaluated changes in liver histology and tissue-specific ACE2 expression. Results. ACE2 gene and protein expression was significantly greater in liver and adipose tissue in the HFD group compared with normal control group, while was significantly reduced in skeletal muscle. Pioglitazone significantly reduced the degree of hepatic steatosis compared with the HFD group. Pioglitazone significantly increased ACE2 protein expression in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle compared with the HFD group. Conclusions. Pioglitazone improves hepatic steatosis in the rats with HFD-induced NASH and upregulates ACE2 expression in insulin-sensitive tissues.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
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