Health promotion by flavonoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and other phenols: direct or indirect effects? Antioxidant or not? Am J Clin Nutr 81:268S-276S
Foods and beverages rich in phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, have often been associated with decreased risk of developing several diseases. However, it remains unclear whether this protective effect is attributable to the phenols or to other agents in the diet. Alleged health-promoting effects of flavonoids are usually attributed to their powerful antioxidant activities, but evidence for in vivo antioxidant effects of flavonoids is confusing and equivocal. This may be because maximal plasma concentrations, even after extensive flavonoid intake, may be low (insufficient to exert significant systemic antioxidant effects) and because flavonoid metabolites tend to have decreased antioxidant activity. Reports of substantial increases in plasma total antioxidant activity after flavonoid intake must be interpreted with caution; findings may be attributable to changes in urate concentrations. However, phenols might exert direct effects within the gastrointestinal tract, because of the high concentrations present. These effects could include binding of prooxidant iron, scavenging of reactive nitrogen, chlorine, and oxygen species, and perhaps inhibition of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. Our measurements of flavonoids and other phenols in human fecal water are consistent with this concept. We argue that tocopherols and tocotrienols may also exert direct beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract and that their return to the gastrointestinal tract by the liver through the bile may be physiologically advantageous.
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- "Antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities are two of the most coveted mechanisms to which prevention of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer is currently attributed. While antioxidants provide protection from cellular damage due to free radicals, starch hydrolase inhibitory activity is known to prevent the sudden release of glucose into the physiological system, thereby preventing the biochemical pathways which trigger the production of free radicals inside the mitochondria  . Carotenoids and phenolic compounds have been identified as two major dietary antioxidants with both categories containing over hundred member compounds . "
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ABSTRACT: The antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities of cardamom, cloves, coriander, cumin seeds, curry leaves, fenugreek, mustard seeds, nutmeg, sweet cumin, and star anise extracts were investigated in an
model of digestion mimicking the gastric and duodenal conditions. The total phenolic contents in all spice extracts had statistically significantly (
) increased following both gastric and duodenal digestion. This was also in correlation with the antioxidant assays quantifying the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The lipophilic Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay did not indicate a statistically significant change in the values during any of the digestion phases. Statistically significant (
) reductions in the anthocyanin contents were observed during the digestion phases in contrast to the carotenoid contents. With the exception of the cumin seed extract, none of the spice extracts showed statistically significant changes in the initial starch hydrolase enzyme inhibitory values prior to gastric and duodenal digestion. In conclusion, this study was able to prove that the 10 spices were a significant source of total phenolics, antioxidant, and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities.
- "Later studies include techniques such as gas chromatography (Shindo et al., 1978) or liquid chromatography followed by UV detection (Hartley and Buchan, 1979; Vance et al., 1986). Due to the alleged health beneficiary properties of these compounds (Halliwell et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2000), a growing interest in analyzing phenolic acids and phenolic acid derivates in food and beverages has led to the development of numerous methods using liquid chromatography with UV, fluorometric, amperometric or mass spectrometric detection (Amakura et al., 2000; Chapuis-Lardy et al., 2002; Gruz et al., 2008; Jirovský et al., 2003; Määttä et al., 2003; Rodrı́guez-Delgado et al., 2001; Seeram et al., 2006) or gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (Chu et al., 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: In this work the distribution of free and weekly adsorbed aromatic acids (phthalic acid and ten phenolic acids; gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic, vanillic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, syringic, sinapic, ferulic and caffeic acid), which could participate in weathering and soil formation processes, were studied for O, E and B horizons in a podzol soil in central Sweden. For the analysis a simple and rapid quantitative and qualitative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method (using gradient elution) was developed with LODs ranging from 5 to 25 nM. Different soil solution sampling techniques (tension-lysimeter and soil centrifugation) and soil extraction with either 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) or 50:50 (v/v) 10 mM phosphate buffer:MeOH were compared. All eleven acids were found in detectable or trace concentrations. The most abundant aromatic acids were vanillic and phthalic acid with concentrations around 1 μM for O and E horizon respectively. Lysimeter samples resulted in the lowest concentrations followed by centrifugation samples. In general, buffer:MeOH extraction resulted in the highest concentrations for the O horizon, likely due to MeOH's ability to compete for hydrophobic sites on soil organic matter (SOM). Then again, pure buffer with its higher ion strength, interfering with the acids electrostatic interactions with clay particles, leads to higher extracted concentrations for the E and B horizons. Since the efficiency of the extraction solutions, to a large extent, depends on the sample properties, a general approach is hard to appoint. However, the extraction of substituted cinnamic acids is in general facilitated by adding MeOH to the extraction solution. The use of statistical methods for the evaluation of the results showed a large and significant difference in aromatic acid concentrations received using different sampling techniques and sample preparations. In fact, sampling methods resulted in higher variations in aromatic acid concentrations than sampled horizon.
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- "Hindawi Publishing Corporation e Scientific World Journal Volume 2014, Article ID 306217, 10 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/306217 The Scientific World Journal of the body    "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.
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