ArticlePDF Available

Poorer Nations Turn to Publicly Developed GM Crops


Abstract and Figures

Genetically modified crops are often framed as the products of multinational corporations, but in poorer nations it is public research that is vibrant and attempting their development.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Poorer nations turn to publicly developed GM crops
Joel I Cohen
Genetically modified crops are often framed as the products of multinational corporations, but in poorer nations it is
public research that is vibrant and attempting their development.
The second conference on the Cartagena
Protocol on Biosafety will be held in May in
Montreal, Canada1. One goal of the confer-
ence will be to reconcile practical challenges
in implementing its articles concerning living
modified organisms around the globe, particu-
larly in developing nations. I present here the
findings of a study that was a joint effort of
partners from 15 developing countries on three
continents and the International Food Policy
Research Institute (IFPRI, Washington, DC,
USA) to analyze the current state of research,
regulation, genetic resources and institutional
roles in developing genetically modified (GM)
crops2. This study is meant to be representa-
tive of key trends, rather than comprehensive
in approach. Information from this type of
study, the first of its kind, will help scientists,
policy makers and regulators understand their
respective country’s public GM crop research
agenda, identify polices and regulatory needs
for specific GM events and provide a transpar-
ent picture of national research and regulation
for stakeholders. This effort in no way mini-
mizes the need for safety evaluation, but seeks
research and regulatory efficiencies and effec-
tiveness so that all benefit.
Diversity of transformed crops and
In the 15 countries studied (see Box 1 for
methodology), public research pipelines for
GM crops contained 201 genetic transforma-
tion events for 45 different crops. (An event
is defined as the stable transformation—the
incorporation of foreign DNA into a living
plant cell—undertaken by a single institute
among the participating countries, thereby
providing a unique crop-and-trait combina-
tion.) Data collection began in 2001; data
were evaluated in 2002, updated and finalized
through the end of 2003. These pipelines have
produced GM crops, including cereals, vegeta-
bles, root, tuber and oil crops, sugar and cotton.
Many are nearing or in confined trials; others
Joel I. Cohen is at the International Food Policy
Research Institute (IFPRI), Environment and
Production Technology Division, 2033 K Street,
NW, Washington DC, USA.
Box 1 Research approach
Given that the development of biotech products is knowledge- and resource-intensive, the
survey was directed to preselected national experts with unique expertise and knowledge
of biotech, biosafety and genetic resources owing to their positions and research. These in-
cluded senior research leaders in national agricultural institutes, universities and regulatory
organizations, external experts, biosafety specialists and decision makers. Unlike studies
that have sampled initiatives in all developing countries22, our survey was restricted to 15
countries—those that had advanced work on GM in the regulatory stage or had regulatory
procedures in place— allowing a thorough and comprehensive analysis of specific data.
The survey examined and verified peer-reviewed data collected from 15 countries and a
total of 62 research institutes for 13 criteria (Table 1): (i) country (ii) food and fiber crops
(iii) source of germ plasm (iv) gene group (v) gene (vi) phenotype category (vii) function
(viii) regulatory status (ix) regulatory status by year (x) lead research institutes (xi) collabo-
rating institutes (xii) institutional arrangement and (xiii) dissemination. This study focuses
on six types of data: first, the diversity of transformed crops and phenotypes; second, the
most important transgene groups; third, sources and types of genetic resources; fourth,
field safety and regulatory status; fifth, research collaboration; and sixth, advancement
and distribution of improved seeds. Crops were categorized and sorted following the United
Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, Rome) FAOSTAT crop classification23.
Information was collected for phenotypic trait expression, as categorized by the United
States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS,
Washington, DC, USA). The genetic resources used for transformation were analyzed to
determine whether public or private institutions developed these resources, and whether
their original material was local or foreign (imported). The full study2 included data from
Bulgaria, but these are not reported here because data from no other European country
were available for comparison.
To study the progress of GM crops through to commercialization, data were collected
by regulatory stage, emphasizing the most advanced events possible. Four stages were
used: experimental (transformation events that produce stable transgenic plants derived
from multiple generations at the laboratory/greenhouse/glasshouse scale); confined field
trials (transformation events expressing stable traits in small-scale, single or multilocation
confined trials); scale-up (transgenic plants advancing into larger, precommercial trials); or
commercial release (products marketed to farmers through privately or publicly owned seed
companies or other institutional mechanisms). For experimental stage entries, experts were
asked to identify only highly developed biotechnologies coming from laboratory, green-
house or glasshouse and to indicate in what stage of regulation their respective events were
most accurately placed.
are in later stages of field testing and seeking
broader approval.
Table 1 summarizes the data by country,
including total number of events, crop types
transformed and phenotypic category. (Eight
phenotypic categories were used: agronomic
properties, bacterial resistance, fungal resis-
tance, herbicide tolerance, insect resistance,
product quality, virus resistance and other.)
The percentage of different phenotypic
groups among the 201 transformation events
identified is presented in Figure 1. Over half of
the 201 transformation events involve single
genes that confer biotic resistance to either viral
or insect stresses to the host plant. In 11 events,
stacked genes (those that simultaneously con-
fer more than one trait) are being tested for
phenotypic combinations. Some countries are
working on five or fewer crops, whereas others,
such as China and South Africa, are working
on 15 or more.
The ten crops with the largest number of
transformation events are shown in Figure 2.
Although most transformation events have
focused on cereals, significant numbers of a
diverse range of transgenic vegetables, fruits,
roots and tubers have also been created.
Significant progress has also been achieved in
transforming orphan (noncereal food staples
and indigenous crops, including mung beans,
beans, chickpeas, cowpeas, lupin, cacao and
coffee). The greatest numbers of transforma-
tion events to date are for rice, potatoes, maize
and papaya. Cotton, which is used as an oil and
fiber crop, is shown for comparison with food
crops in Figure 2.
Geographical breakdown
The largest number of transformation events
were generated by the seven Asian countries
surveyed (109), followed by the four African
countries (54), and the four Latin American
countries (38). However, Brazil also reported
37 events contracted by the private sector work-
ing with Embrapa (Brasilia), a public research
institute associated with Brazil’s Ministry of
Agricultural (Brasilia), to address their mar-
ket needs. Asian countries have products in all
stages of the research pipeline, having made
significant commitments to GM crops3,4,
and are already achieving significant success
with insect-resistant GM cotton approvals (in
China and to a lesser degree in India, and lastly,
Indonesia). Despite the large number of trans-
formation events in development in Asia, only
the Philippines has approved a commercial feed
crop for production, and China allows cultiva-
tion and use of publicly developed transgenic
vegetables. Indonesia had approved commer-
Table 1 Transformation events grouped by country, crops and phenotypic category
Continent Countries No. eventsaCrops Phenotypic categoryb
Africa Egypt 17 Cotton, cucumber, maize, melons, potatoes, squash and marrow,
tomatoes, watermelons, wheat
Kenya 4Cotton, maize, sweet potatoes HT, HT/IR, OO, PQ, VR
South Africa 20 Apples, grapes, lupin, maize, melons, pearl millet, potatoes,
sorghum, soybeans, strawberry, sugar cane, tomatoes, indigenous
Zimbabwe 5 Cotton, cowpeas, maize, sweet potatoes, tomatoes FR, HT/VR, VR
Asia China 30 Cabbage, chili, cotton, maize, melons, papayas, potatoes, rice,
soybeans, tomatoes
India 21 Cabbage, cauliflower, chickpeas, citrus, eggplant, mung beans,
muskmelon, mustard/rapeseed, potatoes, rice, tomatoes
Indonesia 14 Cacao, cassava, chili pepper, coffee, groundnuts, maize, mung
beans, papayas, potatoes, rice, shallot, soybeans, sugar cane,
sweet potatoes
Malaysia 5Oil, palms, papayas, rice HT, IR, VR
Pakistan 5Cotton, rice HT, IR, PQ, VR
Philippines 17 Bananas and plantains, maize, mangoes, papayas, rice, tomatoes AP, OO, VR
Thailand 7 Cotton, papayas, pepper, rice AP, BR, IR, VR
Latin America Argentina 21 Alfalfa, citrus, potatoes, soybeans, strawberry, sunflowers, wheat AP, BR, FR, IR, IR/BR, OO, PQ, VR
Brazil 9Beans, maize, papayas, potatoes, soybeans AP, BR, FR, HT, IR, PQ, VR
Costa Rica 5Bananas and plantains, maize, rice AP, IR, VR
Mexico 3 Bananas and plantains, maize, potatoes IR, VR
Total 201
aAn event is defined as the stable transformation—incorporation of foreign DNA into a living plant cell—undertaken by a single institute among the participating countries, thereby
providing a unique crop and trait combination. bPhenotypes are defined as follows: AP, agronomic properties; BR, bacterial resistance; FR, fungal resistance; HT, herbicide tolerance;
IR, insect resistance; OO, other; PQ, product quality; VR, virus resistance.
BR 3%
OO 5%
HT 5%
PQ 8%
FR 10%
AP 12%
IR 26%
VR 27%
Figure 1 Total events distributed by phenotype.
AP, agronomic properties; BR, bacterial
resistance; FR, fungal resistance; HT, herbicide
tolerance; IR, insect resistance; OO, Other; PQ,
cial GM cotton, but it has now been taken off
the market.
Sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception
of South Africa, lacks many capabilities and
resources to advance such research5. Many
countries are just considering whether to
conduct research on, or to allow import of,
GM crops or products. Research capacity and
potential markets are evolving (e.g., for insect-
resistant cotton), albeit subject to uncertainties
regarding use and trade6 . Kenya and Egypt have
demonstrated competence in regulatory and
import approvals, but have still not approved
any crop for open testing or commercial use.
Phenotypic groupings
Table 2 presents five of the eight phenotypic
groups having the highest number of clearly
identified genes or gene groups. Where the
specific genes were not provided, the coun-
try’s description of the trait being developed
is retained.
On the basis of the study data, we identi-
fied three groups of genes that appear of suf-
ficiently robust utility and suitability for wide
use. The first gene group consists of Cry genes
from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that confer
resistance to lepidopteran insects. The sec-
ond group consists of coat proteins of plant
viruses used for inducing virus resistance. And
the third consists of genes conferring herbicide
tolerance. Most other gene groups and their
associated phenotypic traits have not yet dem-
onstrated robust applicability in the field. For
example, no gene group has yet to confer effec-
tive fungal resistance, although much experi-
mental activity has been spent on investigating
the glucanases and chitinases.
Similarly, no group of genes has been
shown to reliably confer bacterial resistance in
the field, even though many investigators are
studying the effects of antimicrobial peptides.
Thus, success has been limited in developing
crops with traits other than insect resistance,
virus resistance and herbicide tolerance.
Among the genes and gene groups being
tested, the Cry genes, coat protein genes and
herbicide tolerance genes are most likely to
move through regulation with fewer require-
ments, assuming already packaged data are
accepted by the developing country in which
tests would occur. This is because numerous
safety reviews have been conducted on these
genes in several countries. However, this does
not rule out tests to address specific environ-
mental or biodiversity concerns, as such results
may not be transferable from one country to
The more unusual genes shown in Table 2
include different types of insect-resistance
genes, replicase genes, antisense genes and
genes encoding antimicrobial peptides.
Most countries are focusing on genes that
are already available and have already been
Table 2 Genes and gene groups in five phenotypic categories
Phenotype category
Gene/gene group Number of eventsa
Insect resistance 51
Bt 35
Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (Snowdrop lectin) 5
Pin 4
Trypsin inhibitor 2
Bt and trypsin inhibitor 2
Gall midge resistance gene (Gm2) 1
Alpha amylase inhibitor 1
Not disclosed 1
Viral resistance 53
Coat protein 47
Replicase 3
Coat protein and reporter genes 1
Coat protein and replicase 1
Antisense to tomato yellow leaf curl virus 1
Fungal resistance 21
Glucanase, chitinase 6
Glucanase, PGIP2 2
Chitinase and ap24 antifungal protein 2
Chitinase 2
Blast resistance 2
Not disclosed 2
PGIP1 and PGIP2 isolated in South Africa 1
Grape resveratrol 1
Glucanase (PGIP3) 1
b32, PGIP2 and other selected antifungal genes 1
AP24, CH5b, GLN3 1
Herbicide tolerance 11
5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) 2
BAR encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase 6
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)2
PsbA encoding D1 polypeptide of photosystem II 1
Bacterial resistance 7
Xa21-resistance (R) gene 5
Unspecified antibacterial 1
Unspecified antimicrobial peptides 1
aAn event is defined as the stable transformation—incorporation of foreign DNA into a living plant cell—undertaken by a
single institute among the participating countries, thereby providing a unique crop and trait combination. PGIP, polyga-
lacturonase-inhibiting protein
0 102030405060
All other
35 crops
Sugar cane
No. of events
Figure 2 Phenotype characteristics sorted by
number of transformation events among the top
10 crops in the study data set. AP, agronomic
properties; BR, bacterial resistance; FR, fungal
resistance; HT, herbicide tolerance; IR, insect
resistance; OO, Other; PQ, product quality; VR,
virus resistance.
characterized, but a few are also investing in
their own gene discovery and development,
such as South Africa, Malaysia, Brazil, India
and China.
Sources and types of genetic resources
Access to plant genetic resources that possess
acceptable agronomic performance and are
suitable for transformation is an important
influence on adoption of technology. For this
study, genetic resources constitute landraces,
varieties and finished lines produced or derived
from developing countries. Foreign resources
are those brought to a developing country by
an external entity. Public materials are those
from any form of public institution and private
materials are those from companies, as well as
commodity organizations operating for and
within specific developing countries.
Data from the study show that 85% of the
genetic resources used for transformation have
been derived locally from public materials (Fig.
3). Public genetic resources, defined as locally
adapted and well preferred by farmers, were
identified for 41 of 45 crops. Unlike private
materials, these genetic resources are usually
unencumbered by varietal or intellectual prop-
erty claims. The use and management of this
local material becomes, therefore, all the more
Field safety, regulatory status and costs
When study data are explained on the basis of
four regulatory stages (experimental, confined
trials, scale up, commercial release; see Box 1
for explanation), a total of 127 transformation
events are at the experimental stage, 44 are in
confined trials, 22 in scale-up testing (mostly
in China) and 7 are in the commercial-release
stage (see Fig. 4).
Of the 44 events in confined testing, many
have been under examination for years, wait-
ing approval for scale-up or precommercial
trials. Part of the difficulty with advancement,
as agreed upon by study participants, is confu-
sion about the exact amount of data required
for a confined (risk management) versus open
(risk assessment) trial. When possible, larger
tests could be done in partnership with seed
companies or with government seed produc-
tion facilities to help share the regulatory costs
involved (see Box 2).
We do not know the number of initial trans-
formation events required to obtain the num-
ber of events in Figure 4. However, it is not
known whether 44 events in confined testing,
spread over many crops, traits and countries,
will be sufficient for selecting superior GM
material, to increase seed production and
satisfy food safety needs. Figure 5 shows the
breakdown of these events by phenotypes,
making the diversity of approaches very clear.
Implications of the numbers and phenotypes
finishing confined testing need further analy-
sis, as confirmation is possible following on the
2004 harvests and test results.
Research collaborations
Study participants collected information on the
type of collaboration developed (if any) and
plans for dissemination of research outputs.
Questions included the number of institutions
involved, the type of collaboration developed
and whether any plans exist for dissemination
of the GM seed or planting material. Some
research institutes sought partnerships to
complete development of GM research prod-
ucts and to move research through regulation
and onto public or private producers. Despite
expectations of benefits to the public sector,
few partnerships were developed, including
those with the private sector7.
On the basis of the data, partnerships appear
to be less common events (80 transformation
events, representing only 40% of the total).
Figure 3 Source of genetic resources.
Figure 4 Number of publicly derived
transformation events (in GM crops) classified by
regulatory stage and region.
Foreign private 1%
Foreign public 3%
Local private 4%
All others 7%
Local public 85%
Latin AmericaAsiaAfrica
field trial
No. of events
Box 2 Investing in development rather than research alone
To date, most investment in biotech has been made for research infrastructure,
collaboration and scientific capacity building without forseeing the need to provide for
meeting regulatory requirements, especially as biosafety funds would then be diverted
from research4. Study participants discussed the costs and regulatory requirements for
developing GM products with a view to establishing efficiencies, sharing information
and material so that public institutes can better comply with regulatory requirements
and better manage their costs.
At the Next Harvest conference held in The Hague, Netherlands, 2002, Maria Jose
Sampaio, Intellectual Property Secretariat for Embrapa, presented data from Brazil
on the cost of compliance for the regulatory approval of a single transformation event,
including initial greenhouse and field screening, field testing for environmental impact
and food safety. The cost of compliance per event varied from $700,000 in virus-
resistant papaya, to $4 million for herbicide-resistant soybeans. The higher cost per
event for herbicide-resistant soybeans is mainly due to the requirement for complete
animal studies2. Benjamin Odhiambo, plant pathologist at Kenya’s Agricultural
Research Institute (KARI), presented data for insect-resistant maize in Kenya. The cost
for completing initial regulatory information for the maize event is $160,000, of which
the major component is the cost of testing in contained structures2. However, these
figures are now being revised.
According to Ana Sittenfeld, senior scientist, at Costa Rica’s Center for Research in
Cell and Molecular Biology at the Univeristy of Costa Rica (San Jose), the cost for regu-
latory compliance (including field trials but not technology development and molecular
characterization) for virus-resistant rice in Costa Rica was $2.25 million2. These initial
estimates are for the state of knowledge and the current biosafety regulatory system in
the respective country at the time of the conference. To understand these matters more
fully, a more intensive research study is required.
Single, public R&D institutions, working with-
out any form of collaboration, conducted the
largest proportion (60%) of research (Table 3).
Of the 80 transformation events created
through partnerships, the majority (48 events)
involved public-public collaboration, most
often between public research institutions in
the same country.
Public-private collaborations were respon-
sible for 21 GM crop events (10%), including a
number from African countries (Egypt, Kenya
and South Africa). The international private
sector is involved in the majority of these cases,
local seed companies playing a minor role.
Advancement and dissemination
Participating countries were asked to share
preliminary plans as to how GM crops will
be disseminated to farmers. Results from the
study indicate that in general, such plans have
not been established—44% of the scientists
indicated they do not yet have suitable seed
distribution mechanisms to reach farmers.
Another 23% said that they would rely on pub-
lic sector methods of dissemination, involving
the national agricultural research institutes, or
universities (Figure 6). Private sector partner-
ships were being contemplated for 7% of the
cases. Preliminary plans for advancement of
the remaining GM plants were not available
by the end of the study.
Lack of collaborative and partnership
arrangements reflect the paucity of options
available for the developing countries8. The
partnerships reported do not include time
needed for acceptance, to engage farmers from
early to final stages, and to meet appropriate
seed or plant material suppliers.
Quality of life and enhancing food
Public research included in this study targets
research that could enhance quality of life
in agricultural communities and includes
research on many basic food staples of impor-
tance to local economies. Some of the GM
crops reported could yield several quality of
life improvements (see Table 4):
Reduction in the use of conventional pesti-
cides, which has quantifiable environmen-
tal and human health benefits, as well as a
reduction in application costs per acre. Of
the transformation events reported in our
study, 35 confer insect-resistant traits to
crops, reflecting the perceived importance
of pests on regional economies.
Reduction in the use of other agrochemicals
widely used to fight virus, fungus or other
diseases. Eighty-four transformation events
target this area, which if brought to the
market successfully, should have an effect in
reducing costs and increasing production.
Improved abiotic stress crop tolerance,
such as drought and salinity that place
limitations on poor farmers located in less
favored regions. Of the 201 events, 11 are
being developed in this promising area.
Better product quality, such as prolonged
shelf life or enhanced product characteristics
(foods delivering alternative carbohydrate or
fat composition) that would improve trans-
portation and consumer appeal of crops.
Of 15 transformation events being devel-
oped for product qualities, 5 are in the area
of nutritional enhancement and 6 are to
prolong shelf life. The other 4 are for prod-
uct characteristics, such as increased sucrose.
There are also major public initiatives,
such as HarvestPlus, that seeks to reduce
micronutrient malnutrition to breed nutri-
ent-dense staple foods (http://www.harvest-
Alternative and more efficient provision of
essential vitamins and vaccines. Nine trans-
formation events are being developed for
plant-based vaccine deployment.
Traits that increase crop yield would also
be expected to have spillover effects in local
economies through generation of direct and
indirect employment and increase in personal
income and food security. Many of the traits
and genes identified have this potential, espe-
cially those for insect resistance, virus resis-
tance, fungal resistance, herbicide tolerance,
bacterial resistance and agronomic properties.
However, this can be determined only in field
trials, as yield reduction can occur from the
introduction of genes, through either conven-
tional or GM technologies.
Crops and traits identified in this study indi-
cate the potential impact and importance of
transgenic products to agriculture in develop-
ing countries. In addition, as we know from
Table 3 Partnerships sorted by institutions and by total number of transformation
events created at each institution
Continent Country
Institutions Eventsa
Number With partners Total With partners
Africa Egypt 1 1 17 12
Kenya 1 1 4 4
Zimbabwe 4 3 5 3
South Africa 5 2 28 7
Asia Malaysia 2 1 5 3
Pakistan 3 3 5 5
Philippines 3 3 17 17
Thailand 3 2 7 6
Indonesia 6 2 24 5
China 9 1 30 1
India 14 121 1
Latin America Mexico 1 0 3 0
Brazil 2 2 9 7
Costa Rica 3 3 5 5
Argentina 4 3 21 4
Total 61 28 201 80
aAn event is defined as the stable transformation—incorporation of foreign DNA into a living plant cell—undertaken by a
single institute among the participating countries, thereby providing a unique crop and trait combination.
Figure 5 Phenotypic characterization of all
44 field trials. AP, agronomic properties; BR,
bacterial resistance; FR, fungal resistance; HT,
herbicide tolerance; IR, insect resistance; OO,
Other; PQ, product quality; VR, virus resistance.
BR 2%
OO 5%
PQ 5%
FR 7%
P 9%
HT 12%
IR 26%
VR 32%
their use in rich and developing countries,
many of the GM crop events reported here
have a history of food and environmental
safety9. Approximately 76% of the events hav-
ing a direct relation to quality-of-life traits,
establishing their importance to agricultural
development (Table 4).
Conclusions—getting to specifics
This study finds the public sector to be a com-
petent, but largely unproven, player for GM
crop production in developing countries.
Whether national policies in these countries
stimulate or deter research and technology for
publicly developed GM crops is unclear; the
official approval of a publicly reported trans-
formation event for insect-resistant cotton in
China appears an isolated occurrence.
All in all, this study surveyed GM crop
research conducted at 61 public research
institutes in 15 developing economies. These
institutes have demonstrated transformation
capabilities across 45 plants, within eight cat-
egories of different transgenic phenotypes, and
the ability to use such genes when transform-
ing local genetic resources.
As scientific capabilities and the number of
research institutes increase, so will the diver-
sity of crops and phenotypes. Greater attention
is needed, however, for specific events where
resources and knowledge are lacking to com-
plete efficacy and safety testing. Otherwise,
GM crops will remain in preliminary test-
ing. Indeed, on the basis of this study’s data,
we estimate that approximately 22% of the
201 transformation events created in public
research programs remain in confined testing
(Fig. 4).
In contrast to achievements in R&D, most
developing countries have only limited expe-
rience in compiling regulatory data; in fact, it
has become difficult to complete all regulatory
requirements. Although many research trends
in this report are positive, few transformed
crops have been released from confined into
precommercial testing or into use.
This can be attributed to several factors: first,
the overall isolation of public research insti-
tutes; second, the inability of public research
to meet food safety and environmental regu-
latory requirements and confusion regarding
regulatory standards between confined versus
open trials; third, lack of regional abilities
to exchange and evaluate regulatory data on
specific transgenes and crops; fourth, exper-
tise with public genetic resources but few
opportunities to use or evaluate proprietary
germ plasm; fifth, difficulties in planning for
advancement of specific products; sixth, lim-
ited progress in determining authorities and
frameworks for science-based decision mak-
ing; seventh, implementing processes arising
from the international level (e.g., the Cartagena
Protocol for Biosafety1,10) as well as at the
regional level (e.g., special needs confronting
Africa11); and eight, external political barriers
that either halt regulatory review (e.g., mora-
toriums in Thailand)12,13 or have implications
for world trade (e.g., impasse over GM crops
between the United States and Europe14,15).
Policy, research and regulatory options are
needed to expedite regulatory decisions and
testing of public GM crops15,16. The sooner
such evaluations occur, the faster GM crops
unsuitable for field application can be dis-
carded and successful GM crops moved for-
ward, thus saving public funds and minimizing
opportunity costs. This report facilitates mak-
ing specific recommendations by scientists,
policy makers, regulators and other stakehold-
ers striving to evaluate and foster development
of publicly derived GM plants.
Fully exploit genetic resources. Using agro-
nomically productive genetic resources for
transformation, and not just for ease of regen-
eration, will expedite public research. This
study reveals that access to proprietary genetic
resources in developing countries is extremely
limited; only 6% of all transformation events
used private material.
Does the high percentage of local trans-
formed material mean reliance or dependence
on public genetic resources or a deliberate
independence from protected varieties or com-
mercial germ plasm? This question is not easy
to answer, as both choices present benefits and
costs, and different opportunities to the research
institute. The ability to transform local, widely
used public or indigenous genetic resources
provides the potential for greater public and
farmer acceptance. Using high-performance
GM public germ plasm means that farmers will
not be prevented from saving seeds, nor will
they potentially be under monopoly pricing of
seeds. However, some private companies have
promised free rights to their genes in specific
crops, such as sweet potato and the rice genome
for public research.
Ensure research serves the public good.
Examination of potential benefits and genetic
All other 4%
Research discontinued 4%
Private sector
partnership 7%
IP audit dependent 8%
Biosafety and/or agronomic
research required 10%
Public sector mechanisms 23%
Not yet determined
Table 4 Transformation events created at public research institutions related to
quality-of-life categories
Trait No. of eventsa
Insect resistance 35
Lepidoptera 35
Disease resistance 82
Bacteria 8
Fungi 21
Viruses 53
Abiotic stress tolerance 11
Drought 7
Salinity 4
Quality improvement 15
Nutritional and other 9
Enhancing shelf-life 6
Other 9
Vaccines 9
Total in this table 152
Total number of reported events 201
Percentage of all events related to
quality-of-life traits 75.6%
Figure 6 Projected dissemination plans for final
research transformation events (in GM crops).
resources will determine if local resources or
adapted genes need IP protection. Benefit dis-
tribution, accounting for the success in trans-
forming local genetic resources, can form the
basis for agreements between public institutes,
farmer organizations and commercial produc-
ers18. Agreements can establish ownership
among providers of transgenes (and the cost
of their research) by equalizing investments
with time and innovation provided by develop-
ing countries creating combinations of genes
in localized crops or genetic resources19. Such
decisions on ownership are made carefully to
ensure an equitable arrangement between poor
country institutions20 and those supplying new
technologies. Our data offer many examples
where further investigation into ownership
would be of benefit, as abilities grow for incor-
porating privately developed genes into crops
of local value.
Local and multinational companies could
play a key role for specific local GM crops,
given their experience in commercial devel-
opment and regulatory information, includ-
ing environmental and food safety studies.
However, examples of successful public-private
partnerships in plant biotech are still rare, even
at international research centers21.
Creating efficiencies and competencies.
Although limited collaboration does occur
between developing countries and Western
companies (Tabl e 3 ), the study reveals that
developing countries did not forge a single
(‘South-to-South’) collaboration among
themselves. Contacts with other countries of
economic parity would create efficiencies by
sharing knowledge on specific crops, traits and
regulatory dossiers. For example, by using data
on genes and phenotypes under study (Ta b l e
2), countries could meet and assemble data
and experience on specific genes and their
constructs, making collected and relevant
information available to their respective regu-
lators. Scientists and regulators from develop-
ing countries can also meet to discuss specific
crops, where common transformation events
are occurring.
Working from either specific crops or traits,
joint studies can also highlight partnership
models (or the lack of them) and address needs
best suited for such collaboration. The same
type of consultation can occur by examining
crops at a particular stage in their regulation
(Fig. 4), their required safety information and
results from efficacy and safety trials. Such
knowledge is valuable when selecting trans-
genes, considering regulatory requirements
and determining which genetic resources are
available or needed.
The bottom line. Although some commer-
cially developed GM products have a role to
play, GM crops developed by public research
institutes should be most relevant to local
needs in poor countries. Paradoxically, because
they are novel, locally developed products pose
unique challenges for institutes seeking regula-
tory approval, and gaining approval can be one
of the biggest obstacles facing public GM crops
in developing nations. In contrast, commercial
GM crops preapproved in Western markets are
more successful in gaining approvals in devel-
oping countries.
Demand for GM products by local farmers
combined with the established regulatory and
production track record of Western products
sets the stage for interest in using GM crops in
developing nations. This implies farmers may
take advantage of options to grow locally unap-
proved Western products, thus avoiding licens-
ing costs and IP issues. At the same time, locally
produced GM crops remain in development
and do not reach the same farmers, meaning
their impact is yet to be seen.
The author acknowledges contributions to this
paper from P. Zambrano of IFPRI, and all those
participating in the initial Next Harvest study.
Special thanks to the National Agricultural
Biotechnology Council Meeting 16, where this
data and ideas were initially presented, and for the
support of Alan Wildeman. Financial and technical
support from The Netherlands DGIS in The Hague,
The Netherlands, the Swiss Agency for Development
Cooperation (Bern) and the United Kingdom’s
Department for Internal Development (London).
1. De Greef, W. The Cartagena Protocol and the future of
agbiotech. Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 811–812 (2004).
2. Atanassov, A. et al. To Reach The Poor. Results from
the ISNAR-IFPRI Next Harvest Study on Genetically
Modified Crops, Public Research, and Policy Implica-
tions. EPTD Discussion Paper 116. (International Food
Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2004).
3. Asian Development Bank. Agricultural Biotechnol-
ogy, Poverty Reduction, and Food Security. A Working
Paper. (Asian Development Bank, Manila, the Philip-
pines, 2001).
4. Cohen, J.I. Harnessing biotechnology for the poor:
challenges ahead for capacity, safety, and public
investment. J. Human Dev. 2, 239–264 (2001).
5. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Har-
nessing Technologies for Sustainable Development.
(United Nations Economic Commission for Africa,
Addis Ababa, 2002).
6. Josling, T., Roberts, D. & Orden, D. Food Regulation
and Trade. Towards A Safe and Open Global System.
(Institute for International Economics, Washington,
DC, USA, 2004).
7. Kameri-Mbote, P., Wafula, D. & Clark, N. Public/Private
Partnerships for Biotechnology in Africa. ACTS/Bio-
Earn Occasional Paper. (African Center for Technology
Studies, Nairobi, Kenya, 2001).
8. Hall, A. et al. Public-private sector interaction in the
Indian agricultural research system: an innovation sys-
tems perspective on institutional reform. in Agricul-
tural Research in an Era of Privatization (eds. Byerlee,
D. & Echeverria, R.G.) 155–176 (CABI International,
Wallingford, UK, 2002).
9. Food and Agricultural Organization. State of Food and
Agriculture (SOFA). Report for 2004. (FAO, Rome,
10. Watanabe, K.N., Taeb, M. & Okusu, H. Putting Carta-
gena into practice. Nat. Biotechnol 22, 1207–1208
11. Mugoya, C. & Bananuka, J.A. (eds). Resource Book for
Implementation of Biosafety in East Africa (Bio-EARN,
Kampala, Uganda, 2004).
12. Wong-Anan, N. Thais lift ban on GMO planting, will
regulate trials. USA Today August 23, 2004.
13. Puttajanyawong, T. Thai cabinet overturns GMO
approval. Reuters. 2004-08-31 (2004).
14. Phillips, P.W.B. Policy, national regulation and inter-
national standards for GM foods. in Biotechnology and
Genetic Resources (eds. Pardey, P. & Koo, B.). Brief 1,
1–5 (IFPRI, Washington, DC, USA, 2003).
15. Cohen, J.I. & Paarlberg, R. Unlocking crop biotechnol-
ogy in developing countries—a report from the field.
World Development 32, 1563–1577 (2004).
16. Swaminathan, M.S. Report of the Task Force on the
Application of Biotechnology In Agriculture (Govern-
ment of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Krishi Bhawan.
New Delhi, India, 2004)
17. Abdallah, R. & Bamwenda, G.R. (eds.) Initiating Agri-
cultural Biotechnology in Tanzania (Tropical Pesticides
Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania, 2004). http://
18. Mahoney, M.M, V. Henson-Apollonio, and H. Hambly
Odame. 2004. Strategies for management of intel-
lectual property in developing countries and the role
of farmers’ associations. ISNAR Briefing Paper 78.
ISNAR Program, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
19. Goodman, M.M. and M.L. Carson. Myth vs. reality:
corn breeding, exotics, and genetic engineering.
Annual Corn Sorghum Research Conference Proc. 55,
149–172 (2000).
20. Pardey, B. et al. Intellectual property and develop-
ing countries: freedom to operate in agricultural bio-
technology. in Biotechnology and Genetic Resources
(eds. Pardey, P. & Koo, B.) 1–6 (Washington, DC, USA,
21. Spielman, D. & Von Grebmer, K. Public-Private Part-
nerships in Agricultural Research: an Analysis of Chal-
lenges Facing Industry and the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research EPTD Discussion
Paper No.11. (International Food Policy Research
Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2004).
22. FAO-BioDeC. Database on Biotechnology in Developing
Countries (2003).
23. FAO STAT Item Codes.
... When anti-GMO efforts fade in time, as is happening now with GM crops in Africa (Cohen 2005;Morse et al. 2004), it is due partly to lack of any side-effects found for application of new technologies. It is very difficult to maintain an argument against something new when evidence accumulates suggesting a lack of deleterious effect. ...
In this chapter, we acknowledge the slow development of modern biotechnology in Ecuador. Some research projects have used molecular tools mainly to study the genetic diversity of several plant and animal species of importance for conservation or agriculture. To our knowledge, there could be a few cases, or none at all, in which the use of modern biotechnology is applied for industrial purposes. In this context, we describe an example of a research project related to the genetic transformation of bananas, an important agricultural crop for the country. The current regulations related to this subject are analyzed, and the lack of a National Biosafety Framework that ensures the development and proper use of these technologies in Ecuador is highlighted. The lack of political decision and the correct understanding of modern biotechnology and its implications for various sectors of society represent the greatest challenges that Ecuador has to face in order to be able to handle this issue adequately, promote the development of this type of biotechnology, and preserve the country’s biodiversity.
... A number of developing countries have made this decision already and have invested in R&D and technology transfer efforts to develop technologies that address crops and traits of strategic interest. 20 This decision is hopefully informed with factual information on likely and actual impacts from biotechnology adoption and use. 21 Furthermore, developing countries need to realize that excessively precautionary approaches to biosafety regulations will have an adverse impact on the flow of potentially valuable biotechnologies reaching farmers' hands. ...
Full-text available
Estimating the cost of compliance with biosafety regulations is important as it helps developers focus their investments in producer development. We provide estimates for the cost of compliance for a set of technologies in Indonesia, the Philippines and other countries. These costs vary from US $100,000 to 1.7 million. These are estimates of regulatory costs and do not include product development or deployment costs. Cost estimates need to be compared with potential gains when the technology is introduced in these countries and the gains in knowledge accumulate during the biosafety assessment process. Although the cost of compliance is important, time delays and uncertainty are even more important and may have an adverse impact on innovations reaching farmers.
... For example, the Asian Vegetable Research Development Center (AVRDC) recommends certain eggplant rootstock if flooding or waterlogged soils are anticipated, and a tomato rootstock if these conditions are not expected and when management of Fusarium wilt (FW) and bacterial wilt (BW) are required (Black et al., 2003). Similarly, specific rootstocks may prove beneficial only under certain environmental conditions or seasons (Cohen, 2005;Palada and Wu, 2008). Therefore, fungicides and pesticides application may also be greatly reduced or totally excluded depending upon the diseases, thereby reducing economic and environmental costs. ...
... However, this technology is mainly applied by northern firms that are not economically interested in pharmaceutical production for diseases present in LDCs. In Africa, most countries that are involved in biotech activities are still at the level of tissue culture applications and they are generally limited to genetic engineering [165,166]. Some production of therapeutics through genetic engineering has been reported in Tunisia [167,168]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Developing African countries face health problems that they struggle to solve. The major causes of this situation are high therapeutic and logistical costs. Plant-made therapeutics are easy to produce due to the lack of the safety considerations associated with traditional fermenter-based expression platforms, such as mammalian cells. Plant biosystems are easy to scale up and inexpensive, and they do not require refrigeration or a sophisticated medical infrastructure. These advantages provide an opportunity for plant-made pharmaceuticals to counteract diseases for which medicines were previously inaccessible to people in countries with few resources. Main body: The techniques needed for plant-based therapeutic production are currently available. Viral expression vectors based on plant viruses have greatly enhanced plant-made therapeutic production and have been exploited to produce a variety of proteins of industrial, pharmaceutical and agribusiness interest. Some neglected tropical diseases occurring exclusively in the developing world have found solutions through plant bioreactor technology. Plant viral expression vectors have been reported in the production of therapeutics against these diseases occurring exclusively in the third world, and some virus-derived antigens produced in plants exhibit appropriate antigenicity and immunogenicity. However, all advances in the use of plants as bioreactors have been made by companies in Europe and America. The developing world is still far from acquiring this technology, although plant viral expression vectors may provide crucial help to overcome neglected diseases. Conclusion: Today, interest in these tools is rising, and viral amplicons made in and for Africa are in progress. This review describes the biotechnological advances in the field of plant bioreactors, highlights factors restricting access to this technology by those who need it most and proposes a solution to overcome these limitations.
... Publicsector projects were responsible for more than 20 per cent of all transgenic crop field trials in the period 2004-08, with a greater emphasis than the private sector on second-generation agronomic traits and on less commercially important crops. 429 Chapter 7 offers several examples of transgenic crop R&D carried out by public sector institutions and/or PPPs. ...
Full-text available
This review was originally prepared in 2012 as a background paper, but never published. I was asked to gather and review a broad range of academic research and grey literature on the status and impacts of transgenic crops and other agricultural biotechnologies worldwide, with special attention to the ‘developing world’. While the work was under way, I was asked to include some information about transgenic fish and about alternative agroecological approaches to agricultural improvement. Although the contents of the document are now out of date, the large body of literature and materials gathered and reviewed here may still be useful to others. I am therefore publishing the document online, so that it may be freely available to readers around the world.
... India set up a National Biotechnology Board in 1982 which eventually led to the formation of the Department of Biotechnology under the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in [12] reported that India also had the largest (private and public sectors combined) biotechnology research program in the developing world. At present, biotech research in India is focused on GM maize (corn), chickpea, mustard, rice, okra, potatoes, brinjal, cotton, and many other crops. ...
Objectives: We identify various interest groups involved in the GM policy debate surrounding Bt brinjal in India, examine their interactions and interconnectedness, and quantify their role in the debate. Methods/Statistical analysis: We use content analysis to review media coverage of the Bt brinjal debate in India and abroad, followed by a modified social network analysis (SNA) to identify the interconnectedness betweenthese interest groups (actors) and quantify their role in the policy debate. Findings: Although past literature provided comprehensive accounts of the events surrounding the biotech policy formation process in India, they lacked any complementary quantitative criteria to test such narratives.For instance, they have not quantitatively measured the importance of various interest groups in these debates.Using the Bt brinjal case in India, we identified several interest groups that were involved in the GM crop debate in India and quantified their interactions with each other and the government in the debate that shaped public policy. This exercise allows us to quantitatively confirm some of the existing findings and bring forward new ones. We find that anti-GM civil society interest groups played a more important role Bt brinjal policy debate compared to pro-GM industry groups. Additionally, unlike the Bt cotton debate where cotton farmers actively supported the technology, vegetable farmers were not active in the Bt brinjal debate and we provide some explanations. The science community's divided opinion on Bt brinjal also likely played a role in government's decision to put a moratorium. Application/Improvements: This study shows the value of using content analysis and SNA in public policy research. Keywords: Interest groups, GM crops, India, SNA.
... Strong partnerships between technology providers and technology users are seen as an important driver in accelerating genetic engineering technology deployment and knowledge spillover in developing countries (Cohen, 2005). This is evidenced by the involvement of international research partners including QUT and Cornell University, who provided technical advice and training to researchers and science students from the regions that intended to employ the technology for improvement of banana (Mbabazi, 2015;Shotkoski, Tripathi, Kiggundu, Arinaitwe, & Tushemereirwe, 2010 ...
Since the first two successful transformation events in banana were reported in 1995, considerable effort has been invested to develop new cultivars with improved tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and with enhanced nutrient levels, primarily using Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation and particle bombardment. In addition to many promising laboratory‐based studies, several genetically engineered banana cultivars have been trialled in the field. However, the deployment of genetically engineered varieties of bananas lags behind that of other major crops and there has been no commercial plantation. This article provides a review of advances in the genetic engineering of banana with an overview of noteworthy developments in several programmes that are being conducted worldwide. We identify the main challenges to translating the full potential of genetically engineered bananas for human consumption as the intellectual property issues surrounding the technology, public perceptions towards the adoption of the transformed bananas as well as various regulatory hurdles that hold the technology development from moving forward.
... In Switzerland, for example, environmental organisations and small scale farmers (who are located especially in mountains) have enforced a moratorium of genetically modified (GM) organisms until 2021. Con- versely, several HKH countries see plant and animal GM organisms as powerful tools that hold the promise of improving the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of farm systems, including those in poor districts ( Adhikari et al. 2006;Cohen 2005;Delmer 2005). ...
Full-text available
Key Findings 1. Looming challenges characterize the HKH as environmental, sociocultural, and economic changes are dynamically impacting livelihoods, environmental conditions, and ultimately sustain- ability. Many challenges for sustainability are related to weak governance, natural resource overexploitation, environmental degradation, certain aspects of unregulated or rapid urbanization, and loss of traditional culture. Addressing these problems will require policy and action at local, national, and international levels, including common action among HKH states. 2. However, for mountain societies of the HKH, some changes may also bring novel opportunities for sustainable development. A range of opportunities lie in improved connectivity including transportation and communication, which increases access to information, partnerships, and markets. Enhanced access to social services may be enabled and strengthened by economic growth and the advancement of science and technology. Additionally, a growing network of local urban centres may support the transmission of new prosperity to rural populations, as the development of mountain towns and cities often can help—besides their mere economic power—to enhance the political influence of these regions within the national states. 3. The drivers of change to environmental, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability in the HKH are interactive, inextricably linked, and increasingly influenced by regional and global developments. Among the most important drivers in this intricate network of causes and effects are demographic changes and current governance systems, as well as land use and land cover change, over-exploitation of natural resources, economic growth and differentiation, and climate change. Corresponding Author Ning Wu, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal; and Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China, e-mail: Review Editor: Marc Foggin
For many years we knew little about microbes because there was no reliable method to identify them. Advances in molecular genetics changed all that. With modern DNA methods, any life form can be identified. Recent studies have also begun to reveal how critically important microbes are to insect biology. The laboratory of Takema Fukatsu in Japan reported the astonishing result, that if you swap the gut microbes of two closely related stink bugs, the insects switch host plants. Genetic transformation has revolutionized plant breeding. It is now possible to apply that approach to insects in improving the ecologically friendly sterile insect technique. It is fair to say the world is having difficulty accepting these new genetic methods. Interdisciplinary studies are a powerful source of innovation.
Full-text available
The present chapter is focused on the evolution of the insect’s resistance against Bt crops and describes the most appropriate approach in order to cope with this serious issue. Different techniques have been used in the past to manage insect evolution against Bt crops. Among them, gene pyramiding, or stacked combinations of different genes in a single crop with their ability to target the same insect pest species, is proven to be a very powerful and effective tool in managing insect resistance problem. The principle goal of gene pyramiding approach is to develop transgenic plants with extra resistance against pests and to enhance crop yield. To obtain transgenic crops with durable and broad-spectrum resistance against insect pests and diseases, the pyramiding of predominant genes (multigene strategy) implying a unique mode of action is a powerful strategy. Gene pyramiding is a useful technique in controlling different insect species as compared to transgenic variety comprising of single toxin trait. Many studies have shown that gene pyramiding is advantageous in controlling different insect species in a single Bt crop, but due to continuous pressure on insect pests, there are chances that the herbivore may evolve resistance. Therefore, reliance only on gene pyramiding strategies is not a complete solution to Bt resistance. It is, therefore, necessary that different combinations of strategies like RNAi with gene pyramiding techniques will be required in the near future that will not only shield our crop against insect pest damages but also reduce reliance on heavy insecticide usage in crops.
Full-text available
This chapter explains the difficulties encountered in developing more extensive and intimate patterns of public-private sector interaction in the Indian agricultural research system, and draws implications for reform. An innovation systems framework is used to explore this problem from a wider institutional systems perspective. Using this framework, the chapter describes factors that have shaped the relationship between the public and private sectors. Detailed case studies are then used to illustrate the limits to progress and prospects for public-private sector interaction.
Full-text available
he introduction of biotechnology into the agri-food world in the 1990s complicated an already difficult regulatory and trade system. At one level, biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) foods increase the potential for trade and the need for a fully functioning international trading system. At another level, the products of this new technology have precipitated a large and diffi- cult debate about the structure and effectiveness of national food safety regulations and the appropriate role for international institutions. A number of national and interna- tional efforts are underway to manage these pressures, but prospects for early resolution are not great.
Full-text available
n agricultural biotechnology, the key technologies protected as intellectual proper- ty are highly concentrated in the hands of a small number of large, multinational corporations based in North America and Western Europe ("the North"). Although many developing countries ("the South") lack the capacity to adopt these technologies, a system of international and national agricultural research centers has used them to make genetic improvements benefiting the vast majority of poor con- sumers. Concern is arising in the worldwide agricultural research community that the very intellectual property rights (IPRs) that have been associated with the surge of pri- vate research in biotechnology now threaten to block access to new developments to public and nonprofit researchers. This concern about current developing-country access to essential intellectual property is exaggerated and largely misdirected. The relationship between IPRs and agricultural research in developing countries is poorly understood. International and national agricultural research centers currently have far greater free- dom to operate—the ability to practice or use an innovation—in agricultural research on food crops for the developing world than is commonly perceived.
Full-text available
This monograph is concerned with the role of public/private sector partnerships in the development of African biotechnology. Its basic message is that since the role of such partnerships is becoming increasingly common in the Northern industrialized countries, it seems sensible to consider similar possibilities in countries at an earlier stage of economic development. Arguably, the need is especially pressing in technology development since it is technological change that will drive such countries forward in the coming decades. And of course biotechnology is crucial in this respect simply because its generic status has implications for economic production in sectors as widely dispersed as agriculture, health, industry and the environment.
Full-text available
Disputes continue to flare over acceptable safety standards for biotechnology products, and the potential for these technologies to address agricultural needs. Benefits have been documented for a limited number of genetically modified (GM) crops, however, official permission to plant GM seeds in developing countries has not been granted in most countries. Six country studies examined regulatory decision-making, efficiencies, and bottlenecks for GM crops. Building on these, a Conceptual Framework is proposed for implementing biosafety. The paper then highlights political, trade, and market issues external to the Framework, and concludes with recommendations to help unlock GM safety approvals.
Full-text available
Nature Biotechnology journal featuring biotechnology articles and science research papers of commercial interest in pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental sciences.
Guarding the safety of a nation's food supply, ensuring quality, and providing information to consumers so that they can make informed food purchase choices are widely accepted as universal obligations of governments. But differences in the way that governments fulfill these obligations can lead to trade conflicts. The potential for such conflicts increases as more affluent and safety-conscious consumers demand additional regulations in the national food systems. Governments should handle these conflicts in a way that both upholds food safety standards--and public confidence in them--and preserves the framework for trade and the benefits of an open food system.This book examines the current state of regulation of the increasingly global food system, analyzes the underlying causes of the trade conflicts (both those that are currently evident and those that are waiting in the wings), and outlines the steps that could be taken to ensure that food safety and open trade become, at the least, compatible and, at best, mutually supporting. NOTE: Full book is available from the publisher or on Amazon. A conference presentation synopsis is available on ResearchGate at [accessed Sep 9, 2016].
Nature Biotechnology journal featuring biotechnology articles and science research papers of commercial interest in pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental sciences.