Canadian Concensus Conference on the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults - Update 2004

Division of Gastroenterology, McMaster University, Hamilton.
Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie (Impact Factor: 1.98). 02/2005; 19(1):15-35.
Source: PubMed


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most prevalent acid-related disorder in Canada and is associated with significant impairment of health-related quality of life. Since the last Canadian Consensus Conference in 1996, GERD management has evolved substantially.
To develop up-to-date evidence-based recommendations relevant to the needs of Canadian health care providers for the management of the esophageal manifestations of GERD.
A multidisciplinary group of 23 voting participants developed recommendation statements using a Delphi approach; after presentation of relevant data at the meeting, the quality of the evidence, strength of recommendation and level of consensus were graded by participants according to accepted principles.
GERD applies to individuals who reflux gastric contents into the esophagus causing symptoms sufficient to reduce quality of life, injury or both; endoscopy-negative reflux disease applies to individuals who have GERD and a normal endoscopy. Uninvestigated heartburn-dominant dyspepsia - characterised by heartburn or acid regurgitation - includes erosive esophagitis or endoscopy-negative reflux disease, and may be treated empirically as GERD without further investigation provided there are no alarm features. Lifestyle modifications are ineffective for frequent or severe GERD symptoms; over-the-counter antacids or histamine H2-receptor antagonists are effective for some patients with mild or infrequent GERD symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors are more effective for healing and symptom relief than histamine H2-receptor antagonists; their efficacy is proportional to their ability to reduce intragastric acidity. Response to initial therapy - a once-daily proton pump inhibitor unless symptoms are mild and infrequent (fewer than three times per week) - should be assessed at four to eight weeks. Maintenance medical therapy should be at the lowest dose and frequency necessary to maintain symptom relief; antireflux surgery is an alternative for a small proportion of selected patients. Routine testing for Helicobacter pylori infection is unnecessary before starting GERD therapy. GERD is associated with Barrett's epithelium and esophageal adenocarcinoma but the risk of malignancy is very low. Endoscopic screening for Barrett's epithelium may be considered in adults with GERD symptoms for more than 10 years; Barrett's epithelium and low-grade dysplasia generally warrant surveillance; endoscopic or surgical management should be considered for confirmed high-grade dysplasia or malignancy.
Prospective studies are needed to investigate clinically relevant risk factors for the development of GERD and its complications; GERD progression, on and off therapy; optimal management strategies for typical GERD symptoms in primary care patients; and optimal management strategies for atypical GERD symptoms, Barrett's epithelium and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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Available from: Peter J Kahrilas
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    • "When it comes to the severity of GERD -an aspect of crucial importance to the physician because it is precisely on this that his attitude to diagnosis and therapy will so often depend [8,9]- the Montreal Consensus does not specify how GERD severity is to be assessed in clinical practice, thus assuming the degree of severity to be that reported by the patient [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Scales for aiding physicians diagnose gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have not been evaluated in terms of their ability to discriminate between troublesome symptoms (TS) and non-troublesome symptoms (NTS). Our objective is to evaluate the ability of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) to identify GERD according to referral of TS, in patients without previous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment and in patients on PPI treatment. Patients consulting physicians because of heartburn or acid regurgitation were recruited at 926 primary-care centres in Spain. They were asked to complete several questionnaires including the RDQ, and to define which of their symptoms were troublesome. Information on drug treatment was collected by the physician. We performed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to ascertain the RDQ's optimum cut-point for identifying TS. 4574 patients were included, 1887 without PPI and 2596 on PPI treatment. Among those without PPI treatment, 1722 reported TS. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.79 for the RDQ, and the optimum RDQ cut-point for identifying TS was 3.18 (sensitivity, 63.2%; specificity, 80.2%). A total of 2367 patients on PPI treatment reported TS, and the optimum RDQ cut-off value was 3.06 (sensitivity, 65.4%; specificity, 71.8%). An RDQ score higher than 3 shows good sensitivity and specificity for differentiating TS from NTS among patients without PPI or on PPI treatment. The RDQ is useful in primary care for diagnosis of GERD based on the Montreal definition.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    • "So, in clinical cases, the medication is selected by considering age and severity of symptoms. About symptoms of GERD, the presence of esophageal erosions or ulcers is one of the factors that determine the severity of GERD (Armstrong et al., 2005). But, the previous study showed that the presence of esophagitis did not always exist in children with refractory respiratory symptoms of GERD (Ravelli et al., 2006). "

    Full-text · Chapter · Mar 2012
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    • "In intensive care, PPIs are indicated for stress ulcer prophylaxis in patients with a risk of bleeding [8]. The use of PPI for patients with Barrett–Oesophagus is controversial, and its role, if any, in the prevention of carcinoma induction has not yet been demonstrated [9]. A Cochrane Review reported that PPIs could be effective in a small proportion of patients with dyspepsia, but studies have shown a significant heterogeneity. "
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    ABSTRACT: The reasons for the dramatic increase in proton pump inhibitors (PPI) prescriptions remain unclear and cannot be explained solely by increased morbidity, new indications or a decrease in alternative medication. Inappropriate use and discharge recommendations in hospitals are considered to be possible explanations. As the quality of PPI recommendations in hospital discharge letters in Germany has not been investigated to date, we have studied the appropriateness of these referrals. Hospital discharge letters with recommendations for PPI medication from 35 primary care practices in the county of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MV; North-east Germany) were collected and analysed, and the appropriateness of the PPI indication was rated. No information justifying the recommendation for continuous PPI medication could be identified in 54.5% of the discharge letters; in 12.7%, the indication was uncertain, and in 32.7%, we found an evidence-based indication for PPI medication. The most common indication for adequate PPI use was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-prophylaxis in high-risk patients. Inadequate recommendations for PPIs in discharge letters are frequent. This may lead to a continuation of this therapy in primary care, thereby unnecessarily increasing polypharmacy and the risk of adverse events as well as burdening the public health budget. Hospitals should therefore critically review recommendations for PPI medication and the dosage thereof in their discharge letters and clearly document the reason for PPI use and the need for continuous prescription in primary care.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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