Cooperation and selectivity of the two Grb2 binding sites of p52Shc in T-cell antigen receptor signaling to Ras family GTPases and Myc-dependent survival

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, Siena 53100, Italy.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.46). 04/2005; 24(13):2218-28. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1208384
Source: PubMed


Shc proteins participate in a variety of processes regulating cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. The two ubiquitously expressed isoforms, p52Shc/p46Shc, couple tyrosine kinase receptors to Ras by recruiting Grb2/Sos complexes to a membrane-proximal localization. Tyrosine residues 239/240 and 317 become phosphorylated following receptor engagement and, as such, form two Grb2 binding sites, which have been proposed to be differentially coupled to Myc-dependent survival and to fos-dependent proliferation, respectively. Here, we have addressed the individual function of YY239/240 and Y317 in T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. We show that p52Shc is phosphorylated on both YY239/240 and Y317 following TCR engagement. Mutation of either YY239/240 or Y317 results in impaired interaction with Grb2 and inhibition of Ras/MAP kinase activation and CD69 induction, supporting a role for both Grb2 binding sites in this function. Substitution of either YY239/240 or Y317 also results in a defective activation of Rac and the coupled stress kinases JNK and p38. Furthermore, mutation of Y317 or, to a larger extent, of YY239/240, results in increased activation-induced cell death, which in cells expressing the FF239/240 mutant is accompanied by impaired TCR-dependent c-myc transcription. The data underline a pleiotropic and nonredundant role of Shc, mediated by both YY239/240 and Y317, in T-cell activation and survival.

Download full-text


Available from: Silvia Rossi Paccani, Nov 06, 2014
  • Source
    • "Of interest is that phosphorylation of Shc at Tyr 317 , which we demonstrated to be crucially involved in sustaining central cardiovascular regulation during experimental brain stem death, selectively activates the MAPK/ERK pathway (Nakamura et al., 1996). In contrast, pShc Y239/240 , which plays only a minor role in our model of brain stem death, mediates mainly Myc activation (Gotoh et al., 1996; Patrussi et al., 2005). We demonstrated previously (Chan et al., 2010) that activation of the MEK/ERK/MNK signalling pathway in the RVLM plays a preferential pro-life role by sustaining the central cardiovascular regulatory machinery during brain stem death via up-regulation of the NOS I/PKG signalling cascade. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little information exists on the mechanisms that precipitate brain stem death, the legal definition of death in many developed countries. We investigated the role of tropomyocin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and its downstream signalling pathways in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) during experimental brain stem death. An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos bilaterally into the RVLM of Sprague-Dawley rats was used, in conjunction with cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. A significant increase in TrkB protein, phosphorylation of TrkB at Tyr(516) (pTrkB(Y516) ), Shc at Tyr(317) (pShc(Y317) ) or ERK at Thr(202) /Tyr(204) , or Ras activity in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a specific TrkB inhibitor, K252a, antagonized those increases. Pretreatment with anti-pShc(Y317) antiserum, Src homology 3 binding peptide (Grb2/SOS inhibitor), farnesylthioacetic acid (Ras inhibitor), manumycin A (Ras inhibitor) or GW5074 (Raf-1 inhibitor) blunted the preferential augmentation of Ras activity or ERK phosphorylation in RVLM and blocked the up-regulated NOS I/protein kinase G (PKG) signalling, the pro-life cascade that sustains central cardiovascular regulation during experimental brain stem death. Activation of TrkB, followed by recruitment of Shc/Grb2/SOS adaptor proteins, leading to activation of Ras/Raf-1/ERK signalling pathway plays a crucial role in ameliorating central cardiovascular regulatory dysfunction via up-regulation of NOS I/PKG signalling cascade in the RVLM in brain stem death. These findings provide novel information for developing therapeutic strategies against this fatal eventuality.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · British Journal of Pharmacology
  • Source
    • "The involvement of Shc members in signaling pathways have been well characterized [17,32,33]. The CH1 domain has three tyrosine residues, 239/240 and 317 in p52Shc, which upon phosphorylation interact with Grb2 and have been proposed to be differentially coupled to Fos-dependent proliferation signaling (Y317) and to Myc-dependent survival pathways (YY239/240) in B-cell [32] and T-cell activation [34]. In the present study, we provide new insight into the role of Shc in the maturation process triggered by LPS in DC, and we evaluate their contribution in the context of LPS-induced TLR4 signaling. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Shc isoforms is known to mediate immune responses and has been indicated as a negative regulator of autoimmunity and lymphocyte activation. We aimed to evaluate the immune-regulatory role of Shc in rat bone marrow-derived DCs in the maturation process triggered by LPS. We found that, in response to LPS, expression of Shc proteins was induced and that neutralization of Shc inhibited the LPS-induced transient phosphorylation of p52Shc on pTyr239/240 in DCs of Lewis (LEW; RT1(l)) rats. Moreover, the significantly enhanced expression of IL-10 and the surface level of costimulatory molecule CD80, as well as suppressed expression of IL-6 and IL-12 in the Shc-silenced DCs were also observed. Similar IκB phosphorylation occurred in Shc-silenced DCs primed by LPS, indicating Shc is not associated with NF-κB pathway. We further demonstrate that Shc blockade on LPS-treated DCs results in significant increase of the overall STAT3 phosphorylation and the relative levels of phospho-STAT3 in the nuclear fraction. STAT3 activation by LPS with or without Shc blockade was totally abolished by SU6656, a selective Src family kinases inhibitor, underscoring the critical role of Src-mediated activation. We conclude that Shc blockade in LPS-primed DC leads to the development of tolerogenic DC via Src-dependent STAT3 activation and that adaptor protein Shc might play a pivotal role in mediating immunogenic and tolerogenic properties of DCs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · BMC Immunology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, produces two toxins that contribute in part to its virulence. Lethal toxin is a metalloprotease that cleaves upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. Edema toxin is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Previous studies demonstrated that the anthrax toxins are important immunomodulators that promote immune evasion of the bacterium by suppressing activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we showed that injection of sublethal doses of either lethal or edema toxin into mice directly inhibited the subsequent activation of T lymphocytes by T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation. Lymphocytes were isolated from toxin-injected mice after 1 or 4 days and stimulated with antibodies against CD3 and CD28. Treatment with either toxin inhibited the proliferation of T cells. Injection of lethal toxin also potently inhibited cytokine secretion by stimulated T cells. The effects of edema toxin on cytokine secretion were more complex and were dependent on the length of time between the injection of edema toxin and the isolation of lymphocytes. Treatment with lethal toxin blocked multiple kinase signaling pathways important for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of T cells. Phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the stress-activated kinase p38 was significantly decreased. In addition, phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and of glycogen synthase kinase 3 was inhibited in T cells from lethal toxin-injected mice. Thus, anthrax toxins directly act on T lymphocytes in a mouse model. These findings are important for future anthrax vaccine development and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Infection and Immunity
Show more