Cerebral aneurysm and acromegaly: A case report
Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Advanced Therapies, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Journal of endocrinological investigation
(Impact Factor: 1.45).
10/2004; 27(8):770-3. DOI: 10.1007/BF03347521
Few cases are reported concerning the association between cerebral aneurysms and acromegaly, and this is the first case report documenting an increase in diameter of a cerebral aneurysm in persistent acromegaly. Persistently elevated GH plasma levels might promote an increase in diameter of cerebral aneurysms. An accurate follow-up in acromegalic patients is important, especially concerning the cerebrovascular system. Establishing the effectiveness and usefulness of this strategy will require future prospective studies.
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- "Consistent with our observations, the prevalence was low (0.5–1.48 %) in males under 60 years of age, justifying the use of the control group of our study as normal controls. The coexistence of cerebral aneurysm and pituitary adenoma has been reported, and some authors have described their impressions or findings of its higher prevalence in acromegaly compared to other types of pituitary adenoma[2,3,567. However, no study had investigated this issue in detail. "
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cerebral aneurysm was retrospectively investigated in 208 patients with acromegaly relative to the rate of cerebral aneurysm in a group of control subjects. Neuroradiological examinations of the cerebral vascular system were conducted in 208 acromegaly patients (101 men; mean age, 48.8 years). The prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in the acromegaly patients was compared to that in a control group consisting of 7,390 subjects who underwent "brain checkup" between 2006 and 2008 (mean age, 51.6 years). In the acromegaly group, cerebral aneurysm was detected in 4.3 % of patients. By sex, the prevalence was 6.9 % in males, a significantly proportion than that in the control group with an odds ratio of 4.40. The prevalence in females did not differ between the two groups. In the acromegaly group, the rate of hypertension was significantly higher in the patients with aneurysm compared to those without aneurysm. Multiple logistic regression identified acromegaly as a significant factor related to the prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in all male subjects; other factors, such as age, hypertension and smoking, were not found to be significant. A significantly higher prevalence of cerebral aneurysm was detected in male patients with acromegaly. This finding indicates that excess growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor 1 affects the cerebral vascular wall, resulting in aneurysm formation. In addition to known systematic complications in the cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other systems, the risk of cerebral aneurysm should be considered in the management of acromegaly.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular disease is highly prevalent in the general population, frequently leading to permanent invalidity and reduced quality of life. IGF-I is recognized as an important neuroprotective factor against cerebral hypoxic insult.
The objective of the study was to evaluate pituitary function, in particular GH-IGF-I axis, in adult patients receiving rehabilitation after an ischemic stroke.
We studied 42 patients (12 females; age range, 50-88 yr) during rehabilitation after stroke, evaluating the relationship between the GH-IGF-I axis and the severity (National Institutes of Health stroke scale) and outcome [Rancho Los Amigos Scale of Cognitive Functioning (LCFS); Functional Independence Measure (FIM); modified Ranking Scale] from stroke.
GH deficiency was demonstrated in five patients (11.9%). Peak GH after GHRH + arginine test and IGF-I levels did not correlate with severity of stroke. IGF-I was positively correlated with LCFS (r = 0.305, P < 0.05) and the difference between FIM on admission and at discharge from rehabilitation (DeltaFIM; r = 0.361, P < 0.02). Outcome indexes (LCFS, FIM at discharge, DeltaFIM) and occurrence of favorable outcome (modified Ranking Scale 0-1) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in patients with IGF-I levels 161.8 mug/dl or greater (50th percentile of the patient distribution). LH-FSH deficiency (three cases), ACTH deficiency (one case), and hyperprolactinemia (two cases) were detected. One patient had primary hypogonadism, and six males had low testosterone with normal LH and FSH levels. By multivariate analysis, IGF-I level was the main significant predictor of DeltaFIM and LCFS.
Ischemic stroke may be associated with pituitary dysfunction, particularly GH and gonadotropin deficiencies. The higher IGF-I levels observed in patients with better outcome suggest a possible neuroprotective role of IGF-I. Circulating IGF-I may predict functional performance during rehabilitation and ischemic stroke outcome.
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ABSTRACT: The combination of pituitary gland tumor and aneurysmal disease has previously been described. Most of these aneurysms have affected intracranial arteries. The purpose is to present 2 patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and pituitary gland tumor and further to discuss the mechanism behind this combination of diseases. A 59-year-old male patient was admitted with abdominal pain and a 120 mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm type III. He was operated with resection and graft replacement. During the operation, it was noted that his intra-abdominal arteries were extremely enlarged. The diagnosis acromegaly was confirmed in the late 50's and he had received irradiation therapy and underwent partial trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy. His growth hormone values eventually declined while he had elevated insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. The patient died from stroke 6 years after operation. Patient n. 2 is a 73-year-old female with a type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. She was operated for a pituitary adenoma in 1988. There were no clinical or biochemical signs of acromegaly. However, she had elevated serum values of IGF-1. The maximum diameter of the aneurysm was 60 mm. Because of comorbidity the patient has been followed at the outpatient clinic. The mechanism behind the combination of pituitary gland tumor and aneurysm is obscure. One of our patients had classical acromegaly. Growth hormone decreased over the years, while his IGF-1 values were normal or elevated. The other patient had increased levels of IGF-1 without typical acromegaly. This might indicate that IGF-1 could play a role in the development of aneurysm in patients with pituitary tumor. This combination of diagnoses should be kept in mind when dealing with patients having aneurysmal disease.
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