Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers

Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.98). 02/2005; 83(5):699-709. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.09.010
Source: PubMed


Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material.

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    • "Apart from its medical uses S. offi cinalis is used for fl avoring meat, fi sh and poultry dishes and the amount of sage leaf consumed as a culinary herb in food presents no hazard. Use of S. offi cinalis in prescribed doses is safe and there are no reports of negative side eff ects (Tildesley et al., 2005). Th erefore, recommended doses should never be exceeded and preparations of S. offi cinalis should not be used for prolonged periods. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) represents one of the most significant medicinal autochthonous species in flora of eastern Adriatic coast and islands. It is evergreen outcrossing perennial subshrub with short woody stems that branch extensively and violet flowers. Apart from being native to Mediterranean karst of west Balkan and Apenine peninsula it is cultivated in numerous countries worldwide with Mediterranean and temperate continental climate. From the earliest times it has been used in traditional medicine in healing gingiva, mouth cavity and the sore throat, against bacterial and fungal infections, for wound treatment, memory enhancement, for treating common cold, against sweating, stomach inflammation, ulcer formation, etc. Its essential oil has also been used in preservation of food and as spice as it gives both specific aroma and promotes digestion of food. The essential oil is extremely complex mixture of different active ingredients; however, the thujones and camphor are the dominant compounds and are the parameter by which S. officinalis is distinguished from other Salvia species. The great variability of essential oil composition and yield has been detected depending on various factors such as genotype, environmental conditions, phonological stage, plant parts used for the extraction of essential oil and drying procedure. Molecular genetic analysis of S. officinalis is still limited and comprises the use of RAPD markers, AFLP and SSR markers in assessing mostly the genetic variability and structure of wild S. officinalis populations.
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    • "Also, the mood-enhancing properties of the herb may have applications in the treatment of advanced dementia, in which disturbed mood and agitation feature as a major problem.[29] There is no report of negative side effects associated with S. officinalis or S. lavandulaefolia despite many years of usage.[29] "
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    ABSTRACT: For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva).
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    • "Active ingredients used in energy drinks, such as taurine and guaraná, can also enhance memory (Alford et al., 2001; Haskell et al., 2007). There is also evidence that nicotine and sage have beneficial effects on memory (Tildsley et al., 2005; Heishman et al., 2010). In general, nootropics can enhance memory encoding, but also may influence retrieval processes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Given that our ability to remember is inherently limited, one "solution" is to artificially enhance memory. Here I discuss four general approaches that have been developed to augment human long-term memory: nootropics agents, brain stimulation, mnemonic strategies, and external aids. The former two have only been recently developed in the field of systems neuroscience, and have become the focus of ethical debate. For example, some ethicists question the propriety of artificial memory enhancement in healthy individuals. As I demonstrate here, all four methods have been considered ethically suspect at one time or another. In medieval times, the use of mnemonics was considered immoral by many, and even the use of written texts as memory aids has been suggested as producing the appearance of knowledge, void of actual knowledge. Here I present a summary of each approach, beginning with those that fall within the scope of systems neuroscience, and dis-cuss considerations critical to each of their respective ethical debates.
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