Myopathy and phosphorylase kinase deficiency caused by a mutation in the PHKA1 gene
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) deficiency is the underlying cause of variable clinical symptoms depending on the tissues involved. Until today, only a few cases of myopathy associated with muscle PhK deficiency caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of phosphorylase kinase (PHKA1) have been reported. We describe a male patient with myopathy and absent muscle PhK activity caused by a frameshift mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of PhK on chromosome Xq12-q13. (C) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Available from: Zhigang Yu
- "Allelic variants of Pla2g7 can promote reductions in adiposity following exercise in human populations , and reduction of adipose tissue is a known function of myocyte AR . Allelic variants in Phka1 in human populations are associated with metabolic myopathy , . When considered in the context of the putative protective or toxic functions of these genes, the general pattern of regulation observed in our samples for Ddit4l, Enah and Itgb1bp3 are consistent with adaptive tissue response to toxicity and that observed for Phka1 and Pla2g7 is consistent with a causal role in myopathy. "
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ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence implicates altered gene expression within skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of Kennedy disease/spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (KD/SBMA). We therefore broadly characterized gene expression in skeletal muscle of three independently generated mouse models of this disease. The mouse models included a polyglutamine expanded (polyQ) AR knock-in model (AR113Q), a polyQ AR transgenic model (AR97Q), and a transgenic mouse that overexpresses wild type AR solely in skeletal muscle (HSA-AR). HSA-AR mice were included because they substantially reproduce the KD/SBMA phenotype despite the absence of polyQ AR.
We performed microarray analysis of lower hindlimb muscles taken from these three models relative to wild type controls using high density oligonucleotide arrays. All microarray comparisons were made with at least 3 animals in each condition, and only those genes having at least 2-fold difference and whose coefficient of variance was less than 100% were considered to be differentially expressed. When considered globally, there was a similar overlap in gene changes between the 3 models: 19% between HSA-AR and AR97Q, 21% between AR97Q and AR113Q, and 17% between HSA-AR and AR113Q, with 8% shared by all models. Several patterns of gene expression relevant to the disease process were observed. Notably, patterns of gene expression typical of loss of AR function were observed in all three models, as were alterations in genes involved in cell adhesion, energy balance, muscle atrophy and myogenesis. We additionally measured changes similar to those observed in skeletal muscle of a mouse model of Huntington's Disease, and to those common to muscle atrophy from diverse causes.
By comparing patterns of gene expression in three independent models of KD/SBMA, we have been able to identify candidate genes that might mediate the core myogenic features of KD/SBMA.
Available from: Anibh M Das
- "Reduced activity of the phosphorylase kinase, which is needed for glycogen breakdown, has been reported to lead to mild myopathy [154, 155]. "
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ABSTRACT: Inherited neuromuscular disorders affect approximately one in 3,500 children. Structural muscular defects are most common; however functional impairment of skeletal and cardiac muscle in both children and adults may be caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism as well. Patients suffering from metabolic myopathies due to compromised energy metabolism may present with exercise intolerance, muscle pain, reversible or progressive muscle weakness, and myoglobinuria. In this review, the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle is described, followed by the presentation of distinct disorders affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle: glycogen storage diseases types III, V, VII, fatty acid oxidation defects, and respiratory chain defects (i.e., mitochondriopathies). The diagnostic work-up and therapeutic options in these disorders are discussed.
Available from: Kaija-Leena Kolho
- "Defects in PHKA1 result in X-linked deficiency of phosphorylase kinase in muscle . Symptoms include exercise intolerance, cramps, myalgia, weakness and myoglobulinuria, but just four mutations have been reported to date    . The b-subunit, a 125-kDa polypeptide that shows significant identity with the a-subunit, also performs a regulatory role within the phosphorylase kinase complex and is also controlled through phosphorylation by PKA . "
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ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD type IX) results from a deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase kinase activity. The phosphorylase kinase holoenzyme is made up of four copies of each of four subunits (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). The liver isoforms of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits are encoded by PHKA2, PHKB and PHKG2, respectively. Mutation within these genes has been shown to result in GSD type IX. The diagnosis of GSD type IX is complicated by the spectrum of clinical symptoms, variation in tissue specificity and severity, and its inheritance, either X-linked or autosomal recessive. We investigated 15 patients from 12 families with suspected GSD type IX. Accurate diagnosis had been hampered by enzymology not being diagnostic in five cases. Clinical symptoms included combinations of hypoglycaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, short stature, hepatopathy, weakness, fatigue and motor delay. Biochemical findings included elevated lactate, urate and lipids. We characterised causative mutations in the PHKA2 gene in ten patients from eight families, in PHKG2 in two unrelated patients and in the PHKB gene in three patients from two families. Seven novel mutations were identified in PHKA2 (p.I337X, p.P498L, p.P869R, p.Y116_T120dup, p.R1070del, p.R916W and p.M113I), two in PHKG2 (p.L144P and p.H48QfsX5) and two in PHKB (p.Y419X and c.2336+965A>C). There was a severe phenotype in patients with PHKG2 mutations, a mild phenotype with patients PHKB mutations and a broad spectrum associated with PHKA2 mutations. Molecular analysis allows accurate diagnosis where enzymology is uninformative and identifies the pattern of inheritance permitting counselling and family studies.
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