Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 02/2005; 88(1):139-57. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.139
Source: PubMed


Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.

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Available from: David Watson, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "For example, the recently proposed DSM–5 (5th ed.;American Psychiatric Association, 2013) dimensional structure of personality disorders consisting of five to six dimensions (i.e., negative affect, detachment, antagonism, compulsivity/disinhibition, and psychoticism) may be a useful tool for capturing both internalizing and externalizing maladaptive personality (e.g.,Krueger et al., 2011). Second, and related to the first point, it also has been cogently argued that maladaptive traits may simply reflect extreme levels and/or particular configurations of normal personality traits (e.g.,Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005;Miller et al., 2005) and that normal and abnormal personality measures may be effectively integrated into a common framework (e.g., DeGore & Widiger, 2013;Thomas, Yalch, Krueger, Wright, Markon, & Hopwood, 2013). In light of this, future research should examine how normal and dark personality traits could jointly predict turnover outcomes, taking into account the overall patterns of dispositional characteristics that are associated with turnover. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the personality and turnover literatures suggest the importance of expanding current turnover criteria, incorporating dark personality traits, and examining the role of time in these relationships. The present study investigates these issues by considering both the speed and the reasons for leaving, examining a wider range of personality variables as predictors by including both “bright” and “dark” traits, and exploring the potential moderating effect of time in such predictions. Data were collected from a sample of 617 employees working in an electronics manufacturing firm in the United States. Using a Bayesian survival analysis framework, we found that dark traits were just as useful in predicting turnover outcomes as traditional personality traits and best predicted the specific turnover reasons, “deviant behavior” and “no call no show.” Investigating the role of time showed that job satisfaction and intellectual curiosity (i.e., Openness) grew in predictive strength over the course of organizational tenure but that the time-dependent effects of other predictors were negligible.
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    • "As seen above, the relationships between EXT and a varied assortment of personality traits, most often traits at the broad domain level, have been cited in the literature. These seemingly distinct traits are known to relate to one another in a hierarchical fashion (John,Naumann, & Soto, 2008;Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005). We can summarize the above findings using the framework of Tellegen's Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ;Tellegen & Waller, 2008), which was used in the current study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether and how personality predicts the developmental course of externalizing problems, including antisocial behavior and substance dependence. Method: In a large population-based longitudinal study (N=1252), the 11 personality traits assessed by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were measured at age 17, and DSM diagnoses of adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence were obtained at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. We fit a quadratic multiple indicator latent growth model where the three diagnoses loaded onto an externalizing factor. Results: This model fit the data well, and externalizing increased until it started to decline at age 24. High aggression and low control were the most significant predictors of the development of externalizing, with aggression playing a significant role in the development of externalizing across the 12-year time span, and control predicting the development from age 17 to 24. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of considering the developmental course of externalizing in the context of personality and suggest that the specific personality traits of aggression and control might be targeted in externalizing prevention and intervention programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Personality
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    • "pleasurable engagement in the environment) are thought to characterize internalizing disorders, particularly depression and social anxiety (Naragon-Gainey et al. 2009; Watson & Naragon-Gainey, 2010). Finally, disinhibition (which can be conceptualized as low agreeableness and low conscientiousness using the Big Five traits; see Markon et al. 2005) is uniquely related to externalizing disorders (Krueger et al. 2002; Krueger et al. 2007; Miller et al. 2012). Given their heritable nature, personality traits have been implicated as risk factors for the onset of traits was gathered at about 1 month pre-deployment using abbreviated versions of the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales (Harkness et al. 1995, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Research suggests that personality traits have both direct and indirect effects on the development of psychological symptoms, with indirect effects mediated by stressful or traumatic events. This study models the direct influence of personality traits on residualized changes in internalizing and externalizing symptoms following a stressful and potentially traumatic deployment, as well as the indirect influence of personality on symptom levels mediated by combat exposure. Method. We utilized structural equation modeling with a longitudinal prospective study of 522 US National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Analyses were based on self-report measures of personality, combat exposure, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results. Both pre-deployment Disconstraint and externalizing symptoms predicted combat exposure, which in turn predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for pre-deployment externalizing symptoms on post-deployment externalizing via combat exposure (p < .01). Negative Emotionality and pre-deployment internalizing symptoms directly predicted post-deployment internalizing symptoms, but both were unrelated to combat exposure. No direct effects of personality on residualized changes in externalizing symptoms were found. Conclusions. Baseline symptom dimensions had significant direct and indirect effects on post-deployment symptoms. Controlling for both pre-exposure personality and symptoms, combat experiences remained positively related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Implications for diagnostic classification are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Psychological Medicine
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