Women, trauma, and HIV: An overview

Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 01/2005; 8(4):401-3. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-004-7324-3
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Hector Myers, Apr 07, 2015
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    • "Although the estimate of violence is high, most sources believe the prevalence of violence against women and children is underestimated. Multiple studies have demonstrated that a history of child sexual assault or rape is linked with HIV risk (Clum et al., 2011; Paul, Catania, Pollack, & Stall, 1999; Wilson & Widom, 2011; Wyatt, Meyers, & Loeb, 2004). A meta-analysis across studies reveals an association between an experience of sexual violence (an inherently social phenomenon) and HIV risk behaviors in women (Arriola et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Successes in HIV prevention efforts in the U.S. have resulted in drastic reductions in the number of new infections in the U.S. among white gay men and injection drug users, a stabilization in overall annual rates of new HIV infections, and near eradication of mother-to child transmission of HIV. Despite this remarkable progress, the proportion of AIDS cases in women has slowly, quietly, and steadily increased from 7% in 1985 to 25% in 2008. The fact the prevention efforts have not reduced HIV spread among women suggests that targeting the individual behaviors of women to prevent HIV acquisition is not a sufficiently effective public health strategy. Interventions that more broadly address the needs of women and their families, and address the contextual factors in which HIV risk occurs are more likely to lead to measurable and sustainable progress. Over the past 30 years, we have seen the U.S. HIV epidemic in women become similar to patterns of HIV risk among women in the developing world. In 2009, 85% of women who acquired HIV became infected through sex with a man and the majority (83%) of them were non-white women. Efforts to understand these immense disparities and create gender-responsive strategies must be a priority within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Women s Health Issues
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    • "This includes intimate partner violence (IPV), rape, and childhood abuse [5-7]. International studies suggest that one out of every three girls is sexually abused by age 18 in the United States [8], and that high prevalence rates of childhood emotional (51.9%), physical (51.1%), and sexual (41.6%) abuse have been reported in HIV-positive individuals [9]. Alarmingly high rates of GBV and revictimisation have been reported in South African women [10-12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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    • "The wide discrepancy between the economic classes, which often runs along racial and gender lines, affects the way HIV impacts women's lives. " Economic, relationship, lifestyle, and immigration factors, along with substance abuse and risky relationships increase risk for HIV transmission and disease progression " (Wyatt, et al., 2004, 401). It is not possible to solely focus on women and HIV without acknowledging the myriad of other forces affecting their lives today. "
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of HIV infection continues to be high in the United States, with women being one of the most vulnerable populations. Medical tests to determine an HIV-positive diagnosis and to subsequently chart the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of the medications are central to the lives of these women. This paper will focus on how women find meaning in these test results and how these meanings affect the way they view their lives and their relationships. Women are also often in particularly vulnerable positions, and this paper will discuss how they deal with this disproportionate lack of power both before and after HIV infection. It is important to therapists working with these women to have an understanding of how women make meaning of both their HIV test results and power differentials. The implications for therapy include helping the client and her family members understand this new situation and the meanings it has for their lives and relationships. Master of Science Masters Department of Family Studies and Human Services Candyce S. Russell
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