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Abstract

Energy-yielding fluids generally have lower satiety value than solid foods. However, despite high water content, soups reportedly are satiating. The mechanisms contributing to this property have not been identified and were the focus of this study. A within-subject design, preload study was administered to 13 male and 18 female adults (23.7+/-0.9 years old) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.0+/-0.7 kg/m2. At approximately weekly intervals, participants reported to the lab after an overnight fast and completed questionnaires on mood, appetite, psychological state, strength, and fine motor skills. After administration of motor tasks, participants consumed a 300-kcal preload in its entirety within 10 min. The test foods included isocaloric, solid, and liquefied versions of identical foods high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. Single beverage and no-load responses were also tested. The same questionnaires and motor skills tests were completed at 15-min intervals for 1 h and at 30-min intervals for an additional 3 h after loading. Diet records were kept for the balance of the day. The soups led to reductions of hunger and increases of fullness that were comparable to the solid foods. The beverage had the weakest satiety effect. Daily energy intake tended to be lower on days of soup ingestion compared to the solid foods or no-load days and was highest with beverage consumption. Thus, these data support the high satiety value of soups. It is proposed that cognitive factors are likely responsible.

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... In the 1990s, this was achieved by using foods naturally available in different forms, such as whole vegetables and/ or meat versus pureed vegetables and/or meat. The techniques used often included blending a solid food resulting in a pureed texture or other kitchen-based food processing techniques, such as boiling, chopping etc. 17,18 . Initially, for instrumental measurements of those texture generated, Santangelo et al. 19 used a simple 4 mm 2 aperture sieve to clearly define which food was solid and which one was liquid. ...
... A total of 817 participants were included in the qualitative synthesis with age ranging from 18 to 50 years (mean age 24.7 years), with the exception of two studies not reporting the participants' age 18,27 . Ideally, studies should have an equal ratio of men and women, however, in five studies more women were included than men 17,29,[52][53][54] . On the other hand, a number of studies included more men than women 26,55,56 . ...
... Intervention. In 16 studies 17,18,25,50,52,53,[55][56][57][58][61][62][63][64][65][66] , manipulations of food forms that were included consisted of liquid versus solid or liquid versus semi-solid or semi-solid versus solid, and included chunky and pureed food. Food consisted mainly of vegetables, fruit, meat and beverage (fruit juices) and texture was manipulated by blending the food. ...
Article
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Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Development of satiety-enhancing foods is considered as a promising strategy to reduce food intake and promote weight management. Food texture may influence satiety through differences in appetite sensations, gastrointestinal peptide release and food intake, but the degree to which it does remains unclear. Herein, we report the first systematic review and meta-analyses on effects of food texture (form, viscosity, structural complexity) on satiety. Both solid and higher viscous food reduce hunger by − 4.97 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) − 8.13, − 1.80) and − 2.10 mm (95% CI − 4.38, 1.18), respectively compared to liquid and low viscous food. An effect of viscosity on fullness (95% CI 5.20 (2.43, 7.97) and a moderate effect of the form of food (95% CI − 26.19 (− 61.72, − 9.35) on food intake were noted. Due to the large variation among studies, the results should be interpreted cautiously and modestly.
... There are several solid foods that are thought to contribute to weight gain on the very basis that they fail to generate enough satiety (Blundell & Macdiarmid, 1997;Prentice & Jebb, 2003). Likewise, there are some liquids, such as soup, that generate excellent satiety responses (Flood & Rolls, 2007;Himaya & Louis-Sylvestre, 1998;Mattes, 2005). ...
... While these results demonstrate that the expected satiation of energy-containing liquids differs from sensory-matched solid foods, these two studies did not investigate the expected satiation of liquids consumed as beverages. This is an important distinction as consuming a liquid in the context of a 'beverage' versus a 'food' has been shown to impact its satiating effects (e.g., Mattes, 2005). ...
Article
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Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative 'expected satiation' (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p < .05). Further, Experiment 2 showed that this difference was greater in participants who were familiar with our test beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5 - 205.2 kcal; p = .87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Firstly, we chose two product classes: two soups and two beverages. Past research consistently shows that soups in general are expected to be more satiating than are drinks (Himaya and Louis-Sylvestre, 1998;Mattes, 2005), and conversely we predicted that drinks would be predicted to reduce thirst more than would soups. Secondly, we used a more subtle manipulation based on the thickness of the tested products, since thicker texture has previously been shown to moderate expectations of satiety and thirst (McCrickerd et al., 2012;Chambers et al., 2015). ...
... The clear differences in all expectation measures between soups and drinks, and thicker and thinner versions, suggests that our measure was sensitive and are in line with the broader literature pointing to a products' sensory characteristics and consumption context as important cues guiding its expected and experienced satiating power (McCrickerd and Forde, 2016). In particular, previous studies have suggested that the same products consumed in different contexts (e.g., 'drink' vs. 'food, ' or 'meal' vs. 'snack') can differentially impact appetite (Mattes, 2005;Capaldi et al., 2006;McCrickerd et al., 2014), whereas equicaloric foods and beverages are often expected to be more satiating when they are presented with thicker, more viscous or harder and chewier sensory characteristics (Forde et al., , 2017. We chose to use ratings of expected satiety rather than the more psychophysical measures widely used by Brunstrom and colleagues (see Brunstrom, 2011) since in a recent study where we included both rating and psychophysical measures of expected satiety (based on matching visual images of different portion sizes on equivalent expected effects on appetite), we found evidence that the rating measure adjusted to actual nutrient content with repeated consumption but the psychophysical measure did not , suggesting that ratings may be more sensitive to subtle state manipulations when making judgments of tasted food products. ...
Article
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Prior research has shown that consumers have clear and measurable expectations about the likely effects of food and drink items on their appetite and thirst, which are acquired with experience and influenced by a product’s taste and texture. What is unclear is whether expression of these expectations also varies with current appetitive state. It is possible that current appetite could increase or decrease the relevance of these expectations for future food choice and magnify a product’s expected impact on appetite. To test this, we contrasted expectations about satiety and thirst for four products consumed 2 h after an appetite manipulation at breakfast, achieved through ad libitum access to low-energy drinks only (hunger condition), cereal only but no drinks (thirst condition) or both foods and drinks (sated condition). The test products were two soups and two drinks, with a thicker and thinner version of each product type to act as positive control to ensure sensitivity in detecting differences in expectations. For satiety, the predicted differences between products were seen: soups and thicker products were expected to be more filling and to suppress subsequent hunger more than drinks and thinner products, but these differences were more pronounced in the hunger than thirsty or sated conditions. Being thirsty also enhanced expectations of how much drinks would appease immediate thirst. Overall the data show that expectations were adjusted subtly by a person’s current appetitive state, suggesting that we have mechanisms that highlight the most important features of a product at the time when it may be most beneficial to the consumer.
... Investigations on solid and liquid versions of high-carbohydrate, high-protein, and high-fat foods indicate that ratings of hunger and total energy intake are higher following consumption of the liquid versions of each of these foods, regardless of the energy source tested [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. These findings suggest that oral processing effort/time may contribute to satiety. ...
Article
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The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensations and gut hormone concentrations following walnut consumption (whole or butter). In a randomized, cross-over design with 50 adults (25 males, 25 females; Body Mass Index (BMI) 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m²; age: 18⁻52 years old (y/o), the chewing forces and particle size distribution of chewed nuts were measured under different chewing conditions. Appetite sensations were measured at regular intervals for 3 h after nut intake, and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The three nuts displayed different particle sizes at swallowing though no differences in chewing forces were observed. Walnuts with yogurt yielded larger particle sizes than the other treatments. Particle size was not correlated with either food palatability or flavor. Fullness sensations were higher after whole nut than nut butter consumption though there were no significant changes in glucose, insulin, or GLP-1 concentrations under any condition. Changing the conditions at swallowing might influence the release of energy from nuts.
... Generally, perhaps with the exception of soup, energy-containing liquids are considered to be less satiating than foods, including their near equivalent semi-solid or solid foods (e.g., [1][2][3][4][5]). Furthermore, energy in a liquid has been found to have a greater satiating effect if the product is presented as a filling snack rather than as a thirst-quenching drink [6], and quite small differences in the oro-sensory properties of energy-containing liquids (e.g., 'creaminess') can apparently have a similar effect [7]. ...
Article
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Energy-containing liquids are claimed to have relatively low satiating power, although energy in liquids is not without effect on appetite. Using the preload test-meal method, effects on fullness and energy intake compensation were compared across four drinks (water, blackcurrant squash, milk and fruit smoothie) and the fresh fruit equivalent of the smoothie. Preload volumes were similar, and the energy value of each preload was 569 kJ, except for water (0 kJ). Healthy, adult participants rated the preloads for liking, enjoyment, satisfaction, familiarity and how ‘food-like’ they seemed. The preload to test-meal interval was 2 min (n = 23) or 2 h (n = 24). The effects of the preloads on fullness varied with food-likeness and the rate at which they were consumed. In contrast, energy intake compensation versus water did not differ between the energy-containing preloads, although it decreased over time (from 82% at 2 min to 12% at 2 h). In conclusion, although fullness increased with food-likeness, subsequent energy intake compensation did not differ for energy/nutrients consumed in drinks compared with a food. The results also support the proposal that food intake is influenced predominantly by the immediate, but rapidly waning, post-ingestive effects of the previous ‘meal’ (rather than by changes in energy balance).
... Such an approach would have the additional benefit of providing a high diversity of vitamins, trace minerals, dietary fibers and many more (yet undefined) compounds. Besides, the consumption of 'whole food products' is superior to liquids (smoothies/juices) in the context of total energy intake, since it leads to higher ratings of satiety [45], which can be explained by the higher fiber content [46], volume and increased chewing [47,48]. When successfully integrated in the lifestyle (i.e., dietary habits), this approach would thus be expected to have most impact on overall (metabolic) health, rendering true nitrate supplementation unnecessary. ...
Article
Increased consumption of dietary nitrate increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and has been shown to elicit cardio-protective effects and improve exercise performance. Nitrate consumption in the habitual diet is mainly dependent on nitrate-rich vegetables, such as green leafy and root vegetables, with total vegetable consumption accounting for approximately 50-85% of our daily nitrate intake. Whereas 'supplementation' with dietary nitrate in research studies has mainly been accomplished through the use of (concentrated) nitrate-rich beetroot juice, dietary strategies focusing on increased intake of nitrate-rich vegetables may represent a similarly effective alternative for increasing dietary nitrate intake and, as such, obtaining the associated cardiovascular health and ergogenic benefits.
... Bien que le rendement énergétique des liquides a généralement un effet satiétogène plus faible que celui des aliments solides, les soupes présentent de fortes propriétés rassasiantes (Mattes, 2005). Il a également été montré que les stimulations orosensorielles produites par certains nutriments, notamment les glucides et les lipides ajoutés dans les soupes, jouaient un rôle important dans la régulation de l'appétit (Cecil, Francis, & Read, 1999). ...
Thesis
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Au cours de ces dernières années, plusieurs méthodes d’évaluation sensorielle dites « rapides » ont été développées dans le but de recueillir une caractérisation sensorielle d’un produit directement auprès du consommateur. Cette thèse s’inscrit dans cette mouvance en proposant la méthode des Déterminants Temporels du Liking (DTL) qui consiste à coupler la Dominance Temporelle des Sensations (DTS) à un suivi temporel de l’appréciation hédonique. Cette méthode permet d’identifier les déterminants sensoriels des préférences des consommateurs, et surtout dans quelles mesures leur temporalité impacte la dynamique de ces préférences. La méthode introduit le nouveau concept de « Liking While Dominant », consistant à calculer la note moyenne de liking pendant la dominance d’un descripteur dans un produit afin de quantifier son écart à la moyenne du liking de ce produit. La significativité et le signe de cet écart permettent de lister les déterminants sensoriels positifs et négatifs du liking.L’échelle de temporalité étudiée peut aussi bien être la prise (gorgée, bouchée…) que la succession de plusieurs prises du même produit constituant la consommation de tout ou partie de la portion. Dans le second cas, il est possible d’interroger de manière répétée le consommateur sur d’autres aspects que le liking, comme par exemple le wanting, l’état de faim ou de soif… Les déterminants sensoriels temporels de ces autres aspects peuvent alors être étudiés. La méthode DTL a également été déployée hors du laboratoire d’analyse sensorielle afin de se placer en situation naturelle de consommation, par exemple à domicile. Le concept DTL a été adapté à un spectromètre de masse à transfert de proton dans lequel est injectée dynamiquement la fraction aromatique capturée dans la cavité nasale du sujet lors de la mastication d’un aliment. Il est alors possible d’obtenir une dynamique de la perception sensorielle ainsi que les cinétiques de relargage des composés aromatiques ; les secondes devant expliquer la première.
... In older children and adults, fullness ratings are typically obtained through visual analog scales (19)(20)(21)(22). Only 2 tools have been developed for young children (23)(24)(25): one targeted primary school children (ages 5-9 y old) (23) and the other was developed in 20 children aged 4-6 y who were asked to rate feelings of hunger and fullness in response to imaginary eating occasions by using a 5-point scale (24). ...
Article
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Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2). Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y (n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences. Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts (P < 0.007) than during the control breakfast, fullness ratings did not differ (P = 0.76). Relative to the control breakfast, improved diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts (P < 0.027) but not for the HPHF breakfast (aim 2). Conclusions: Post-breakfast fullness ratings were not affected by the intervention breakfasts relative to the control breakfast. HP and HF breakfasts resulted in higher diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224.
... Another elegant study from Mattes (2005) yielded similar results regarding eating rate: the same quantity of apple juice suppressed subsequent hunger to a much lesser extent than the same quantity of apples. However, when the apple juice was consumed as a warm soup, that is, eaten by a spoon, thereby enhancing oro-sensory exposure time, hunger suppression became equivalent to the solid apples. ...
Article
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Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longer-term effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people’s eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.
... By contrast, when the same foods were pureed, mashed, cooked or shredded, there were large differences in eating rate highlighting how food preparation or processing approaches significantly changed the rate of consumption of the same foods ( Figure 2). Some of these differences are in line with previous reports on the impact of food form on eating rate and intake (58), illustrating that different methods of food preparation are likely to have a consistent impact on eating rate across individuals and cultures. Using this approach it may be possible to combine slow and fast meal components and predict the resultant eating rate of the meal, and likely impact on ad-libitum intake. ...
Article
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The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings. Behavioural coding analysis was completed on the recordings to extract total bites, chews and swallows and cumulative time of the food spent in the mouth. From these measurements a series of microstructural properties including average bite size (g), chews per bite, oro-sensory exposure time (seconds) and average eating rate (g min(-1)) were derived per food. The sensory and macronutrient properties of each food were correlated with the microstructure of eating to compare the differences in eating behaviour on a gram for gram basis. There were strong relationships between the perceived food textural properties and its eating behaviours and a food's total water content was the best predictor of its eating rate. Foods that were eaten at a slower eating rate, with smaller bites and more chews per bite were rated as higher in the expected fullness. These relationships are important as oral processing behaviours and beliefs about the potential satiating value of food influence portion decisions and moderate meal size. These data support the idea that naturally occurring differences in the food structure and texture could be used to design meals that slow the rate of eating and maximise fullness.
... However, research supporting the satiety-inducing effects of solid foods is not as conclusive as that for increasing viscosity in fluid and semisolids. Flood and Rolls (2007) and Mattes (2005) reported no differences in hunger ratings or ad libitum intake following consumption of chunky or puréed vegetable soups. These discrepancies may be due to the sample calorie content, timing of food consumption, or the effect of uncontrolled oro-sensory time. ...
Article
Food consumption is determined by a range of factors that contribute to satiation, which ends a meal, and satiety, which determines time between meals. Food structure and texture contribute to satiation and satiety; however, the precise mechanisms are not fully established. The time required for oral processing has been shown to influence satiation/satiety, but the roles of physiological elements of oral processing, such as muscle activity, jaw movement, and tongue movement, remain to be established. Relationships among food structure, texture, oral processing, and satiation/satiety are discussed in reference to designing foods to maximize the contribution of food structure to satiation/satiety.
... This effect is not only apparent in short-term preloads studies, but is also observed in longer-term intervention studies (De Castro 1993;Tordoff and Alleva 1990). Soups seem to be an exception: for example in a study by Mattes (2005) soups led to reductions of hunger and increases of fullness that were comparable to solid foods. The evidence of a weak satiety value of energy-yielding beverages is strongest for clear beverages (Mattes 2006). ...
Chapter
In view of the increasing numbers in overweight and obesity, insight in food intake regulation is necessary. Food intake is regulated by sensory, cognitive, post-ingestive, and post-absorptive processes. Food properties, such as energy density, macronutrient composition, volume, and form, influence the satiating capacity of a food. This chapter focuses on the role of food texture in food intake regulation. Texture is an essential part of the whole spectrum of sensory properties of a food. Several studies showed that liquid foods elicit weaker suppressive appetite responses and a weaker compensatory response in energy intake than solid or semisolid foods. The mechanisms underlying the effect of texture on satiety are not well understood. Beverages might engage thirst mechanisms and not hunger mechanisms. Food properties such as viscosity and texture could affect chewing, oro-gastric handling of foods, and absorption. Other factors that play a role are beliefs about the satiating capacity of a food, sensory specific satiety, eating rate, gastric emptying, and learned associations between texture and metabolic consequences. One of the mechanisms involved could be the oral sensory exposure time. A longer oral exposure time gives the sensory receptors in the oral cavity more time to respond to the food. Liquid calories facilitate energy intake. This knowledge can be useful in both the overweight and underweight situation.
... Infatti, servito come primo piatto, permette di ridurre l'apporto calorico quotidiano (Tab. 8) (Mattes, 2005). Kissileff et al. (1984) hanno dimostrato che una zuppa di pomodoro ha un alto IS rispetto a quello di alcuni alimenti solidi serviti solitamente come antipasto, quali crackers, formaggio o succo di mela. ...
Article
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Soups and broths as corroborating food. Soups are still used as folk remedies for their therapeutic properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective) and as an alternative to modern medicine. The mechanisms underlying these therapeutic effects are not completely known. The two characteristic features of soups that jointly contribute to the definition of “functional soups” are: 1) the Maillard reaction, a chemical reaction between amino-acids and reducing sugars that gives browned foods their desirable flavour and 2) the formation of nanostructures (micelles, liposomes), involved in eliminating the toxicity of herbal formulas. This review explores the consumption of the world’s more known soups, including the Miso soup, Dashi broth, Pepper soup, Smart soup, Gazpacho soup, Tomato soup and Chicken broth, with the description of preparation, nutritional components and experimental and clinical studies, which confirm their health benefits.
... From previous work at NIZO food research (23) and other groups, it is known that the physical structure of a food that is consumed is important for the extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods (Figure 3) (24)(25)(26)(27). This difference in retro-nasal aroma release could be one of the reasons that people are more satiated by a solid food compared to a beverage (30)(31)(32)(33). Additionally, interpersonal differences are important for retronasal aroma release efficiency. ...
Article
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Food industries are looking for new food products that combine liking with limited food intake due to enhanced satiety signals. This should lead to increased feelings of fullness during or in between meal consumption. By developing food products with this added value, the food industry is able to take part of its social responsibility in addressing the obesity problem. Nizo food research is exploring the role of aroma in satiety mechanisms using its state-of-the-art olfactometer to carefully administer aroma stimuli to the consumers under study. By being able to administer aroma profiles separately from other stimuli (such as different ingredients, textures and tastes), Nizo food research has the opportunity to investigate the relative importance of aroma stimuli for satiety.
... Ils ont associé ce pouvoir aux aliments riches en glucides et aux produits amylacés (pain, riz, pomme de terre et pâte), bien que les glucides ne soient pas le macronutriment le plus rassasiant : ils le sont moins que les protéines d'après certaines études (Anderson, Tecimer, Shah, & Zafar, 2004;Fiszman, Varela, Diaz, Linares, & Garrido, 2014). L'association entre la catégorie d'aliments glucidiques et le rassasiement peut sans doute s'expliquer en termes économique : les glucides font partie des aliments rassasiants qui sont accessibles à cette classe de population (Raffensperger, 2008 , 1993;Mattes, 1996), à l'exception des soupes (Mattes, 2005). ...
Article
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This work aims at understanding why a high proportion of Malagasy population suffer frommal nutrition, while Madagascar is rich on natural resources, like Moringa oleifera leaves (MO). The hypothesis is that malnutrition is related not only on poverty but also on food beliefs and behaviour. The studies integrating sociopsychology, food sciences and nutrition were conducted on three phases. First, nutritional and sensory characterizations of MO powder showed variations of protein, fat, amino acids, fatty acids, calcium, magnesium and iron contents and organoleptic proprieties depending on locations. Secondly, a study of food beliefs and practices was performed in two regions in urban and rural zones. It showed that Malagasy food is mostly based on carbohydrates foods and that leafy vegetables are not considered as nutritious. Food attitudes and behaviours were mostly based on sanitary proprieties of food than on the equilibrium of nutrients and the caloric characters. The determinants factors of food choice of the Malagasy population were identified: availability, price, satiating power, habit and preference. Finally, four formulations combining cassava roots and MO were evaluated by school age children: the sweet product with 1.2% of MO was the most accepted and chosen in front of the others containing less MO and not sweet. It is possible to contribute to fight against malnutrition by proposing cheap foods containing MO and by integrating information about MO in nutrition education programs adapted to each target area.
... Calorie for calorie nutritionally similar foods are not necessarily equally satiating. Evidence suggests that this is because the satiating power of a food is dependent not only on the physiological post-ingestive effect of its nutrients but also on the consumer's experience of consumption, which can be modulated by a food's sensory characteristics, for example (Mattes 1996(Mattes , 2005DiMeglio & Mattes 2000;Mourao et al. 2007a;Crum et al. 2011;Cassady et al. 2012;McCrickerd et al. 2014b;Chambers et al. 2015;Yeomans 2015). ...
Article
Growing research suggests that a consumer's experience of satiety is influenced by information present at the time of, or before, food consumption. For example, making small modifications to the sensory characteristics of a high-energy beverage (specifically thickness and creaminess) enhances its impact on subsequent satiety. Previous research has examined these sensory-enhanced satiety effects in the laboratory but not in the ‘real world’. Therefore, the present study, using a cross-over design, compared the effects of ‘real world’ consumption of two high-energy versions of a beverage (sensory-enhanced and unenhanced) and a low-energy control beverage on satiety. Thirty-four volunteers were provided with shelf-stable dry powder mixes for the three test beverages, which varied in energy content and sensory characteristics, to which they added a commercially available juice. The volunteers prepared and consumed each beverage on eight occasions over a 3-week period at home. Controlled satiety testing occurred in the laboratory either side of this exposure period. Focus groups were also conducted to assess consumer attitudes towards ‘enhanced satiety’ products and claims. Results of the satiety study indicate that appetite sensations and subsequent food intake were lower following consumption of the sensory-enhanced high-energy beverage relative to the unenhanced and control versions, and that these effects were maintained following repeated product consumption in the ‘real world’. The focus groups highlighted that consumers are aware of sensory and cognitive influences on satiety, though noted that dieting populations might benefit most from enhanced satiety products. Implications for further research and the role of satiety for consumers and manufacturers are discussed.
... Participants consumed a warm tomato soup for lunch (Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, London, U.K.; 59 kcal per 100 ml). Soup was chosen as a test meal because it is at least as satiating as solid foods [37][38][39]. To manipulate oral processing, we used a technique that has been employed previously to investigate the effects of sip size and eating rate on ad libitum intake [40,41]. ...
Article
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Eating slowly is associated with a lower body mass index. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our objective was to determine whether eating a meal at a slow rate improves episodic memory for the meal and promotes satiety. Participants (N=40) consumed a 400ml portion of tomato soup at either a fast (1.97ml/s) or a slow (0.50ml/s) rate. Appetite ratings were elicited at baseline and at the end of the meal (satiation). Satiety was assessed using; i) an ad libitum biscuit 'taste test' (3h after the meal) and ii) appetite ratings (collected 2h after the meal and after the ad libitum snack). Finally, to evaluate episodic memory for the meal, participants self-served the volume of soup that they believed they had consumed earlier (portion size memory) and completed a rating of memory 'vividness'. Participants who consumed the soup slowly reported a greater increase in fullness, both at the end of the meal and during the inter-meal interval. However, we found little effect of eating rate on subsequent ad libitum snack intake. Importantly, after 3h, participants who ate the soup slowly remembered eating a larger portion. These findings show that eating slowly promotes self-reported satiation and satiety. For the first time, they also suggest that eating rate influences portion size memory. However, eating slowly did not affect ratings of memory vividness and we found little evidence for a relationship between episodic memory and satiety. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that episodic memory mediates effects of eating rate on satiety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... This outcome is fully consistent with results of studies that have directly compared compensation for sugars in beverages with compensation for sugars in semisolid and/or solid foods (63)(64)(65). Therefore, though liquids, with the exception of soup (66), might be perceived as less filling than solids (36), it appears that the effects on short-term energy intake of sugars within beverages versus within foods do not differ. ...
Article
Objective The aim of this study is to review the control of energy balance and outline some causes of and remedies for excessive energy intake. Methods A narrative review was conducted. Results There is negative feedback control of energy intake and body weight, but, nonetheless, energy intake is only loosely coupled with energy expenditure. Consequently, we are vulnerable to eating in excess of energy requirements. In this context, energy density, portion size, and habitual meal patterns have strong influences on energy intake and, accordingly, can be targeted to reduce energy intake. For example, energy density can be reduced without much affecting food reward (approximately the pleasure gained from eating) because their relationship is such that reward value is affected relatively little by increments in energy density above 1.5 kcal/g. This and other strategies that increase reward per calorie eaten may be superior to increasing the satiety effect of products because fullness is not inherently rewarding. Low‐calorie sweeteners provide a means to reduce energy density while largely preserving food or beverage reward value. Consistent with this, consumption of low‐calorie sweeteners compared with consumption of sugars has been found to reduce energy intake and body weight. Conclusions Understanding what causes excessive eating also provides insights into how to combat this problem.
... However, the results concerning food textures other than liquids, resulting in varying orosensory exposure, are somewhat inconsistent (Hogenkamp & Schiöth, 2013). Satiety effect of foods with either solid or heterogeneous texture, assumed to induce high orosensory exposure, or corresponding comminuted texture, assumed to induce low orosensory exposure, have been compared by various groups: Mattes et al. found that there were no differences in satiety responses between solid and semi-solid foods (apple vs. apple soup, peanut vs. peanut soup or chicken vs. chicken soup) (Mattes, 2005) whereas later (Flood-Obbagy & Rolls, 2009) a whole apple was concluded to induce more pronounced satiety than apple sauce and the whole apple also reduced energy intake in the following meal. Martens et al. showed that solid food (steamed chicken breast) resulted in enhanced satiety response compared to liquefied food (blended steamed chicken breast) (Martens, Lemmens, Born, & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2011) whereas Flood and Rolls showed that there was no difference in satiety response whether soup was offered as separate broth and vegetables versus pureed soup (Flood & Rolls, 2007). ...
Thesis
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The current study explored the impact of cereal food structure on digestion and satiety. Food structure is important for acceptability, functionality and health effects. Cereal foods contribute significantly to energy and nutrient intakes in the diets worldwide. The benefits of consuming a diet rich in whole grain and dietary fibre (DF) are evident, and cereal DF complex is most likely behind the beneficial effects. The first part of the study investigated the effect of bread structure on mastication-induced structure disintegration, starch hydrolysis and dissolution of compounds from bread matrices. Despite the structural differences among the studied rye and wheat breads, there were only small differences in mastication processes. However, rye breads disintegrated to smaller particles than wheat bread and starch tended to hydrolyse at a slower rate by salivary α-amylase. A large array of compounds was dissolved from masticated breads to saliva. Specifically, peptides and amino acids were dissolved from rye breads and sugars from wheat bread. The relevance of food structure to satiety was explored in the second part of the study. Among rye products with different structures and similar chemical compositions, portions of wholemeal rye bread or extruded wholemeal rye puffs and juice were more effective than the portion of extruded wholemeal rye flakes and juice to maintain some aspects of satiety. Intense oral processing did not relate to satiety response but perceived pleasantness and satiety expectations did. Less pleasant food portions resulted in enhanced satiety as well as those that were anticipated already prior to ingestion to be satiating. Oat bran added to juice was more effective in maintaining the feelings of satiety and fullness compared to oat bran incorporated in biscuit matrix. The results showed that disintegration of bread structure and the release of compounds differed between bread types already in mastication. The current study was the first to explore the dissolution of compounds from food, namely bread, after mastication using non-targeted metabolomics approach. The significance of the released compounds warrants further research. The study also showed that food structure is of importance for the postprandial satiety responses of high fibre cereal foods. Perceptions of food, such as liking and expectations, as well as interactions of solid and liquid components (hydration and dissolution) of meal in stomach, are suggested to explain the observed differences in satiety responses.
... 217 This effect of gastric sieving and delayed gastric emptying is thought to be responsible for the unique satiety properties of soup, which is a liquid meal that delays gastric emptying, promotes feelings of post-meal fullness and supports reductions in daily energy intakes compared with the equivalent energy consumed in other liquid forms. 224 Differences in satiety have even been observed between different types of soups, where smoother, thicker soups provided enhanced satiety and lower glucose responses than thin, 'chunky'-style soups. 225 Inspired by these studies, several researchers have tried to develop specific food structures that slow the rate of gastric emptying in an effort to promote longer fullness and enhance satiety. ...
Chapter
p>The metabolic impact of oral processing is often overlooked in food design and when considering diet and lifestyle interventions to improve health and post-prandial metabolism. Food oral processing is the first step in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and informs a cascade of neuroendocrine and metabolic responses that occur post-ingestion. A food's physical, mechanical and lubricant properties inform how we adapt the duration and extent of oral processing during mastication, which, in turn, influences the incorporation of saliva and the surface area of the bolus. The properties of a food bolus at swallow can alter digestive kinetics and the rate and extent of post-prandial changes in the plasma concentrations of nutrients, in addition to the endocrine signals linked to feelings of satiety during the post-meal period. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the metabolic impact of oral processing from acute feeding trials, long-term interventions and population-based studies. We focus on the impact of oral processing on post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, and energy intake and satiety, as they relate to body weight and metabolic health. We describe the impact of oral processing on gastric emptying and diet-induced thermogenesis. We provide an overview of the potential applications of these findings to food design and eating interventions that can be used to promote healthier diets and food intake behaviour. A better understanding of the metabolic impact of oral processing behaviour for specific consumer groups could assist in steering sensory perception, food choice and eating behaviour to promote healthier metabolic responses. </p
... Changing the form of a food or modifying its texture can serve as a more natural and sustainable strategy to lower eating rate in the long term. Previous research has shown that consumption of semisolid, solid, and liquid foods can impact satiation and satiety response to ingested nutrients (Mattes 2005), and harder food form can reduce overall food intake (Mourao et al. 2007). Apple slices have been shown to suppress appetite for longer than apple puree, which in turn had a stronger impact than the same calories consumed as an apple juice (Flood-Obbagy and Rolls 2009). ...
Chapter
The modern food environment is often characterised by an increasingly assessable diet of inexpensive, energy-dense and highly palatable foods. Extensive evidence indicates the eating rate of foods (g/min or kcal/min) is associated with energy intake, body composition and the associated risk of food based non-communicable diseases. Moderating eating rate during food intake offers a simple but effective strategy to regulate energy consumption and body weight. Research evidence from population and experimental studies demonstrate that eating at a slower rate can produce sustained changes in ad-libitum energy intake, influence body composition and moderate our metabolic response to ingested nutrients. Understanding which factors combine to influence eating rates affords new opportunities to design ‘slower’ foods that can reduce the risk of over-consumption and support better long-term energy control. This chapter summarises the role of eating rate in energy intake and body composition, provides an overview of development of eating behaviours in infancy and childhood and describes the individual and food-based factors that can influence eating rate and its metabolic impact. The chapter provides a summary of research that has intervened to slow eating rate and demonstrates opportunities to support energy intake reductions using texture led changes to eating rate.
Article
Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) seems to uniquely contribute to excess weight gain, and several mechanisms have been proposed to account for this. Here we examine a further proposal, namely that explicit wanting and liking for SSBs may be less sensitive to changes in physiological state, when contrasted to equi-palatable solid sweet snacks. Study 1 explored this by having participants rate wanting for (on seeing) and liking of (on tasting) several SSBs and snacks, before and after receiving a solid lunch with ad libitum water. Participant reports of hunger and thirst, obtained at multiple time-points, equally reduced across lunch. Wanting for the snacks decreased significantly more across lunch than liking, but for the SSBs, wanting and liking decreased in parallel. Study 2 engineered a far more dramatic alteration in thirst, by using fluid deprivation, a liquid lunch, and encouraging drinking to satiation. This time, reduction in thirst exceeded reduction in hunger. However, all this served to achieve was an equivalent change across lunch for snacks and SSBs, with wanting reducing more than liking now for both. These findings suggest that changes in wanting, relative to liking, for SSBs, are less sensitive to alterations in physiological state than equi-palatable solid snacks, enhancing the chance of consumption.
Article
Using gel based model foods with different structural inclusions, five stimuli were designed to represent a range of textural complexities. Compression tests showed structural differences between the inclusions (p < 0.05); increased perceivable textures and intensity thereof, equated to increasing textural complexity. Thirty-seven participants took part in descriptive analysis, where the number of texture descriptors cited, generally increased with the designed increases in textural complexity. Four of the five stimuli could be discriminated on four out of eleven attributes (p < 0.05). Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) was performed by a subgroup (n = 18); decreasing dominance rates and an increasing number of dominant attributes, corresponded to the designed levels of textural complexity. To investigate perceived textural complexity, participants (n = 37) statically rated the construct on a 100 mm line-scale, and a subgroup (n = 18) took part in temporal evaluation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were performed on both descriptive data and static ratings of textural complexity. Results highlighted the importance of attributes requiring more mastication effort, such as hardness, roughness and texture contrast. Similarly, in the analysis of TDS and temporal evaluation data, these attributes were highlighted as temporal drivers of textural complexity. Ratings of novelty, familiarity and liking provided additional information; liking and textural complexity were inversely correlated, while only novelty was found to predict textural complexity in multiple linear regression. Although perceived textural complexity was not in line with the designed levels, insight to the nature of textural complexity is suggested.
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Purpose This study aimed to assess the effects of consuming a very-low-energy placebo breakfast on subsequent appetite and lunch energy intake. Methods Fourteen healthy males consumed water-only (WAT), very-low-energy, viscous placebo (containing water, low-calorie flavoured squash, and xanthan gum; ~ 16 kcal; PLA), and whole-food (~ 573 kcal; FOOD) breakfasts in a randomised order. Subjects were blinded to the energy content of PLA and specific study aims. Venous blood samples were collected pre-breakfast, 60- and 180-min post-breakfast to assess plasma acylated ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine concentrations. Subjective appetite was measured regularly, and energy intake was assessed at an ad libitum lunch meal 195-min post-breakfast. Results Lunch energy intake was lower during FOOD compared to WAT ( P < 0.05), with no further differences between trials ( P ≥ 0.132). Cumulative energy intake (breakfast plus lunch) was lower during PLA (1078 ± 274 kcal) and WAT (1093 ± 249 kcal), compared to FOOD (1554 ± 301 kcal; P < 0.001). Total area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were lower, and fullness was greater during PLA and FOOD compared to WAT ( P < 0.05). AUC for hunger was lower during FOOD compared to PLA ( P < 0.05). During FOOD, acylated ghrelin was suppressed compared to PLA and WAT at 60 min ( P < 0.05), with no other hormonal differences between trials ( P ≥ 0.071). Conclusion Consuming a very-low-energy placebo breakfast does not alter energy intake at lunch but may reduce cumulative energy intake across breakfast and lunch and attenuate elevations in subjective appetite associated with breakfast omission. Trial registration NCT04735783, 2nd February 2021, retrospectively registered.
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Background: As a newly proposed diagnosis, data on the prevalence of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is rare. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of MAFLD using new definition in the contemporary South China population. Methods: In this population based, cross sectional study, a total of 5377 participants aged 30-79 years old were recruited from the South China between 2018 and 2019. MAFLD was diagnosed in subjects who have both hepatic steatosis and metabolic disorders according to the newly international expert consensus. The total prevalence of MAFLD and prevalence by sex and age was estimated. Demographic characteristics, history of disease, and lifestyle were recorded by participants on a questionnaire. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed and evaluated by experienced sonographers. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of MAFLD. Results: Overall prevalence of MAFLD was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.0% to 30.5%). Prevalence was higher in women (31.7%) than in men (25.5%; p < 0.001 for sex difference) and in subjects aged 50 years or older (30.7%) than in those aged 30-49 years (19.8%; p < 0.001 for age difference). In participants diagnosed with MAFLD, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was up to 90.5%, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic dysregulation were 25.0% and 62.2%, respectively. Risk factors for MAFLD included overweight/obesity (OR = 4.67; 95% CI, 3.76-5.83), T2DM (OR = 2.41, 95% CI, 1.68-3.47), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.42, 95% CI, 2.03-2.87), high school education (OR = 1.50, 95% CI, 1.23-1.82), high income (OR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.05-1.42). A lower risk of MAFLD was associated with high physical activity equivalent (OR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.60-0.85). A U-shaped association of frequency of soups and ORs of MAFLD was found, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of lower and higher frequency of soups were 1.58 (1.32-1.89) and 1.36 (1.13-1.63), respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed a high prevalence of MAFLD in the general adult population in South China. Obesity has the greatest impact on MAFLD, physical activity and moderate consumption of soups might be the potential protective factors of MAFLD.
Article
Ginger is attributed with beneficial bioactivities. The aims of this study were to analyse the bioactive compounds in commercial ginger powders, and assess acceptability and satiety responses to ginger‐enriched wheat pasta in healthy human volunteers. Powders were extracted with methanol and extracts analysed by HPLC‐UV/LC‐MS. Results indicated that 6‐, 8‐, 10‐gingerol, 10‐shogaol were the principal bioactive components. The liking of pasta enriched with 1%, 3% and 5% (w/w) ginger powder was evaluated for four sensory attributes and overall liking using a 9‐point hedonic scale. All pasta products were generally liked to a similar extent to the control, with the exception of the liking for colour of the pasta with 5% ginger (p<0.02). Ten healthy subjects consumed two samples of equal weight: control and ginger enriched pasta (3%), on two occasions. Subjective feelings of satiety were assessed pre‐consumption, immediately after and for two hours post‐consumption using a 7‐point intensity scale analyzed using Rasch modelling. Results show that the ginger pasta sample had a similar satiety response compared to the control pasta up to two hours after consumption. In conclusion, ginger‐enriched pasta is generally accepted by consumers, but not does not lead to higher satiety compared to the control.
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It is claimed that sugar consumed in a drink is poorly compensated for by a reduction in subsequent energy intake, however very little research has tested directly the effect on appetite of adding sugar to a drink versus food. In this between subjects study, 144 participants (72 men) consumed preloads sweetened with either sucrose or the low-energy sweetener, sucralose (preload energy difference 162kcal) in the form of a blackcurrant drink, jelly or candy. The different preload viscosities were achieved by varying the amount of thickener (carrageenan) and water in the recipes. Participants completed hunger ratings before and 5, 10 and 20min after consuming their preload. After the 20-minute rating they were served a test-meal comprising an excess of bite-sized sandwiches and a sweet dessert. Energy intake measured for the same meal consumed the previous day (baseline day, no preload consumed) was used in the data analyses to control for individual differences in energy intake. Overall, there was 36% compensation for the energy difference in the preloads, but this did not vary with preload viscosity - if anything compensation was greater for the drink preload, and greater in men. The drink preload also showed an effect of sucrose versus sucralose for hunger. The lack of the predicted effect of viscosity on compensation could not be explained by differences in blood-glucose concentration 20min after the preload (measured in a separate study) or by differences in preload sweetness, flavour intensity, liking or familiarity. Comparison of baseline and test-meal food intakes indicated that, irrespective of energy content, the sweet drinks reduced the relative intake of sweet food. In conclusion, short-term energy compensation did not increase across a set of realistic drink and food stimuli.
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Purpose of Review The 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that American adults consume 2 to 3 daily servings of dairy foods as part of healthy dietary patterns. The DGA’s recommended dietary patterns are intended to meet nutrient needs and reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including overweight and obesity. However, the evidence reviews that the 2020 DGA is based on, the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Scientific Advisory Report, did not assess the body of evidence linking individual foods to adiposity. The purpose of this review is to assess the evidence published in the last 10 years on dairy consumption, adiposity, and satiety. Recent Findings The twenty studies included in this review, primarily randomized controlled trials, include interventions with the dairy foods recommended by the DGA—milk, cheese, and yogurt—of varying fat levels (whole fat, reduced fat (2%), low fat (1%), and fat free). Most of these studies were conducted in individuals who were overweight or had obesity at baseline. Therefore, these studies do not measure the impact of eating dairy foods on prevention of adiposity or obesity. Instead, they focus on whether dairy foods support weight loss/weight maintenance or how they affect satiety and prospective food consumption. Summary Overall, recent evidence indicates that consuming dairy foods does not increase risk of overweight or obesity in adults but also does not protect against adiposity. Solid and semi-solid dairy foods like cheese and yogurt may be more satiating than milk and other beverages, though more research is needed to confirm these findings.
Conference Paper
Nuts (ground and tree) are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance, and body weight raise questions about such recommendations, This issue is addressed through a review of the literature pertaining to the association between nut consumption and energy balance, Epidemiological studies document an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Clinical trials reveal little or no weight change with inclusion of various types of nuts in the diet over 1-6 mo. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety property of nuts, leading to compensatory responses that account for 65-75% of the energy they provide. Limited data suggest chronic consumption is associated with elevated resting energy expenditure resulting in dissipation of another portion of the energy they provide. Additionally, due to poor bioaccessibility, there is limited efficiency of energy absorption from nuts. Collectively, these mechanisms offset much of the energy provided by nuts. The few trials contrasting weight loss through regimens that include or exclude nuts indicate improved compliance and greater weight loss when nuts are permitted. This consistent literature suggests nuts may be included in the diet, in moderation, to enhance palatability and nutrient quality without posing a threat for weight gain.
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Solid ingredients of instant soups have received pervasive acceptance worldwide because of convenience and palatability. This paper summarizes the effective approaches to improve the quality of solid ingredients of soup including composition, nutrition, process and storage. Seasoning microencapsulation enriches the soup flavor, and starch modification improves the soup sensory properties. Substitutes for salt and fat, enzymatic hydrolysis and nutrient addition contribute to the improvement of soup nutrition. Freeze-drying improves the drying quality of instant soups, and the new combined drying methods (ultrasonic assisted spray drying and microwave freeze-drying) are expected to reduce the costs while ensuring the quality. Agglomeration, oxidation, and microbial inhibition improve the stability and safety of solid-form soup during storage. We hope to provide useful information to produce delicious, nutritious, and safe solid ingredients of instant soup.
Article
Background/objectives: Consumption of high-energy beverages has been implicated as a risk factor for weight gain, yet why nutrients ingested as beverages fail to generate adequate satiety remains unclear. In general consumers do not expect drinks to be satiating, but drinks generate greater satiety when their sensory characteristics imply they may be filling. These findings challenge traditional bottom-up models of how gut-based satiety signals modify behavior to suggest that beliefs at the point of ingestion modify gut-based satiety signaling. Subjects/methods: Healthy volunteers (n=23) consumed four different beverages, combining an overt sensory manipulation (thin, Low Sensory, LS, or thicker and more creamy, Enhanced Sensory, ES) and covert nutrient manipulation (low energy, LE, 78kcal; high energy, HE, 267 kcal) on different days. Effects on satiety were assessed through rated appetite and levels of glucose, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholesystokinin (CCK) recorded periodically over 90 min, and through intake at an ad libitum test lunch. Results: Intake at the test lunch and rated appetite were both altered by both the sensory and nutrient manipulations, with lowest intake and greatest suppression of hunger post-drink in the ESHE condition. Insulin increased more after HE than LE drinks, and after ES than LS drinks, while PP levels were higher after ES than LS versions. CCK levels only increased after the ESHE drink. Conclusions: These data confirm acute sensitivity of satiety after consuming a drink both to the sensory characteristics and nutrient content of the drink, and suggest that this may be at least in part due to top-down modulation of release of satiety-related gut hormones.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 17 June 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.112.
Article
Using the satiety cascade model as a framework, this paper describes how food texture can influence the strength and duration of sensory, cognitive and post-ingestive signals that determine when a meal ends (satiation) and the inhibition of appetite between meals (satiety). The influence of food texture on oro-sensory exposure time, expectations about the satiating effect of a food and processing of food in the gastrointestinal system is considered, as well how the interaction of these processes may impact on the overall experience of satiety. This body of work suggests that texture is one element of a food's flavour profile which could be a candidate for manipulation in the development of ‘high-satiety’ foods.
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Background Emerging evidence suggests that increasing dietary nitrate intake may be an effective approach to improve cardiovascular health. However, the effects of a prolonged elevation of nitrate intake through an increase in vegetable consumption are understudied. Objective Our primary aim was to determine the impact of 12 wk of increased daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables or nitrate supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in (pre)hypertensive middle-aged and older adults. Methods In a 12-wk randomized, controlled study (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 77 (pre)hypertensive participants (BP: 144 ± 13/87 ± 7 mmHg, age: 65 ± 10 y) either received an intervention with personalized monitoring and feedback aiming to consume ∼250–300 g nitrate-rich vegetables/d (∼350–400 mg nitrate/d; n = 25), beetroot juice supplementation (400 mg nitrate/d; n = 26), or no intervention (control; n = 26). Before and after intervention, 24-h ambulatory BP was measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (time × treatment), followed by within-group (paired t-test) and between-group analyses (1-factor ANOVA) where appropriate. Results The 24-h systolic BP (SBP) (primary outcome) changed significantly (P-interaction time × treatment = 0.017) with an increase in the control group (131 ± 8 compared with 135 ± 10 mmHg; P = 0.036); a strong tendency for a decline in the nitrate-rich vegetable group (129 ± 10 compared with 126 ± 9 mmHg; P = 0.051) which was different from control (P = 0.020); but no change in the beetroot juice group (133 ± 11 compared with 132 ± 12 mmHg; P = 0.56). A significant time × treatment interaction was also found for daytime SBP (secondary outcome, P = 0.011), with a significant decline in the nitrate-rich vegetable group (134 ± 10 compared with 129 ± 9 mmHg; P = 0.006) which was different from control (P = 0.010); but no changes in the beetroot juice (138 ± 12 compared with 137 ± 14 mmHg; P = 0.41) and control group (136 ± 10 compared with 137 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.08). Diastolic BP (secondary outcome) did not change in any of the groups. Conclusions A prolonged dietary intervention focusing on high-nitrate vegetable intake is an effective strategy to lower SBP in (pre)hypertensive middle-aged and older adults. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NL7814.
Article
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This systematic review with meta‐analyses aimed to identify the sensory and physical characteristics of foods/beverages which increase satiation and/or decrease/delay subsequent consumption without affecting acceptability. Systematic searches were first undertaken to identify review articles investigating the effects of any sensory and physical food characteristic on food intake. These articles provided some evidence that various textural parameters (aeration, hardness, homogeneity, viscosity, physical form, added water) can impact food intake. Individual studies investigating these effects while also investigating acceptability were then assessed. Thirty‐seven individual studies investigated a textural manipulation and provided results on food intake and acceptability, 13 studies (27 comparisons, 898 participants) investigated effects on satiation, and 29 studies (54 comparisons, 916 participants) investigated effects on subsequent intake. Meta‐analyses of within‐subjects comparisons (random‐effects models) demonstrated greater satiation (less weight consumed) from food products that were harder, chunkier, more viscous, voluminous, and/or solid, while demonstrating no effects on acceptability. Textural parameters had limited effects on subsequent consumption. Between‐subjects studies and sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. These findings provide some evidence that textural parameters can increase satiation without affecting acceptability. The development of harder, chunkier, more viscous, voluminous, and/or solid food/beverage products may be of value in reducing overconsumption.
Chapter
The key stages of digestion and metabolism of dietary fibre throughout the gastrointestinal tract is presented with a focus on the digestion of pectin. Increasing evidence shows that pectins are not simply an inert viscosity enhancing agent but possess a range of health benefits (see also Chap. 9). These effects are mediated by their influence on digestive processes, their resistance to digestion by the intrinsic digestive enzymes in humans and their subsequent fermentation by our microbiota. The water holding capacity and viscosity enhancing properties can influence appetite, and also the diffusion processes controlling the digestion and absorption of nutrients which in turn may positively influence cholesterol levels and glycaemic responses. As a soluble fibre, pectin is by definition not hydrolysed by human digestive enzymes, but fermentated by the microbiota yielding metabolites implicated with a wide range of health benefits.
Article
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Eating quickly is associated with eating larger amounts at mealtimes and faster eaters tend to have a higher BMI. Evidence suggests that sibling structure influences the development of childhood eating behaviours. We hypothesized that number of siblings and birth order might play a role in the development of eating rate. In two UK studies, children in Bristol (n = 132; Study 1) and adults and children in London (adults n = 552, children n = 256; Study 2) reported their eating rate, number of siblings, and birth order. A BMI measurement was obtained and in Study 2 waist circumference was recorded. Ordered logistic regression was used to examine effects of sibling structure on eating rate and linear regression assessed effects of eating rate on BMI. Faster eating was associated with higher BMI and a larger waist, in children and adults (ps < .01). In Study 1, first‐born children were twice as likely to eat faster compared to children who were not first‐born (P < .04). In Study 2, only‐child adults reported eating slower than adults who were not first‐born (P < .003). Additionally, higher number of siblings was associated with faster eating rate in children from Bristol (P < .05), but not in children from London. London adults without siblings ate slower than those with two or more (P = .01), but having one sibling was associated with eating faster than having two or more (P = .01). These findings reveal how birth order and number of siblings might influence eating rate. Exploring these relationships through direct observation would be beneficial in future studies.
Article
When trying to reduce food portion size, it is important that meal satisfaction is, as far as possible, preserved. Otherwise, individuals may select accompaniments to the meal (e.g., snacks, beverages) to achieve satisfaction and, in doing so, negate any benefit of the original portion size reduction. This study investigated whether varying portion sizes of food would influence choice of accompanying beverages. That is, when presented with a food portion size that is smaller or larger than their ideal, an individual may compensate by choosing a beverage based on its satiating and/or orosensory properties to balance the expected satiation and satisfaction of a meal. Data from an online interactive study (n = 93) was analysed using multilevel ordinal logistic regression models. Food portion size (100, 300, 500, 700, or 900 kcal) predicted beverage choice (water, low-energy sweetened beverage, high-energy sweetened beverage). For example, the sweetened beverages were more likely to be selected with small food portion sizes (p <.001). Participant ideal food portion size did not interact with this relationship. Participants appear to have recognised that sweetened beverages provide flavour and/or energy, and used them to compensate for a smaller meal. While switching to a low-energy beverage with an increased food portion size is advantageous for energy balance, choosing a high-energy beverage with a decreased food portion size is likely to be detrimental for those attempting to reduce energy intake and body weight.
Chapter
The careful study of effects of umami on appetite helps to broad the theoretical understanding of sensory influences on appetite and satiety. An argument against classifying umami as a separate taste was that the characteristic umami flavour is often perceived as sweetly salty, raising the possibility that the experience of umami resulted from the combination of these two well-known tastes. A key early suggestion was that umami taste evolved as a means of detecting the potential presence of protein in foods. At the same time the ability of umami taste to enhance the palatability of savoury foods suggests an important role for umami in the pleasure experienced when eating savoury foods. Both these observations imply that umami taste may have a key role in control of appetite regulation. The chapter argues that umami taste appears to have a biphasic impact on human appetite, enhancing palatability and thereby increasing food intake in the short-term, but then cueing nutritional content and thereby enhancing subsequent post-ingestive satiety.
Chapter
The chemical senses taste and smell play an important role in food choice and food intake. From a number of recent studies, it is clear that the sense of taste works as a macronutrient sensor in foods. Intensities of sweetness, savouriness and saltiness are related to the sugar/carbohydrate content, the protein content and the salt content of foods. Taste has a major impact on food intake. Whereas the basic tastes have a strong relation with macronutrients, this is much less true for odours. It is concluded that retronasal odour stimulation has little to do with satiation. A decrease in olfactory sensitivity can be seen as part of the food intake control mechanism, where appetite regulation hormones may be able to shift olfactory sensitivity to achieve nutritional homeostasis. Making foods harder and chewier will lead to a slower eating rate, higher satiating efficiency per calorie and subsequently also to a lower intake.
Article
Food structure and cephalic phase factors are hypothesized to contribute to postprandial satiety in addition to established food properties such as energy content, energy density, and macronutrient and fibre composition of a preload. This study aimed to evaluate if the structure of rye products has an impact on subjective feelings of satiety, and whether cephalic phase factors including oral processing, satiety expectations and perceived pleasantness modulate the interaction. Four wholegrain rye based samples (extruded flakes and puffs, bread and smoothie) were studied in terms of texture characteristics, in vivo oral processing, and expected satiety (n=26) and satiety as well as perceived pleasantness (n=16) (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02554162). The vast textural differences between products were reflected in mastication process, perceived pleasantness and satiety expectations. Extruded products required the most intensive mastication. Rye puffs and rye bread which were characterized by a solid and porous structure, and showed better satiety effect in the early postprandial phase compared to other products. Mastication effort interacted with satiety response. However, the products requiring the highest mastication effort were not the most satiating ones. It seems that there are some food structure related mechanisms that influence both mastication process and postprandial satiety, the mastication process itself not being the mediating factor. Higher palatability seems to weaken postprandial satiety response.
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A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society’s health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.
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The sensory characteristics of a product have been shown to interact with actual nutrient content to generate satiety. Separately, cued recall of recent eating has also been shown to reduce food intake. Here we explore for the first time how these two effects interact, with the hypothesis that sensory enhancement of satiety might be mediated by more vivid memory of the earlier consumed item. On each of two test sessions, 119 women volunteers consumed a control drink (lemonade) on one morning and then one of two test drinks on the next day 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. The test drinks were equicaloric but one was noticeably thicker and creamier, and expected to generate stronger satiety. Just prior to the test lunch, participants were asked to recall either the test drink (test recall) or the drink from the previous day (control recall). Overall, lunch intake was significantly lower after the thicker and creamier (enhanced sensory ES) than thinner (low sensory: LS) test drink (p < 0.001, η² = 0.11) regardless of recall condition (p = 0.65, η² < 0.01), but was significantly lower after the test than control recall condition (p < 0.001, η² = 0.14). Rated hunger was lower after consuming the ES than LS drink both immediately after consumption (p < 0.001, η² = 0.11) and prior to the test lunch (p = 0.007, η² = 0.06), while rated hunger just before lunch tended to be lower after recalling the test than control drink (p = 0.052, η² = 0.03) regardless of the sensory characteristics (p = 0.27, η² = 0.01). Overall these data further demonstrate the power of ‘sensory-enhanced satiety’ and cued recall of earlier eating as methods to reduce acute food intake, but suggest these effects operate independently.
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This systematic review aimed to determine the correlation between soup consumption and obesity. The observational studies on the association of soup consumption to obesity-related parameters were screened by database search. From 1873 identified articles, 7 cross-sectional studies were included in the review. All studies indicated a significant inverse correlation between soup consumption and obesity. The meta-analysis of the studies of which outcome is odds ratio for obesity revealed that soup consumption is significantly related to lower odds ratio of obesity in combined data (n=45292, OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.79-0.91, p<0.0001), suggesting that soup consumption was inversely correlated with a risk of obesity.
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Background Emerging evidence suggests that increasing dietary nitrate intake may be an effective approach to reduce blood pressure. Beetroot juice is often used to supplement dietary nitrate, whereas nitrate intake levels from habitual diet are low. An increase in the habitual intake of nitrate-rich vegetables may represent an alternative to nitrate supplementation. However, the effectiveness and acceptability of a nitrate–rich-vegetables diet remain to be established. Objective The aim was to investigate the effect and feasibility of two different intervention strategies to increase dietary nitrate intake, on plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations and blood pressure. Design A randomized, crossover trial was used. Participants Participants were healthy men and women (both n=15; age: 24±6 years) from the Netherlands. Intervention Participants were instructed to consume ∼400 mg nitrate at lunch, provided through nitrate-rich vegetables and dietary counseling, or beetroot juice supplementation. Both interventions lasted 1 week, with 1-week washout (January to April 2017). Main outcome Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in an overnight fasted state (before and after intervention) and ∼2.5 hours after lunch (before and throughout intervention on day 1, 4, and 7). Statistical analysis Two-factor (time × treatment) repeated-measures analyses of variance were performed. Results Mean plasma nitrate concentrations increased with both interventions, with a larger increase in beetroot juice vs nitrate-rich vegetables, both in a fasted state and ∼2.5 hours after lunch (day 1, beetroot juice: 2.31±0.56 mg/dL [373±90 μmol/L] vs nitrate-rich vegetables: 1.71±0.83 mg/dL [277±134 μmol/L]; P<0.001). Likewise, mean plasma nitrite concentrations increased with both interventions, but were higher after lunch in beetroot juice than in nitrate-rich vegetables (day 1: 2.58±1.52 μg/dL [560±331 nmol/L] vs 2.15±1.21 μg/dL [468±263 nmol/L]; P=0.020). Fasting mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change, but mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure assessed ∼2.5 hours after lunch were significantly reduced throughout both intervention periods (P<0.05), with no differences between beetroot juice and nitrate-rich vegetables (day 1, systolic blood pressure: –5.1±9.5 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure: –5.3±8.9 mm Hg). Conclusion Short-term consumption of dietary nitrate in the form of nitrate-rich vegetables represents an effective means to increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and reduces blood pressure to the same extent as beetroot juice supplementation.
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nter for Strategic & International Studies User menu Subscribe Sign In Topics Cybersecurity and Technology Defense and Security Economics Energy and Sustainability Global Health Human Rights International Development Regions Africa Americas Arctic Asia Europe Middle East Russia and Eurasia Sections menu Programs Experts Events Analysis Podcasts iDeas Lab Transcripts Web Projects Main menu About Us Support CSIS Report Share LinkedIn Facebook Twitter Email Printfriendly.com Seeds of Change: The Power of Fruits and Vegetables to Improve Nutrition in Tanzania November 4, 2019 Download the Report Malnutrition has the potential to bankrupt countries and prevent children from reaching their full potential. Fruits and vegetables are critical components of sustainable and healthy diets globally and have recently gained attention as a smallholder farmer income resource in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Despite growing awareness of the positive role fruits and vegetables play in diets, consumption remains low globally. Tanzania is undergoing a food system change in farming, processing, and retail, especially in urban areas, as the country strives toward lowering stunting, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight and obesity. Not only do fruits and vegetables present an opportunity to diversify diets and improve nutrition, they also provide labor opportunities, ignite entrepreneurship, and generate income for smallholder farmers. This report examined the imperative role of fruits and vegetables in combating malnutrition. The research questions focused on the barriers to consumption, current strategies to increase consumption by U.S. and Dutch foreign aid projects and a local initiative, and opportunities for multisectoral and public-private engagement approaches. The fieldwork encompassed four projects—in three diverse Tanzanian regions—with budgets ranging from $25,000 to $20.2 million. Recommendations included creating demand, broadening implementation, scaling up an integrated multisectoral approach, and accelerating public–private engagement.
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Smoothies are popular breakfast foods. This study examined the effect of consuming Cereal & Milk (CM) or a nutritionally-comparable Fruit Smoothie (FS) for breakfast on daily energy intake (EI) in free-living adults and the extent to which individuals compensated for calories ingested in a High Energy Fruit Smoothie (HE). Ten participants (28.4 ± 2.2y; 23.3 ± 1.0 kg·m ⁻², Mean ± SEM) attended the laboratory on 3 consecutive days per week for 3 weeks. Each week, they received a CM, FS or HE breakfast, then recorded all food/beverages consumed across the remainder of the day. The CM and FS were energy-matched to participants’ usual breakfast (1675 ± 283 kJ), while the HE contained an additional 100 kJ·kg⁻¹ of maltodextrin (3019 ± 335 kJ). Mean 3-day EI was similar on CM and FS (7894 ± 547 vs. 7570 ± 463 kJ, p > .05), but elevated on HE (8861 ± 726 kJ, p = .012). Thus, individuals who substitute CM for a FS breakfast should be mindful that energy-dense beverages may result in increased daily EI.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the role of appetite regulation in food choice and how appetite is influenced by the nutrient content of a food and by its degree of processing. It also considers the main issues that influence food choice in relation to a Med diet, namely taste, cost and convenience, and also variety, health and animal welfare and environmental issues. Appetite and satiation bookend a meal by controlling its start and finish. Two key characteristics of a food that regulate appetite and satiation are its nutrient content and its degree of processing. Co‐ordinating eating patterns with fixed meal times, rather than snacking, may be another factor that helps regulate food intake. Taste has been described as the body's ‘nutritional gatekeeper’ because of its fundamental role in influencing food consumption.
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Although many factors have been proposed and studied as causes of onset and termination of meals by humans, little attention has been paid to memory for what has previously been eaten. We propose that a principal determinant of meal onset and cessation in humans is memory of when a last meal,was eaten and how much,vas consumed. Knowledge that one has just eaten a culturally defined complete meal may be sufficient grounds for refusal of further food. This hypothesis was tested by studying two densely amnesic patients who had almost no explicit memory for events that occurred more than a minute ago, and who, in particular usually failed to remember that they had just eaten a meal. Both patients (on three occasions each) readily consumed a second lunch when it was offered IO to 30 min after completion of the first meal, and usually began to consume a third meal when it,vas offered IO to 30 min after completion of the second meal. These findings suggest that memory for,that has recently been eaten is a substantial contributor to the onset or cessation of eating of a meal.
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The effect of resistant starch (RS) on postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, lipids, and hormones, and on subjective satiety and palatability ratings was investigated in 10 healthy, normal-weight, young males. The test meals consisted of 50 g pregelatinized starch (0% RS) (S) or 50 g raw potato starch (54% RS) (R) together with 500 g artificially sweetened syrup. After the R meal postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1, and epinephrine were significantly lower compared with after the S meal. Moreover, subjective scores for satiety and fullness were significantly lower after the R meal than after the S meal. Differences in GIP, texture, and palatability may have been involved in these findings. In conclusion, the replacement of digestible starch with RS resulted in significant reductions in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and in the subjective sensations of satiety.
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The objectives of this study were to determine if high-protein versions of the same food systems show more sensory-specific satiety than lower-protein versions, and to determine the effect of these protein differences on hunger levels following a meal. Subjects ate a high-protein and a low-protein version of a food system (either strawberry yogurt or a sandwich) as test meals. The high-protein strawberry yogurt test meal consisted of a serving of strawberry yogurt that contained whey protein isolate; the low-protein yogurt test meal consisted of a close-to-commercial strawberry yogurt. The high-protein sandwich meal consisted of a ham sandwich; the low-protein sandwich meal consisted of a bacon sandwich. Subjects tasted small portions of a set of foods (which included a sample of the test meal), and rated their liking of these foods before and after eating a test meal. Sensory-specific satiety occurred for all test meals. The decreases in liking when the high-protein versions of the test meals were eaten were significantly greater than the decreases in liking for the paired low-protein test meals. Higher-protein versions of the test meals also decreased hunger more than the lower-protein versions.
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The introduction of nontraditional items in the breakfast segment is discussed. It is observed that the seafood, fried food, chicken and spicy ground beef continue to gain ground. Marketers who find just the right twist on traditional breakfast favorites by making them portable and quick enjoy strong sales. The need for speed in the morning is outpacing the availability of new products to meet the skyrocketing demand.
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The influence of the ingestion of particular beverages and foods on the overall nutrient intakes and meal patterns of humans was investigated by paying 323 adults to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Ingestion of noncaloric beverages, diet sodas, and coffee or tea, were associated with low overall intakes but were not found to influence the amount eaten over the course of the day or in individual meals. Fifteen different calorie containing drink or food types were found, in general, to add to the total calories ingested in meals or over the day without displacing calories ingested in other forms. The results indicate that individual foods or beverages are ingested independent of other constituents and that intake within meals or over the entire day is elastic and readily influenced by nonregulatory factors.
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Background. Understanding the determinants of adiposity in young children may be particularly critical for preventing adult obesity since the age at which body fatness reaches a postinfancy low point (typically 4-6 years) is inversely associated with obesity later in life. Methods. We examined cross-sectional associations among fatness, leanness, and physical activity in 467 children (range 4-6 years). Activity was measured using accelerometry and parental report of children's television (TV) viewing. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify body composition. Results. Minutes spent in vigorous activity and TV viewing were the variables most consistently and most highly associated with adiposity. Children in the lowest quartile for vigorous activity had on average (absolute) body fat percentages that were 4% greater than those children in the highest quartile for vigorous activity. Body fat percentages for children in the highest category for TV viewing were on average 3% greater than those children who watched the least amount of TV. Conclusions. Low levels of vigorous physical activity and high levels of TV viewing are associated with fatness in young children during the adiposity rebound period. This suggests that increasing children's active play may be important in preventing obesity later in life. (C) 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA).
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Two meals, made of the same raw material but with different structure (pasta versus bread) and different in their insulin and glucose response profiles where studied with respect to their effect on satiety measurements. Sixteen normal weight elderly men were served a pasta breakfast (PAS) and a bread breakfast (BRD) in a repeated measures design. Three hours after breakfast their ad libitum lunch meal intake was measured by VIKTOR a universal eating monitor. Subjective motivation to eat was measured repeatedly on Visual Analogue Scales from before breakfast to after lunch. Blood for glucose and insulin determinations was sampled simultaneously. The large differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses previously reported after the same pasta and bread meals were verified in this study. Pasta produced a low and stable glucose and insulin response while the responses to bread were significantly different, with a higher initial postprandial phase and a drop below fasting blood glucose level in the late phase. Despite this, no differences were noted between the breakfast meals in any of the various measures to evaluate hunger/satiety. There were no differences in eating behaviour at the intake of a subsequent defined ad libitum lunch. However, the pasta breakfast induced a lower insulin response after lunch consumed 3 hours later. This beneficial second meal effect could be one long term mechanism whereby lente diets improve metabolic control.
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We compared the influence of three solid/liquid preloads to a no-preload condition given at lunchtime on hunger ratings and energy intake of the lunch and subsequent dinner in 12 lean and 10 overweight young men. The preloads (vegetables and water, strained vegetable soup, chunky soup) were of the same composition and volume but differed in distribution of nutrients between the liquid and the solid phases, and in the size of solid particles. Hunger ratings were reduced by the preloads; there was a significantly greater suppression of hunger after the chunky soup than after the vegetables and water. In both groups, the soups reduced energy intake at lunch, although the chunky soup had the most effect. In the overweight subjects, a reduced lunch intake was also followed by a reduced dinner intake. The benefit to weight control of large particles in soup should be evaluated.
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Ten normal subjects ingested test meals based on apples, each containing 60 g available carbohydrate. Fibre-free juice could be consumed eleven times faster than intact apples and four times faster than fibre-disrupted purée. Satiety was assessed numerically. With the rate of ingestion equalised, juice was significantly less satisfying than purée, and purée than apples. Plasma-glucose rose to similar levels after all three meals. However, there was a striking rebound fall after juice, and to a lesser extent after purée, which was not seen after apples. Serum-insulin rose to higher levels after juice and purée than after apples. The removal of fibre from food, and also its physical disruption, can result in faster and easier ingestion, decreased satiety, and disturbed glucose homoeostasis which is probably due to inappropriate insulin release. These effects favour overnutrition and, if often repeated, might lead to diabetes mellitus.
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Two experiments were conducted, one in the rat and one in man, to ascertain the effects of equicaloric loads of protein, fat, carbohydrate, and a mixture of these, on subsequent food intake. Additionally, non-caloric loads were given. In the rat, loads were administered intragastrically, and ad lib food intake was measured after various intervals. Corn-oil loads suppressed food intake less than other equicaloric loads. This suggests that calorie-for-calorie, fat does not suppress intake as much as protein or carbohydrate. Sucrose loads suppressed food intake the most after 1 hr. Mixture loads had an effect equal to the average of its components after 24–72 hr. In man, loads were given orally after a 13-hr fast. Differences between loads were minimized by suppressing olfaction with noseclips, and taste with topical anesthesia of the mouth. Consumption of test-meal presented 70 min later was measured. Also, various ratings of appetite were made. No differences were found between intakes or ratings after individual loads. But collectively, caloric loads suppressed food intake more than non-caloric loads.
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This study investigated the satiating efficiencies of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (CHOs). Twenty-nine female, normal-weight subjects each received 10 liquid breakfasts, which varied in energy and macronutrient contents. Besides a zero condition [0.3 MJ (8 kcal)], there were three energy levels [0.42, 1.05, and 1.67 MJ (100, 250, and 400 kcal)] combined with three dominant sources of macronutrients (99% of energy from CHO, 92% of energy from fat, and 77% of energy from protein). After breakfast the subjects were not allowed to eat or drink (except water) for 3.5 h. They then recorded their voluntary food intake for the remainder of the day. Subjects also rated their subjective feelings concerning food intake on five different types of appetite. The results showed that neither energy content nor macronutrient composition of the liquid breakfasts had any effect on energy and macronutrient intake during lunch and the remainder of the day. Ratings of different types of appetite showed an increasing satiating effect with increasing energy content of the breakfasts. Proteins, fats, and CHOs had similar effects on appetite.
Article
A high-carbohydrate (CHO) yogurt (81% CHO) and a high-fat yogurt (65% fat), containing similar levels of protein, were given in equal volumes as preloads to 14 normal-weight, nondieting males and 14 normal-weight, nondieting females. The yogurts were formulated to have similar energy densities and sensory properties, so that differences in responses to the preloads would depend on postingestive physiological effects. Three intervals (30, 90, and 180 min) between the preloads and a self-selection meal consisting of a variety of foods were utilized. The self-selection meal was served at the subject's normal lunchtime under all conditions. In the 30-min-delay condition, subjects accurately compensated for the calories in the preloads compared with a no-preload condition, but as the interval increased, compensation was less precise. No significant differences in subsequent food intake were found between the high-CHO and high-fat yogurts at any time interval. Also, there were no differences in ratings of hunger and fullness between the yogurts. The macronutrient composition of the preloads did not affect the types of foods, or macronutrients, consumed at lunch.
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The effect of the physical state of food on further intake was studied. Human subjects were served two experimental foods at lunchtime 1 week apart. In a first experiment, the two-food meals had the same caloric content, weight, volume, composition and temperature but differed only in their physical form (solid or liquid). As compared to the solid meal, the 24-h total caloric intake following the liquid food was higher. This difference could be attributed to cognitive cues from the form of food or to the lack of masticatory movements while ingesting the liquid meal. The last hypothesis was tested in a second experiment. "In which the test-meals appeared absolutely identical to the senses and were composed of a liquid and a solid item; however, the major part of calories was either in the liquid or in the solid part. When most of the calories had to be drunk, the total subsequent caloric intake was higher than when the most of the calories had to be eaten. It seems that calories ingested in a liquid form are not well taken in account and could induce a subsequent overconsumption, at least until satiety was conditioned to the fluid.
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We studied relations between alcohol intake, body mass index, and diet in 89,538 women and 48,493 men in two cohort studies. Total energy increased with alcohol consumption (partial r = 0.11, P less than 0.001), and carbohydrate intake decreased from 153 g/d in abstainers to 131 g/d in women drinking 2.5.0-49.9 g alcohol/d. The decrease in carbohydrate intake was due mainly to decreased sugar consumption with higher alcohol intake (partial r = -0.05, P less than 0.001), reflecting decreased energy consumption from sources excluding alcohol. In men total energy increased with alcohol consumption (partial r = 0.19, P less than 0.001), from 7575.6 (abstainers) to 9821.5 kJ/d (greater than 50 g alcohol/d). Energy intake excluding alcohol varied little with alcohol intake (partial r = 0.003, P = 0.48) but sucrose intake decreased with higher alcohol intake. These data suggest that calories from alcohol were added to energy intake from other sources in men, and that in women, energy from alcohol intake displaced sucrose. The consumption of candy and sugar is inversely related to alcohol intake, raising the possibility that it is related to appetite for alcohol.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify particular properties of foods that can affect satiety. Two levels (50 and 200 kcal) of three preloads (tomato soup, melon, cheese on crackers) were given just before two different second courses (macaroni and beef casserole, grilled cheese sandwiches), allowing us to examine the effects of caloric level, energy density, and sensory-specific satiety on food intake in normal weight, non-dieting males. Eating time and initial palatability ratings were held constant. Soup was found to reduce second course intake significantly more than the other preloads. This reduction could be partially accounted for by the low energy density of tomato soup; however, soup reduced intake more than the melon preload, which was matched for energy density. Sensory-specific satiety did not explain the satiating efficiency of the soup. Thus, during a meal, tomato soup is more satiating than the melon and cheese on crackers. Further studies are required to determine why these foods have different effects and to determine whether soup consumption can be beneficial in weight reduction programs.
Article
Foods differ in their satiating effects; temperature and mode of presentation may be factors important for these differences. We tested the effects of these two variables in normal weight, non-dieting males and females using vegetable juice. The juice was offered as a preload, with females receiving 300 g and males receiving 400 g under conditions that systematically varied temperature (60-62 degrees C vs. 1 degrees C) and presentation (served in mug vs. bowl with spoon); a no-preload condition was also included. Each preload was followed within 5 min by a second course of grilled cheese sandwiches. In the males, intake was significantly lower after cold but not hot preloads in comparison to the no-preload condition; however, intakes following the hot and cold preloads did not differ significantly. Males also reported a significantly greater decline in thirst following the cold preloads. Temperature of the preloads did not affect food intake or thirst in the female subjects. Neither group was affected by the mode of presentation of the preloads. Further studies with other types of foods and drinks are needed to clarify whether temperature or mode of presentation can influence satiating efficiency.
Article
To examine whether artificial sweeteners aid in the control of long-term food intake and body weight, we gave free-living, normal-weight subjects 1150 g soda sweetened with aspartame (APM) or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) per day. Relative to when no soda was given, drinking APM-sweetened soda for 3 wk significantly reduced calorie intake of both females (n = 9) and males (n = 21) and decreased the body weight of males but not of females. However, drinking HFCS-sweetened soda for 3 wk significantly increased the calorie intake and body weight of both sexes. Ingesting either type of soda reduced intake of sugar from the diet without affecting intake of other nutrients. Drinking large volumes of APM-sweetened soda, in contrast to drinking HFCS-sweetened soda, reduces sugar intake and thus may facilitate the control of calorie intake and body weight.
Article
1. Possible links between metabolism and satiation were investigated using volunteer subjects given test meals based on milk solids. Satisfaction was rated by the subjects on a six-point scale and the course of metabolism was followed by measurement of the respiratory quotient (RQ). 2. The time-course of satiation was the same for a high-carbohydrate, a high-fat and a high-protein meal, in spite of the very different time-course of metabolism. The degree of satiation was reduced by added sodium chloride, without affecting the RQ rise. On the other hand, calcium chloride produced a suppression of the RQ rise without altering the satiation. 3. It is proposed that the results indicate that the primary receptors responsible for post-prandial satiation lie within the gut wall and that there is probably a number of receptor types. Likely candidates for these receptors are the gut hormone-secreting cells. 4. Although very-low-protein meals produce less satiation than meals containing 220 g protein/kg dry weight, there is no additional satiation obtained by increasing the protein level further. This is not inconsistent with the possibility of a protein hunger separate from an energy hunger.
Article
Two types of procedures are described for the study of the effects of food attributes on food intake. One is concurrent evaluation in which the attribute is placed in the food, and the amount consumed is measured. The other is the preloading paradigm in which a food containing the attribute is given before a test meal and intake of the test meal is measured. From our work with both types of procedure in which we used foods in both solid and liquefied form, we conclude that the effects of food attributes on intake will differ depending on which procedure is used. Concurrent evaluation is recommended when the time course of the attribute is short-lived (few seconds to a minute). Preloading is the procedure of choice when the attribute's effect is longer-lasting (several minutes to hours). When the same food was served in either solid or liquefied form, there was no difference in intakes of the two versions, but for liquefied form, the rate of consumption was faster, and meal duration was shorter, than for the solid. When a completely liquefied preload (soup) was given, intake in the following test meal was less for the same caloric load than when the preload was only partly in liquid form. Liquefied foods may be more efficient in producing satiety, as measured by food intake reduction, than solids. Because the two preloads were different across dimensions other than solid-liquid, more investigation of these other dimensions is needed.
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Replaced 1 meal/day of 7 obese and 7 nonobese 22-50 yr. olds with a liquid meal of disguised caloric content for 5-10 base-line days and l4-21 experimental days. During base line, Ss received meals equicaloric with their usual meal; on experimental days, they received high- or low-calorie meals differing in caloric content by a factor of 2, but indistinguishable by taste. Ss rated their hunger and, during the experimental period, made a judgment as to which meal they had received at 7 selected times after eating. Ss showed almost no ability to identify the meals as high or low calorie, and reported hunger more in accordance with belief about caloric value than actual value.
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Human subjects took a protein-rich or a protein-poor lunch and 2–3 hr later a supplementary meal of average protein content. Total caloric intake for the two meals was lower when the main meal contained a high proportion of protein. Therefore, calorie for calorie, amino acids contribute more than carbohydrates and fats to the suppression of hunger in the post-absorptive period.
Article
Healthy volunteers ingested sugar-equivalent meals of oranges and orange juice and of grapes and grape juice. Satiety, assessed by two subjective scoring systems, was greater after whole fruit than after juice and the return of appetite was delayed. With oranges, as previously reported with apples, there was a significantly smaller insulin response to fruit than to juice and less postabsorptive fall in plasma glucose. With grapes, the insulin response to the whole fruit was, paradoxically, more than that to the juice, while postabsorptive glucose values were similar. The glucose in grapes appeared to be more insulinogenic than that in oranges and apples. Conversely, grape juice evoked less insulin than expected, possibly because its high osmolality delayed gastric emptying. However, diluting it did not increase its insulinogenicity. The plasma insulin and glucose responses to fruit appear to depend on the fiber as well as the glucose content of the fruit.
Article
A moderate energy (0 g protein, 420 kcal) supplement was given daily to a group of people (n = 14) in one week, and a placebo was administered daily in another week. A second group (n = 13) was given a protein supplement (14 g protein, 84 kcal) daily during one week and a placebo in a separate week. A crossover design was used. The effect of the energy supplement was to increase the mean energy intake by 273 kcal, in the treatment compared with the placebo week. That is, 32% of the energy value of the drink was accommodated by a change in the diet; this change was not significant. The effect of the protein supplement was to increase the mean protein intake on day 1 by 20.5 g, in the treatment compared with the placebo week. This increment decreased linearly throughout the week, to 5.9 g on day 7. At lunchtime, carbohydrate intakes were significantly depressed after the protein supplement, and protein intake was significantly increased after the energy supplement.
Article
Ad libitum food intake was measured in obese patients after isoenergetic test meals of high or low-protein content. No evidence was found that protein has a particularly high-satiety value.
Article
A behaviorally oriented correspondence course was completed by 517 subjects. All subjects received the behavioral course but were sorted into four groups: (a) behavioral instruction only, (b) recommend soup for lunch, (c) recommend soup for any meal or snack, and (d) recommend yogurt for meals or snacks. Subjects lost an average of 3.8 kg. in 10 weeks. There was a marked association between rate of eating and total caloric consumption for the meal. Eating soup as part of lunch or dinner led to both decreased consumption of kilo-calories and a slower rate of eating.
Article
A universal eating monitor has been developed that permits covert continuous weighing of a subject's plate or other food reservoir by means of a concealed electronic balance. By coupling the device with a digital computer, it is possible to record precisely the amount consumed every 3 s throughout a single-course meal consisting of a relatively homogeneous mixture of foods. The monitor have been used to compare total intake, meal duration, initial rate of intake, and deceleration of intake in human subjects ingesting either a solid or liquid version of the same food after 3 or 6 h without food. It was found that the liquid form was eaten faster than the solid form, but that total amounts consumed in each form were not significantly different. These results suggest that when the rate of consumption is controlled by the physical consistency of the food, the amount eaten is not determined by the rate of consumption alone. Further studied are necessary to determine the relative roles of visual cues and interoceptive signals on quantity eaten.
Article
Two high-energy-dense and two low-energy-dense Italian dishes were employed to study the effects of chemical and physical characteristics of foods on satiety. The specific satiety was firstly investigated. Then the satiating efficiency was evaluated when each dish was divided into two calorie levels (preloads) before an ad lib meal. Our results suggest that specific satiety differs, depending on the food itself rather than on energy intake. More calories were ingested with the high-energy-dense foods. The Satiating Efficiency Index (SEI) was calculated: fruit salad was the most satiating (SEI = 3.7), followed by mixed boiled vegetables (SEI = 2.4), meat balls (SEI = 1.0), and baked macaroni (SEI = 0.4). Among the variables considered, energy density, volume, protein, and firmness were the most effective in inducing satiety. In conclusion, the consumption of an adequate amount of low-energy-dense foods, high in firmness, as a first course of a meal, can help to decrease short-term intake.
Article
To identify the source of inhibitory signals from the stomach or intestine that lead to satiation, the effects of 300-g tomato soup preloads on the gastric emptying of a solid meal and on hunger and fullness ratings were examined. Subjects were nine healthy women who each ingested an egg sandwich: 1) with no soup, 2) immediately after the soup, and 3) 20 min after the soup. Emptying of the sandwich was measured using radionuclide scintigraphy. Soup significantly prolonged the lag phase (period before significant emptying occurred, p < 0.05), and the half-emptying time (p < 0.01) of the sandwich, but only when ingested immediately before the sandwich. Thus, soup affected the emptying of the sandwich when the volume of soup in the stomach was at a maximum. Passage of soup into the duodenum over a 20-min period had no effect on emptying of the sandwich. Despite the different gastric/postgastric distributions of the soup and the sandwich in the two preload conditions, fullness ratings were not different.
Article
This study investigated the effect of the physical state and fat content of a preload on feelings of hunger and satiety and subsequent energy intake. Thirty-three normal-weight female subjects each received nine different 550-ml preloads which were served as breakfast. The preloads differed in physical state and fat level. There were three types of physical state (liquid, solid with locust bean gum, and solid with gelatin) combined with three energy levels (0.42, 1.67, and 3.35 MJ). The energy differences were due only to differences in fat content. Subjects were not allowed to eat or drink (except water) for 3.5 h after preload consumption. In this period they rated their feelings of appetite. Subjects recorded their voluntary food intake for the remainder of the study day and the day after the study day. There were no effects of the different amounts of fat or the three different physical states on energy intake during the remainder of the day or the day after. With respect to the appetite ratings, however, it appeared that the solid preloads were more satiating than the liquid preloads and the solid preloads were more satiating with fibre (locust bean gum) than without fibre (gelatin). The high-fat preloads were more satiating than the low-fat preloads.
Article
The effects of consuming foods with different macronutrient compositions and flavors on hedonic changes and development of satiety were investigated. Subjects rated their hunger and liking of a set of foods (rating set) before and after eating a serving (preload) of one of the foods in the rating set. The liking of the preload foods dropped more than the liking of the uneaten foods. Foods having the same flavor as the preload generally dropped more in liking than foods having similar macronutrients. The drops in liking increased with the caloric content of the preload but were unrelated to specific macronutrients. Less weight and calories of food were eaten after the high calorie preloads. Eating the high protein or the high-carbohydrate preload decreased hunger more than eating the high-fat food. Eating a high-protein preload decreased the weight of food eaten more than eating a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate preload and decreased total caloric intake more than eating a high-fat preload. However, macronutrient intake was not differentially affected by the macronutrient composition of a preload. Sensory-specific satiety appears to be more related to the sensory characteristics of a food than to the macronutrient composition of a food.
Article
This study examined whether drinking of water with breakfast affects the feelings of satiety and hunger, and how long after the meal this effect is maintained. Eight healthy, normal-weight women had three breakfasts with two extra glasses (4 dl) of water and three similar breakfasts without water. The breakfasts were served on three successive mornings during a 2 week period. The subjects filled in forms with visual analogue scales on feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat. The forms were filled just before the breakfast, in the middle of the breakfast before and after drinking of water, after finishing the meal, and thereafter every 30 min until 11.15 a.m. The results show that drinking two glasses of water affects subjective feelings of hunger and satiety during the meal, but this effect is not maintained after the meal. It is suggested that during a meal subjective feelings of hunger and satiety change independently of the food energy consumed. This study allows, however, no conclusions on the possible influence of drinking water on actual food intake during and after a meal.
Article
By manipulating hypothalamic neuronal histamine, its effects on brain functions related to homeostatic energy balance were assessed in non-obese normal and genetically obese Zucker rats. Feeding behavior was suppressed and drinking was accelerated by either activation of H1 receptors or inhibition of H3 receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the paraventricular nucleus, each of which is a satiety center. Energy deficiency in the brain, i.e., intraneuronal glucoprivation, produced satiation through histaminergic activation of VMH neurons. Such low energy intake in turn induced glycogenolysis in the astrocytes to protect energy deficit in the brain. Histamine neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5) regulated masticatory functions, particularly eating speed, and those in the VMH controlled intake volume at meals. Hypothalamic histamine neurons were activated by high ambient temperature and also by interleukin-1beta, an endogenous pyrogen, through prostaglandin E2 to maintain homeostatic thermoregulation. Behavioral and metabolic abnormalities of obese Zuckers were the result of a defect in hypothalamic neuronal histamine. Abnormalities produced by depletion of neuronal histamine from the normal hypothalamus mimicked those of obese Zuckers. Grafting the lean fetal hypothalamus into the obese pups attenuated those abnormalities.
Article
The human appetite system contains central and peripheral mechanisms that interact with environmental features, especially with the physical and nutrient composition of the food supply. Foods varying in nutrient composition exert different physiologic effects, some of which function as satiety signals. High-fat diets (low food quotient) lead to high levels of energy intake. This effect is termed passive overconsumption and overcomes fat-induced physiological satiety signals. High-fat foods exert a weak effect on satiation (intra-meal satiety), and fat has a weaker effect, joule for joule, on postingestive satiety than do other macronutrients. The frequency of obesity is greater among high-fat than low-fat consumers. However, the development of obesity on a high-fat diet is not a biological inevitability. The investigation of people who resist the weight-inducing properties of high-fat diets is a key research strategy. Understanding the appetite control system suggests behavioral, nutritional, and pharmacologic strategies for modifying dietary fat intake.