Article

Verification of skin-based markers for 3D kinematic analysis of the equine tarsal joint

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
Equine Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2005; 36(8):655-8. DOI: 10.2746/0425164044847984
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Kinematic studies are usually based on tracking markers attached to the skin. However, complex joints, such as the tarsal joint, function in 3-dimensions (3D), and have therefore necessitated application of the invasive bone pin technique, limiting kinematic studies to the research laboratory. This study investigates the feasibility of using skin-based markers for 3D analysis of tarsal joint motion.
Three-dimensional motions of the tarsal joint can be measured with an acceptable degree of accuracy using skin markers.
Retroreflective markers were attached over the tibial and metatarsal segments. Markers were tracked automatically at trot. Three-dimensional skin correction algorithms were used for correction of skin displacement, and 3D motions derived from the corrected (CSD) and uncorrected (USD) skin displacement were compared with data from a previous study in which those motions were described using bone-fixed markers (BFM) by correlation, root mean square errors (RMS) and shape agreement (SA) of the curves.
The RMS of BFM and CSD were smaller than those of BFM and USD for all motions. The correlation coefficients of BFM and CSD were higher than those of BFM and USD. SA was good or fair for all motions except internal/external rotation and medial/lateral translation.
With appropriate correction for skin movement relative to skeletal landmarks, skin markers can identify tarsal 3D motions for flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, cranial/caudal translation, and proximal/distal translation, allowing analysis and comparison of information between horses during swing and stance phases.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Hilary Clayton
  • Source
    • "Videographic techniques are currently the most used methods for the kinematic (angular, temporal and linear) analysis in domestic animals; these methods result precise and non-invasive. Combined with the treadmill it is possible to perform these analyses under controlled conditions and incorporate additional devices (Khumsap et al. 2004). The main methods to obtain data regarding these parameters consist of visual markers fixed on the skin at specific anatomic references using cyanoacrylate glue (Vilar et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Principle of ‘dynamic similarity’ is frequently applied in biomechanic research as a tool to extrapolate data between animals from the same species, but, in dogs, different breeds entail different conformations. For that reason, comparison of dynamic parameters among dogs of different breeds should not be only based in weight and relative velocity. By means of the use of force platform and high-speed videography in 12 dogs corresponding with four breeds of different conformations, we showed how most of kinetic and kinematic variables are highly independent of weight or relative velocity and other factors as morphometric values and ratios are determinant
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Techniques for 3D analysis have recently been developed. This study applied 3D kinematic analysis to describe the effects of lameness in the distal intertarsal (DIT) and tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints; complex joints such as this may show measurable amounts of movement outside the sagittal plane that may change in response to pathological conditions. Three-dimensional motions of the tarsal joint change after the induction of synovitis at the DIT and TMT joints. Twelve retroreflective markers, attached on the skin over the right limb, were used to develop 3D coordinate systems for tibial and metatarsal segments. Data were collected at trot from 4 horses on 2 occasions, before (sound condition) and after (lame condition) induction of synovitis of the DIT and TMT joints. Ranges of 3D motions of the metatarsal segment relative to the tibial segment were compared between sound and lame conditions using t tests. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in tarsal joint flexion and cranial translation of the metatarsus relative to the tibia during stance, and in proximal translation of the metatarsus during swing. In the lame condition, reduced cranial translation at the DIT and TMT joints may lead to a reduction in the motion of the articular cartilage surfaces relative to each other, which may have adverse effects on cartilage nutrition and function. Further studies of tarsal 3D kinematics in horses with bone spavin could allow quantification of the biomechanical effects of the special shoes used for conservative treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Equine Veterinary Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop and evaluate a marker cluster set for measuring sagittal and extrasagittal movement of joints in the distal portion of the forelimb in ponies. 4 ponies. 5 infrared cameras were positioned on a concrete walkway in a frontal-sagittal arc and calibrated. Four segments were defined: hoof, middle phalanx, proximal phalanx, and metacarpus. Rigid clusters with 4 retroreflective markers were placed on each segment. A static trial was recorded with additional anatomic markers on the medial and lateral joint lines. Those anatomic markers were removed, and kinematic data were recorded at 240 Hz during walking. An ensemble mean was computed from the 4 ponies from 5 replicates of the walks. Joint kinematic variables were calculated by use of the calibrated anatomical system technique. The design and error dispersion of each marker were evaluated. Marker clusters were quasiplanar, but variation in orientation error was reduced because the mean radii were > 10 times the largest error dispersion values. Measurements of sagittal rotations of the distal interphalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and metacarpophalangeal joints were similar to measurements obtained with bone-fixed triads, but larger discrepancies between the 2 methods were found for extrasagittal rotations. Development of noninvasive methods for quantifying data pertaining to 3-dimensional motion in horses is important for advancement of clinical analysis. The technique used in the study enabled identification of flexion-extension motions with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Appropriate correction algorithms and improvements to the technique may enable future quantification of extrasagittal motions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
Show more