Negative Affect in Offspring of Depressed Mothers Is Predicted by Infant Cortisol Levels at 6 Months and Maternal Depression during Pregnancy, but Not Postpartum
Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 01/2005; 1032(1):234-6. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.028
This study tests the hypothesis that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts temperament in offspring aged 6 m to 5 y. Previous studies have shown that maternal depression is related to negative affect and that certain temperament factors, such as negative affect and behavioral inhibition, in children predict affective disorders. Here, maternal depression is divided into depression during pregnancy vs. depression postpartum. Maternal depression was determined by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) throughout pregnancy and postpartum (prospectively) and by a diagnostic interview (SCID) at 6 months postpartum. The data show that maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum, predicted the ratings of negative affect in the offspring. Importantly, symptoms of depression in the mother (BDI) were used as a control variable in the analyses in order to control for potential bias related to the mother's mood. In addition, cortisol levels in response to a mild stressor at 6 months of age predicted negative affect in infants and toddlers. We conclude that the effects of maternal depression on behavioral problems and vulnerability to mental illness may be mediated by altered temperament and enhanced stress responsiveness.
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- "Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 4 months could be a proxy for exposure to prenatal maternal depression, which may program the infant HPA axis in utero. It is possible that exposure to prenatal maternal depression is related to increased glucocorticoid exposure, as some adults with depression hypersecrete and exhibit prolonged elevations in cortisol (Parker, Schatzberg, & Lyons, 2003 ), and their offspring tend to have higher cortisol levels (Field et al., 2004), though other work finds null results (Huot, Brennan, Stowe, Plotsky, & Walker, 2004). Indeed, in previous work we have found that exposure to prenatal maternal depression is related to more DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11b-HSD2 (Conradt et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of NR3C1, 11β-HSD2, and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive symptoms who were more responsive and who engaged in more appropriate touch during face-to-face play had infants with less DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11β-HSD2 compared to mothers with depressive symptoms who were also insensitive. The combination of exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity was related to the highest prestress cortisol levels, whereas exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and maternal insensitivity was related to the lowest prestress cortisol levels.
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- "The disparate findings on timing may also be attributable to the approach to measurement of NA. Although both Huot et al. (2004) and Davis et al. (2007) measured NA with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) (Rothbart, 1981), Davis et al. (2007) relied on only one of the four subscales (Fear) within the IBQ-derived NA dimension. In an effort to bridge the gap between these two studies, we tested primary hypotheses with the NA dimension of the IBQ-R, but also explored associations with the subscales that comprise that dimension. "
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that antenatal depression predicts infants’ negative affectivity, albeit with variable effect sizes. With a prospective longitudinal design, we sought to explain that variability by addressing questions about timing of the depression across pregnancy and the early postpartum, the role of high symptom levels relative to diagnosed depression, comorbidity with anxiety, and the potential mediating role of neuroendocrine functioning. Primiparous women (n = 77) with histories of depression prior to pregnancy were assessed for cortisol levels monthly beginning by mid-pregnancy. Depression symptom levels and diagnostic status were similarly assessed monthly in pregnancy and also until infants reached three months of age, when mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised to measure infant negative affectivity. Antenatal depression symptoms and infant negative affectivity were positively associated (r = .39). Controlling for depression symptom levels in other trimesters, only second trimester depression symptoms predicted higher infant negative affectivity (β = .44). With postpartum depression symptom levels in the model, only antenatal depression symptoms predicted infant negative affectivity (β = .45). In the context of depression, neither antenatal anxiety symptoms nor anxiety disorder diagnosis were associated with infant NA scores. The hypothesized role of elevated maternal cortisol as a mechanism for the association between antenatal depression and infant NA was not supported. Our findings contribute to efforts to more precisely identify infants of perinatally depressed mothers who are at greater risk for elevated negative affectivity, suggesting a window of vulnerability in mid pregnancy and the need for further study of potential mechanisms.
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- "Infants of mothers with PTSD show overall more levels of distress to novelty and have decreased cortisol levels compared to infants of mothers exposed to trauma during pregnancy who did not develop PTSD (Yehuda et al. 2005). Furthermore, infant cortisol levels have been associated with negative affect in offspring later on as toddlers (Huot et al. 2004). Taken together , these data indicate that psychopathology during pregnancy can affect offspring biology and increase offspring risk for PTSD and depression. "
ABSTRACT: While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women.