NY-ESO-1 is highly expressed in poor-prognosis multiple myeloma and induces spontaneous humoral and cellular immune responses

University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 06/2005; 105(10):3939-44. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2004-09-3707
Source: PubMed


The presence of a metaphase cytogenetic abnormality (CA) is the key negative predictor of outcome in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Gene expression profiling (GEP) of such patients showed increased expression of NY-ESO-1 compared to patients with normal cytogenetics (60% versus 31%; P = .004). NY-ESO-1 was also highly expressed in relapsing MM especially patients with CA (100% versus 60.7%; P < .001). GEP findings were confirmed at the protein level by immunostaining of marrow biopsies for NY-ESO-1. We detected spontaneous NY-ESO-1-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 33% of patients with NY-ESO-1+ MM, especially in CA patients (9 of 13; 70%), but in none of the NY-ESO-1- patients with MM (n = 27) or healthy donors (n = 21). Spontaneous NY-ESO-1(157-165)-specific T cells (0.2%-0.6% of CD8+ T cells) were found in the peripheral blood of NY-ESO-1+ MM with HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157-165) tetramers. These NY-ESO-1-specific T cells, when expanded, killed primary MM cells (50% lysis, effector-target [E/T] ratio, 10:1). Our data demonstrate that NY-ESO-1 is frequently expressed in MM with CA and is capable of eliciting spontaneous humoral and T-cell immunity. The pool of NY-ESO-1-specific cytotoxic T cells expands easily on NY-ESO-1 peptide stimulation and is functionally active. NY-ESO-1 should therefore be an ideal tumor target antigen for immunotherapy of patients with poor-prognosis MM.

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    • "Humoral responses directed against NY-ESO have been documented after allogeneic transplantation, which suggests that targeting of this antigen may be associated with the graft-versus-disease response. Expression of NY-ESO has been shown to correlate with disease progression, and antigen-specific CTL responses are induced after repetitive stimulation in vitro [50]. CD138, also known as Syndecan-1, offers a potential target for developing an immunotherapy targeting MM. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor immunotherapy holds great promise in controlling multiple myeloma (MM) and may provide an alternative treatment modality to conventional chemotherapy for MM patients. For this reason, a major area of investigation is the development of cancer vaccines to generate myeloma-specific immunity. Several antigens that are able to induce specific T-cell responses are involved in different critical mechanisms for cell differentiation, inhibition of apoptosis, demethylation and proliferation. Strategies under development include infusion of vaccine-primed and ex vivo expanded/costimulated autologous T cells after high-dose melphalan, genetic engineering of autologous T cells with receptors for myeloma-specific epitopes, administration of dendritic cell/plasma cell fusions and administration expanded marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes. In addition, novel immunomodulatory drugs may synergize with immunotherapies. The task ahead is to evaluate these approaches in appropriate clinical settings, and to couple them with strategies to overcome mechanisms of immunoparesis as a means to induce more robust clinically significant immune responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
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    • "To date, a large number of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and class II-restricted NY-ESO-1 epitopes have been identified [4-7]. Studies have demonstrated that coordinated humoral and cellular immune responses against NY-ESO-1 occurred frequently in patients bearing NY-ESO-1-positive tumors [6,8-10]. The relatively high immunogenicity and tissue distribution make NY-ESO-1 a promising candidate antigen for the development of tumor vaccines. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A safe and effective adjuvant plays an important role in the development of a vaccine. However, adjuvants licensed for administration in humans remain limited. Here, for the first time, we developed a novel combination adjuvant alum-polysaccharide-HH2 (APH) with potent immunomodulating activities, consisting of alum, polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide HH2. Methods The adjuvant effects of APH were examined using NY-ESO-1 protein-based vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic models. We further determined the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect of NY-ESO-1-APH (NAPH) vaccine using adoptive cellular/serum therapy in C57/B6 and nude mice. Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses were evaluated. Results The APH complex significantly promoted antigen uptake, maturation and cross-presentation of dendritic cells and enhanced the secretion of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IFN-γ by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with individual components. Vaccination of NAPH resulted in significant tumor regression or delayed tumor progression in prophylactic and therapeutic models. In addition, passive serum/cellular therapy potently inhibited tumor growth of NY-ESO-1-B16. Mice treated with NAPH vaccine produced higher antibody titers and greater antibody-dependent/independent cellular cytotoxicity. Therefore, NAPH vaccination effectively stimulated innate immunity, and boosted both arms of the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses to suppress tumorigenesis and growth of melanoma. Conclusions Our study revealed the potential application of APH complex as a novel immunomodulatory agent for vaccines against tumor refractory and growth.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Molecular Cancer
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    • "Although little is known about their functions, normal tissue expression of both of these antigens is principally limited to immune privileged sites [20–22]. Like other CT antigens, both NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 are expressed during development as well as by a wide range of tumors including myeloma [23, 24] and a variety of solid tumors such as ovarian [25], non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [26, 27], and melanoma [28, 29]. NY-ESO-1 has been targeted extensively in clinical trials using a variety of approaches including vaccines and gene-modified T cells [13, 30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 are cancer testis antigens with an ideal profile for tumor immunotherapy, combining up-regulation in many cancer types with highly restricted expression in normal tissues and sharing a common HLA-A*0201 epitope, 157–165. Here, we present data to describe the specificity and anti-tumor activity of a bifunctional ImmTAC, comprising a soluble, high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for NY-ESO-1157–165 fused to an anti-CD3 scFv. This reagent, ImmTAC-NYE, is shown to kill HLA-A2, antigen-positive tumor cell lines, and freshly isolated HLA-A2- and LAGE-1-positive NSCLC cells. Employing time-domain optical imaging, we demonstrate in vivo targeting of fluorescently labelled high-affinity NYESO-specific TCRs to HLA-A2-, NY-ESO-1157–165-positive tumors in xenografted mice. In vivo ImmTAC-NYE efficacy was tested in a tumor model in which human lymphocytes were stably co-engrafted into NSG mice harboring tumor xenografts; efficacy was observed in both tumor prevention and established tumor models using a GFP fluorescence readout. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of both NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 antigens in 15 normal tissues, 5 cancer cell lines, 10 NSCLC, and 10 ovarian cancer samples. Overall, LAGE-1 RNA was expressed at a greater frequency and at higher levels than NY-ESO-1 in the tumor samples. These data support the clinical utility of ImmTAC-NYE as an immunotherapeutic agent for a variety of cancers. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00262-012-1384-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
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