Focal hyperhidrosis: Diagnosis and management

Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.
Canadian Medical Association Journal (Impact Factor: 5.96). 02/2005; 172(1):69-75. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1040708
Source: PubMed


Hyperhidrosis, a condition characterized by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%-95%.

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    • "Palmar hyperhidrosis is a benign functional disorder that is associated with significant psychological and social handicaps [1]. The treatments of hyperhidrosis included topical agents, botulin injections, systemic anticholinergic treatment, iontophoresis and sympathectomy [2]. Although transthoracic thoracoscopic sympathectomy is minimally "
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the first case of severe palmar hyperhidrosis treated with single-incision subxiphoid thoracoscopic ablative sympathectomy, bilaterally, at T3 level. The single-incision subxiphoid thoracoscopic approach required only a 2-cm incision in the upper abdomen. In addition, the technique does not cause postoperative intercostal neuropathy and postoperative pain is minimal as the intercostal space is bypassed. Total operative time was ∼60 min and the volume of blood loss was 10 ml. The patient was discharged from the hospital the next day with complete remission of her symptoms. Excess palmar sweating released after operation and there was no compensatory sweating after a 6-month follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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    • "Primary hyperhidrosis is a disorder of unknown cause (idiopathic) but may be exacerbated by stress.1,2 It affects both men and women equally (2.8% of the general population in the United States),3 and can be extremely socially debilitating, interfering with work activities and negatively affecting the patients’ quality of life.4,5 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperhidrosis is a chronic disease characterized by increased sweat production. Local injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) have been extensively used for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis (idiopathic). The current treatment for this condition involves several intradermal injections, resulting in poor patient compliance due to injection-related pain. Therefore, new protocols, including an improved anesthetic regimen, are required. Aim: We designed the present study to determine whether JetPeel™-3, a medical device used for transdermal delivery of drugs by jet nebulization, could be used to deliver lidocaine prior to the standard multiple BTX-A injections or deliver lidocaine together with BTX-A in order to determine the protocol giving better results in terms of procedure-related pain, sweating, and patient satisfaction in subjects affected by primary axillary, palmar or plantar hyperhidrosis. Materials and methods: Twenty patients with a visual analog scale (VAS) sweating score > 8 cm were randomized to receive lidocaine 2% (5 mL) delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple injections of BTX-A (100 units) or lidocaine 2% (5 mL) and BTX-A (50 units) delivered together by JetPeel™-3. Effect of treatment on sweating was measured by VAS (0= minimum sweating; 10= maximum sweating) at 3-month follow-up. Pain induced by the procedure was assessed by VAS (0= minimum pain; 10= maximum pain) immediately after the procedure. Patient satisfaction was assessed at 3-month follow-up using a 5-point scale (1= not at all satisfied; 2= not satisfied; 3= partially satisfied; 4= satisfied; 5= highly satisfied). Results: Both treatment modalities reduced sweating at 3-month follow-up, if compared with baseline (all P < 0.001). Delivery of lidocaine and BTX-A by JetPeel™-3 resulted in lower procedure-related pain and reduced sweating, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple BTX-A injections (all P < 0.001). Patient satisfaction with the procedure was higher in the group receiving lidocaine and BTX-A treatment by JetPeel™-3, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple BTX-A injections (P < 0.001). No side effects were observed in both groups. Conclusion: Lidocaine and BTX-A can be safely delivered together by JetPeel™-3 to treat primary palmar, plantar and axillary hyperhidrosis, resulting in lower procedure-related pain, improved sweating and higher patient satisfaction, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by standard BTX-A injection therapy. Our protocol delivering lidocaine and BTX-A together by JetPeel™-3 requires a reduced quantity of BTX-A, further supporting the use of the transdermal drug delivery by jet nebulization over standard injection therapy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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    • "It contains less than 5 ng of Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in a 900 kDa complex [6]. Whereas Dysport is produced by purification using column separation method yielding a mixture of complex-sized toxin proteins and contains 125 mg human serum albumin with 2.5 mg lactose [6] [7]. Moreover, it contains 12.5 ng of BTX- A in a multiprotein preparation ranging from 500 to 900 kDa [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Two preparations of botulinum A toxin (BTX-A) are commercially available for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH): Botox (Allergan; 100 U/vial) and Dysport (Ipsen Limited; 500 U/vial), which are not bioequivalent. Results regarding an appropriate conversion factor between them are controversial. Objectives. This paper aims to compare the efficacy of Botox and Dysport in PPH using a conversion factor of 1 : 2.5. Methods. Eight patients with severe PPH received intradermal injections of Botox in one palm and Dysport in the other in the same session. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline and posttreatment for 8 months using Minor's iodine starch test, Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) test. Results. At 3 weeks, a significant decrease in sweating for both preparations was noted which was more pronounced with Dysport compared with Botox. At 8 weeks, this difference turned insignificant. Continued evaluation showed similar improvement in both palms with a nonsignificant difference. Patients with longer disease duration were more liable to relapse. Conclusion. The efficacy and safety of Botox and Dysport injections were similar using a conversion factor of 1 : 2.5. There was a trend towards a more rapid action after Dysport treatment but without significant importance.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Dermatology Research and Practice
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