Long-Term Prognosis of Individuals With Right Precordial ST-Segment-Elevation Brugada Syndrome

Westfälische Wilhelms University Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Münster, Germany.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 05/2005; 111(3):257-63. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000153267.21278.8D
Source: PubMed


Brugada syndrome is an arrhythmogenic disease characterized by an ECG pattern of ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death as a result of ventricular fibrillation. Controversy exists with regard to risk stratification and therapeutic management, particularly in asymptomatic individuals.
A total of 212 individuals (mean age, 45+/-6 years) with a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern were studied. Of these, 123 (58%) were asymptomatic, 65 (31%) had > or =1 syncope of unknown origin, and 24 (11%) had to be resuscitated because of ventricular fibrillation. In 125 individuals (59%), a spontaneous type 1 ECG was recorded. In the remaining, drug challenge with a class I antiarrhythmic agent unmasked a Brugada ECG. The mean ST elevation was 2.3+/-1.2 mm in symptomatic patients and 1.9+/-1.5 mm in asymptomatic individuals (P=0.04). During a mean follow-up of 40+/-50 months, 4 of the 24 patients (17%) with aborted sudden cardiac death and 4 of 65 (6%) with a prior syncope had a recurrent arrhythmic event, whereas only 1 of 123 asymptomatic individuals (0.8%) had a first arrhythmic event. Four of 9 patients with arrhythmic events during follow-up were not inducible during programmed electrical stimulation. A previous history of aborted sudden death or syncope and the presence of a spontaneous type 1 ECG were predictors of adverse outcome.
The present study reports data on a large population of individuals with a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern with the longest follow-up reported so far. A very low incidence of severe arrhythmic events, particularly in asymptomatic individuals, was found during follow-up. In the presence of very few arrhythmic events on follow-up, programmed electrical stimulation showed very little accuracy in predicting outcome.

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Available from: Günter Breithardt, Jan 14, 2015
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    • "Second, we included patients with type 2 or 3 ECG, and drug provocation tests were not performed for all patients. Our inclusion criteria differed from those of some other studies5,11 that included only patients with type 1 ECG (spontaneous or pharmacologically induced), therefore, they may have affected the cardiac events and clinical characteristics in our study. However, the pharmacological provocation test has been suggested to have no additional benefit for risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals with a nondiagnostic Brugada ECG.18,19 "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Our study aims to analyze prognosis after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in Korean patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of BrS patients implanted with an ICD at one of four centers in Korea between January 1998 and April 2012. Sixty-nine patients (68 males, 1 female) were implanted with an ICD based on aborted cardiac arrest (n=38, 55%), history of syncope (n=17, 25%), or induced ven tricular tachyarrhythmia on electrophysiologic study in asymptomatic patients (n=14, 20%). A family history of sudden cardiac death and a spontaneous type 1 electrocardiography (ECG) were noted in 13 patients (19%) and 44 patients (64%), respectively. Results During a mean follow-up of 59±46 months, 4.6±5.5 appropri ate shocks were delivered in 19 patients (28%). Fourteen patients (20%) experienced 5.2±8.0 inappropriate shocks caused by supraventricular arrhythmia, lead failure, or abnormal sensing. Six patients were admitted for cardiac causes during follow-up, but no cardiac deaths occurred. An episode of aborted cardiac arrest was a significant predictor of appropriate shock, and the composite of cardiac events in the Cox pro portional hazard model [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 11.34 (1.31-97.94) and 4.78 (1.41-16.22), respectively]. However, a spontaneous type 1 ECG was not a predictor of cardiac events. Conclusion Appropriate shock (28%) and inappropriate shock (20%) were noted during a mean follow-up of 59±46 months in Korean BrS patients implanted with an ICD. An episode of aborted cardiac ar rest was the most powerful predictor of cardiac events.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Yonsei medical journal
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    • "Previous studies have either relied on largely non-invasive experiments in humans or on a canine pharmacological wedge preparation in which the BrS phenotype was replicated by multiple pharmacological interventions. In contrast, although BrS is a genetically heterogeneous condition, up to 30 per cent of patients have mutations in the SCN5A gene [6]. Thus far, it is the only gene that has been extensively studied in connection with BrS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is associated with ventricular tachycardia originating particularly in the right ventricle (RV). We explore electrophysiological features predisposing to such arrhythmic tendency and their possible RV localization in a heterozygotic Scn5a+/- murine model. Na(v)1.5 mRNA and protein expression were lower in Scn5a+/- than wild-type (WT), with a further reduction in the RV compared with the left ventricle (LV). RVs showed higher expression levels of K(v)4.2, K(v)4.3 and KChIP2 in both Scn5a+/- and WT. Action potential upstroke velocity and maximum Na(+) current (I(Na)) density were correspondingly decreased in Scn5a+/-, with a further reduction in the RV. The voltage dependence of inactivation was shifted to more negative values in Scn5a+/-. These findings are predictive of a localized depolarization abnormality leading to slowed conduction. Persistent Na(+) current (I(pNa)) density was decreased in a similar pattern to I(Na). RV transient outward current (I(to)) density was greater than LV in both WT and Scn5a+/-, and had larger time constants of inactivation. These findings were also consistent with the observation that AP durations were smallest in the RV of Scn5a+/-, fulfilling predictions of an increased heterogeneity of repolarization as an additional possible electrophysiological mechanism for arrhythmogenesis in BrS.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Open Biology
    • "Nevertheless, up to 30% of patients have mutations in the SCN5A gene, which encodes the cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channel 1.5 (Nav1.5) α-subunit (16). Thus far, it is the only gene that has been extensively studied in connection with BrS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) in Brugada Syndrome patients often originates in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). We explore the physiological basis for this observation using murine whole heart preparations. Ventricular bipolar electrograms and monophasic action potentials were recorded from seven epicardial positions in Langendorff-perfused wild-type and Scn5a+/- hearts. VT first appeared in the RVOT, implicating it as an arrhythmogenic focus in Scn5a+/- hearts. RVOTs showed the greatest heterogeneity in refractory periods, response latencies, and action potential durations, and the most fractionated electrograms. However, incidences of concordant alternans in dynamic pacing protocol recordings were unaffected by the Scn5a+/- mutation or pharmacological intervention. Conversely, particularly at the RVOT, Scn5a+/- hearts showed earlier and more frequent transitions into discordant alternans. This was accentuated by flecainide, but reduced by quinidine, in parallel with their respective pro- and anti-arrhythmic effects. Discordant alternans preceded all episodes of VT. The RVOT of Scn5a+/- hearts also showed steeper restitution curves, with the diastolic interval at which the gradient equaled one strongly correlating with the diastolic interval at which discordant alternans commenced. We attribute the arrhythmic tendency within the RVOT to the greater spatial heterogeneities in baseline electrophysiological properties. These, in turn, give rise to a tendency to drive concordant alternans phenomena into an arrhythmogenic discordant alternans. Our findings may contribute to future work investigating possible pharmacological treatments for a disease in which the current mainstay of treatment is implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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