Although there are considerable data demonstrating the impact of shift work on sleep and alertness, little research has examined the prevalence and consequences of shift work sleep disorder in comparison to the difficulties with insomnia and excessive sleepiness experienced by day workers. The present study was designed to determine the relative prevalence and negative consequences associated with shift work sleep disorder in a representative sample drawn from the working population of metropolitan Detroit.
Random-digit dialing techniques were used to assess individuals regarding their current work schedules and a variety of sleep- and non-sleep-related outcomes.
Detroit tricounty population.
A total of 2,570 individuals aged 18 to 65 years from a representative community-based sample including 360 people working rotating shifts, 174 people working nights, and 2036 working days.
Using standardized techniques, individuals were assessed for the presence of insomnia and excessive sleepiness, based on DSM-IV and ICSD criteria. Those individuals with either insomnia or excessive sleepiness and who were currently working rotating or night schedules were classified as having shift work sleep disorder. Occupational, behavioral, and health-related outcomes were also measured. Individuals who met criteria for shift work sleep disorder had significantly higher rates of ulcers (odds ratio = 4.18, 95% confidence interval = 2.00-8.72), sleepiness-related accidents, absenteeism, depression, and missed family and social activities more frequently compared to those shift workers who did not meet criteria (P < .05). Importantly, in most cases, the morbidity associated with shift work sleep disorder was significantly greater than that experienced by day workers with identical symptoms.
These findings suggest that individuals with shift work sleep disorder are at risk for significant behavioral and health-related morbidity associated with their sleep-wake symptomatology. Further, it suggests that the prevalence of shift work sleep disorder is approximately 10% of the night and rotating shift work population.
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"Shift work involves having employees work at different times of the day. This often involves employees working night shifts that are in direct opposition to their circadian rhythms, making it hard to stay awake while on the job and hard to get sufficient sleep outside of work (Drake, Roehrs, Richardson, Walsh, & Roth, 2004; Wittmann, Dinich, Merrow, & Roenneberg, 2006 ). Physiological adjustment to night shifts is often slow (Aschoff, Hoffmann, Pohl, & Wever, 1975), such that employees are often in circadian misalignment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Perspectives on Psychological Science
"SWD criteria were based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-3rd Edition  (ICSD-3), and they were consistent with previous research using a large population-based sample . Specifically, participants were required to meet criteria for sleep disturbance and/or excessive sleepiness that temporally corresponded with transitioning to a rotating shift work schedule based on self-reported sleep–wake symptoms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate premorbid sleep reactivity as a vulnerability to incident shift work disorder and related changes in depression and anxiety following a transition to a rotating shifts work schedule.
Methods: This is a longitudinal study with two waves of data collection. The community-based sample included normal sleeping non-shift workers (N=96; 62.5% female; 47.9±13.3 yo) without a lifetime history of insomnia or baseline excessive daytime sleepiness who transitioned to rotating shift work one year later.
Participants reported demographic characteristics, trait sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test, depression symptoms on the Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology, and anxiety symptoms on the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Shift work disorder was determined based on significant sleep disturbance and/or excessive sleepiness in the context of working a rotating shifts schedule.
Results: Analyses revealed that the odds were over five times greater for highly sleep reactive individuals to develop shift work disorder after transitioning to rotating shifts (OR=5.59, p=.04). Nearly 90% of shift work disorder sufferers were accurately identified as high risk at 1-y prior to disease onset. Furthermore, individuals who developed SWD reported greater increases in symptoms of depression and anxiety. Finally, analyses revealed significant indirect effects wherein high sleep reactivity increased risk for SWD, which led to greater severity of anxiety and depression symptoms.
Conclusions: The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the premorbid psychobiological processes complicit in SWD onset and progression, as well as shift work-related depression and anxiety changes, can be better investigated, thus improving future preventative efforts.
"However, other than work-family conflict, recovery during Sundays has not received much attention so far, although impeded recovery processes are said to be the crucial link in the development of ill-health in the long run (Geurts and Sonnentag 2006). Sleep plays a particularly prominent role in the research on recovery; studies have shown that work-related stressors are positively linked to sleep impairments (e.g., Ekstedt et al. 2006; Lallukka et al. 2011; Litwiller 2014) and that sleep impairments are positively linked to ill-health (e.g., Drake et al. 2005). In a recent study, healthy men and women received viral exposure; it was tested whether sleep, measured by actigraphy, predicted the incidence of colds (Prather et al. 2015). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many employees in service work are required to work on Saturdays, recovering during work-free Sundays and working again Mondays. We examined the effects of social stressors at work on recovery status at Sunday noon and Monday noon, and investigated if sleep quality mediates the negative effects of social stressors at work on recovery. From Saturday until Monday morning, 41 participants wore actigraphs to measure sleep duration and sleep fragmentation. Social stressors at work were assessed by self-reported questionnaires administered on Saturday. Recovery status was reported Sunday noon and Monday noon. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were negatively related to recovery status on Sunday and on Monday. Supporting our assumptions, more social stressors at work predicted higher sleep fragmentation in the night to Monday. A mediation effect of sleep quality, however, was not found. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback