Antioxidant Betalains from Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus‐indica) Inhibit Endothelial ICAM‐1 Expression
It has been suggested that some pigments would have antioxidant properties and that their presence in dietary constituents would contribute to reduce the risk of oxidative stress-correlated diseases. Among others, inflammatory response depends on redox status and may implicate oxidative stress. Vascular endothelial cells are a direct target of oxidative stress in inflammation. We have tested the impact of the free radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of betalains from the prickle pear in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. Here we show the capacity of betalains to protect endothelium from cytokine-induced redox state alteration, through ICAM-1 inhibition.
Available from: Katalin Solymosi
- "tion of cactus pear fruit ( Tesoriere et al . , 2005 ) . Moreover , Tesoriere et al . ( 2008 ) have shown in vitro that betaxanthins from cactus pear fruit were bioaccessible in postintestinal digesta and retained their antioxidative potential . So , betalains could protect endothelium from oxidative stress - correlated diseases as inflammations ( Gentile et al . , 2004 ) . Consequently , beta - lains present an interesting potential in the prevention of cancer as it was demonstrated in vitro ( Zhou et al . , 2005 ; Schwartz et al . , 1983 ; Khan et al . , 2012 ) and cardiovascular diseases ( Delgado - Vargas et al . , 2000 ) . Recent applications suggest a better preserva - tion of the colour properti"
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ABSTRACT: Colour is an often overlooked sensory character that certainly influences flavour perception. Pigments colouring food are generally unstable and are modified during processing. To maintain or restore product colour uniformity, colouring agents, considered worldwide as food additives, are intentionally added to food products. The natural food additives market has been growing extensively since the last century due to the potential hazards of artificial food additives and the potential benefits of biologically active compounds. In this chapter, a fairly compressed overview of the most important colours of natural origin as well as information about less common or/and promising colouring molecules are provided.
- "The upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules is essential to initiating neutrophil recruitment (Phillipson and Kubes 2011). In agreement with the present data, previous work shows the betalains to inhibit TNF-ainduced intercellular cell adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Gentile et al. 2004). Thus, novel drugs that inhibit neutrophil recruitment and/or activation may be useful in the treatment of a host of inflammatory diseases. "
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ABSTRACT: We have recently developed betalain-rich beetroot (Beta vulgaris) dye (betalain) to be used in food products. Betalain (30-300 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment diminished carrageenan (100 µg/paw)-induced paw edema and neutrophil migration to the paw skin tissue. Betalain (100 mg/kg) treatment by subcutaneous or per oral routes also inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema. Importantly, the post-treatment with betalain (100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (10 µl/paw)-induced paw edema. Betalain (100 mg/kg) also reduced carrageenan (500 µg/cavity)-induced recruitment of total leukocytes, including mononuclear cells and neutrophils, as well as increasing vascular permeability in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, betalain significantly reduced carrageenan-induced superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the peritoneal fluid, as well as augmenting IL-10 levels. Therefore, this compound presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis by reducing the production of superoxide anion and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, in addition to increasing IL-10 levels. These results suggest that betalain shows therapeutic potential that could be utilized in the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases.
Available from: Fulvio D'Acquisto
- "It is a reducing and amphipathic molecule, can interact with and partition in membranes, penetrate cells and counteract oxidative damage in various cell environments in vitro      . Moreover indicaxanthin has appeared capable of modulating specific redox-driven signalling pathways involved in the inflammatory response in cultured endothelial cells, and preventing the 7-ketocholesterol apoptotic activity in a human monocyte/macrophage cell line  . The ability to modulate the activity and/or the expression of the redox-dependent proinflammatory enzymes such as myeloperoxidase and NADPH oxidase (NOX)    may play a role in these effects. "
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS.
A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.
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