Chest Compression Rates During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Are Suboptimal A Prospective Study During In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Department of Computer Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 03/2005; 111(4):428-34. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000153811.84257.59
Source: PubMed


Recent data highlight a vital link between well-performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and survival after cardiac arrest; however, the quality of CPR as actually performed by trained healthcare providers is largely unknown. We sought to measure in-hospital chest compression rates and to determine compliance with published international guidelines.
We developed and validated a handheld recording device to measure chest compression rate as a surrogate for CPR quality. A prospective observational study of adult cardiac arrests was performed at 3 hospitals from April 2002 to October 2003. Resuscitations were witnessed by trained observers using a customized personal digital assistant programmed to store the exact time of each chest compression, allowing offline calculation of compression rates at serial time points. In 97 arrests, data from 813 minutes during which chest compressions were delivered were analyzed in 30-second time segments. In 36.9% of the total number of segments, compression rates were <80 compressions per minute (cpm), and 21.7% had rates <70 cpm. Higher chest compression rates were significantly correlated with initial return of spontaneous circulation (mean chest compression rates for initial survivors and nonsurvivors, 90+/-17 and 79+/-18 cpm, respectively; P=0.0033).
In-hospital chest compression rates were below published resuscitation recommendations, and suboptimal compression rates in our study correlated with poor return of spontaneous circulation. CPR quality is likely a critical determinant of survival after cardiac arrest, suggesting the need for routine measurement, monitoring, and feedback systems during actual resuscitation.

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Available from: Lance B Becker, Nov 22, 2014
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    • "Using manikins instead of real patients could be another limiting factor. Although it is difficult to conduct studies like ours in real conditions , it is not impossible, as evidenced by Abella et al [23]. Although we cannot know what the physiological response of our participants would have been if the study had been done under real circumstances, all participants were regularly practicing CPR in real life, so we would expect little additional stress. "
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to analyze compliance with 2010 European guidelines' quality criteria for external chest compressions (ECC) during 2 minutes of uninterrupted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seventy-two healthy nurses and physicians trained in advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed 2 uninterrupted minutes of ECC on a training manikin (Resusci Anne Advanced SkillTrainer; Laerdal Medical AS, Stavanger, Norway) that enabled us to measure the depth and rate of ECC. When professionals agreed to participate in the study, we recorded their age, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and their own subjective estimation of their physical fitness. To measure fatigue, we analyzed participants' heart rates, percentage of maximum tolerated heart rate (MHR), and subjective perception of their fatigue on a visual analog scale. Nearly half (48.6%) the rescuers failed to achieve a minimum average ECC depth of 50 mm. Only 48.1% of ECCs fulfilled the 2010 guidelines' quality criteria; quality deteriorated mainly after the first minute. Poor ECC quality and deteriorating quality after the first minute were associated with BMI < 23 kg/m(2). Rescuers with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) fulfilled the quality criteria throughout the 2 minutes, whereas those with BMI < 23 kg/m(2) fulfilled them for 80% of ECCs during the first minute, but for only 30% at the end of the 2 minutes. Compliance with the 2010 guidelines' quality criteria is often poor, mainly due to lack of proper depth. The greater depth recommended in the 2010 guidelines with respect to previous guidelines requires greater force, so BMI < 23 kg/m(2) could hinder compliance. Limiting each rescuer's uninterrupted time doing ECC to 1 minute could help ensure compliance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of critical care
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    • "The data stated that shallow compression depth, inappropriate rate, incomplete thoracic recoil, and unnecessary compression interruption usually lead to the failure on establishment of spontaneous circulation [1, 9–11]. All these deficiencies that exacerbated outcome were commonly seen and inevasible in actual resuscitation episode, especially for those laypersons without basic life support training. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Untrained bystanders usually delivered suboptimal chest compression to victims who suffered from cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital settings. We therefore investigated the hemodynamics and resuscitation outcome of initial suboptimal quality of chest compressions compared to the optimal ones in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Methods. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs weighted 30 ± 2 kg were randomized into good and poor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) groups. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 6 mins. In good CPR group, animals received high quality manual chest compressions according to the Guidelines (25% of animal's anterior-posterior thoracic diameter) during first two minutes of CPR compared with poor (70% of the optimal depth) compressions. After that, a 120-J biphasic shock was delivered. If the animal did not acquire return of spontaneous circulation, another 2 mins of CPR and shock followed. Four minutes later, both groups received optimal CPR until total 10 mins of CPR has been finished. Results. All seven animals in good CPR group were resuscitated compared with only two in poor CPR group (P < 0.05). The delayed optimal compressions which followed 4 mins of suboptimal compressions failed to increase the lower coronary perfusion pressure of five non-survival animals in poor CPR group. Conclusions. In a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest, even four minutes of initial poor quality of CPR compromises the hemodynamics and survival outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    • "While resuscitation outcomes are improving, far too many children will suffer a neurological injury after their event [3] [4]. As resuscitation quality is associated with cardiac arrest outcome [5] [6] [7] [8] [9], recent "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of instituting the 2010 Basic Life Support Guidelines on in-hospital pediatric and adolescent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality. We hypothesized that quality would improve, but that targets for chest compression (CC) depth would be difficult to achieve. Prospective in-hospital observational study comparing CPR quality 24 months before and after release of the 2010 Guidelines. CPR recording/feedback-enabled defibrillators collected CPR data (rate (CC/min), depth (mm), CC fraction (CCF, %), leaning (%>2.5kg.)). Audiovisual feedback for depth was: 2005 ≥ 38mm; 2010 ≥ 50mm; for rate: 2005 ≥ 90 and ≤ 120 CC/min; 2010 ≥ 100 and ≤ 120 CC/min. The primary outcome was average event depth compared with Student's t-test. 45 CPR events (25 before; 20 after) occurred, resulting in 1336 thirty-second epochs (909 before; 427 after). Compared to 2005, average event depth (50±13 vs. 43±9mm; p=0.047), rate (113±11 vs. 104±8 CC/min; p<0.01), and CCF (0.94 [0.93, 0.96] vs. 0.9 [0.85, 0.94]; p=0.013) increased during 2010. CPR epochs during the 2010 period more likely to meet Guidelines for CCF (OR 1.7; CI95: 1.2-2.4; p<0.01), but less likely for rate (OR 0.23; CI95: 0.12-0.44; p<0.01), and depth (OR 0.31; CI95: 0.12-0.86; p=0.024). Institution of the 2010 Guidelines was associated with increased CC depth, rate, and CC fraction; yet, achieving 2010 targets for rate and depth was difficult.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Resuscitation
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