The use of live three-dimensional Doppler echocardiography in the measurement of cardiac output - An in vivo animal study

Clinical Care Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 03/2005; 45(3):433-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.10.046
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiac output (CO) could be accurately computed from live three-dimensional (3-D) Doppler echocardiographic data in an acute open-chested animal preparation.
The accurate measurement of CO is important in both patient management and research. Current methods use invasive pulmonary artery catheters or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography or esophageal aortic Doppler measures, with the inherent risks and inaccuracies of these techniques.
Seventeen juvenile, open-chested pigs were studied before undergoing a separate cardiopulmonary bypass procedure. Live 3-D Doppler echocardiography images of the left ventricular outflow tract and aortic valve were obtained by epicardial scanning, using a Philips Medical Systems (Andover, Massachusetts) Sonos 7500 Live 3-D Echo system with a 2.5-MHz probe. Simultaneous CO measurements were obtained from an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the aortic root. Subsequent offline processing using custom software computed the CO from the digital 3-D Doppler DICOM data, and this was compared to the gold standard of the aortic flow probe measurements.
One hundred forty-three individual CO measurements were taken from 16 pigs, one being excluded because of severe aortic regurgitation. There was good correlation between the 3-D Doppler and flow probe methods of CO measurement (y = 1.1x - 9.82, R(2) = 0.93).
In this acute animal preparation, live 3-D Doppler echocardiographic data allowed for accurate assessment of CO as compared to the ultrasonic flow probe measurement.

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    • "Recently, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) was developed to provide superior image quality. Studies have revealed the advantages of this modality for assessing LV volume, mass, and output [9] [10] [11] and elucidating the 3D geometry of the mitral valve and annulus [12]. In this study, 3D TEE was utilized to provide fast, noninvasive , and accurate estimations of TV morphology. "
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound
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    • "Since the solution provided is already limited and only allows to estimate some regional changes in vascularity, applicable perhaps to the abovementioned DVS and to placenta (Odeh et al. 2011), but is still far away from depicting the flow phenomenon; it is necessary to move forward, towards two recently opened gates: First is the integration of Power Doppler signal derived velocities profile, whose most reliable approach is the Surface Integration of Velocity Vectors ,(Sun et al. 1995; J M Rubin et al. 2001; Berg et al. 2000) a clarifying concept which was developed for Color Dopler signal analysis, but has the handicap of the angle effect (Pemberton et al. 2005; Li et al. 2005), reason why it was left aside. Until the algorithms for calculating velocity of particles from power Doppler signals were developed (M. "

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