Imaging of HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using 111In-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments. Nucl Med Biol
Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaNuclear Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 2.41). 01/2005; 32(1):51-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2004.08.003
Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab were prepared by digestion of intact IgG with immobilized papain, derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with (111)In. The dissociation constant (Kd) for binding of Fab to HER2/neu-positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells was two- to threefold higher than for intact IgG (14-36 vs. 8-14 nM). The binding affinity was not significantly decreased after DTPA derivatization (Kd=47 nM). (111)In-trastuzumab Fab localized specifically in HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice with tumor uptake of 7.8+/-0.7% injected dose (ID)/g and tumor/blood ratio of 25.2+/-1.6 at 72 h postinjection compared with 2.7+/-0.7% ID/g and 7.0+/-0.9 for (111)In-HuM195 anti-CD33 Fab (significantly different, P<.001). Small (3-5 mm in diameter) BT-474 tumors were imaged with (111)In-trastuzumab Fab as early as 24 h postinjection.
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- "HCT-116 cells over-express EGFR on their cellular surface . BT-474 cells (breast ductal carcinoma) were cultured in RPMI- 1640 medium (PAA Laboratories, Pasching, Austria) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. BT-474 cells are reported to over-express HER2 . Cells were grown in humidified incubators at 5% CO 2 and 37 C. "
ABSTRACT: The therapeutic relevance of immunotoxins is based on the conjugation of monoclonal antibodies to toxins. In cancer therapies, the conjugated antibodies not only direct the binding of immunotoxins to cancer-specific receptors and mediate the elimination of tumor cells through the innate immune system, but also increase target cytotoxicity by the intrinsic toxin activity. In the present study, the therapeutic antibodies Cetuximab (anti-EGFR, Erbitux(®)), Panitumumab (anti-EGFR, Vectibix(®)) and Trastuzumab (anti-HER2, Herceptin(®)) were chemically conjugated to the toxin dianthin. In the first instance, recombinant dianthin was characterized by mass spectrometry and its stability was analyzed by circular dichroism. Dianthin showed increased cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells when tested in combination with a glycosylated triterpenoid (SO1861) in a real-time impedance-based cytotoxicity assay. In data obtained by live cell imaging, SO1861 specifically mediated the endo/lysosomal escape of dianthin without disrupting the plasma membrane. The purity of immunotoxins was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Their cytotoxicity was evaluated in the presence of SO1861 and dianthin-Cetuximab presented a GI50 (50% growth inhibition) of 5.3 pM, dianthin-Panitumumab of 1.5 pM, and dianthin-Trastuzumab of 23 pM. Finally, the specificity of these immunotoxins was validated in a fluorescence-based real-time assay, where their binding to target cells was prevented by preincubation with an excess of label-free unconjugated antibody. Based on these data, we propose the use of dianthin and SO1861 as a new platform technology to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic antibodies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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- "We thus developed an EGFR targeting PET imaging agent based on the F(ab′)2 fragment of cetuximab conjugated to the chelator DOTA and labeled with the radiometal 64Cu. We chose the F(ab′)2 fragments as the basis for the imaging agent given the improved target to background ratio (TBR) relative to whole antibodies33, and improved pharmacokinetics for translation16, 34. The developed imaging agent is translatable for human studies given the high safety profile of the parent antibody, and the components have all been utilized in prior clinical translation. "
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a serious complication associated with inflammatory bowel disease, often indistinguishable by screening with conventional FDG PET probes. We have developed an alternative EGFR-targeted PET imaging probe that may be used to overcome this difficulty, and successfully assessed its utility for neoplastic lesion detection in preclinical models. Cetuximab F(ab′)2 fragments were enzymatically generated, purified, and DOTA-conjugated. Radiolabeling was performed with 67Ga for cell based studies and 64Cu for in vivo imaging. Competitive binding studies were performed on CT26 cells to assess affinity (KD) and receptors per cell (Bmax). In vivo imaging using the EGFR targeted PET probe and 18F FDG was performed on CT26 tumor bearing mice in both control and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis settings. Spontaneous adenomas in genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of colon cancer were additionally imaged. The EGFR imaging agent was generated with high purity (> 98%), with a labeling efficiency of 60 ± 5% and ≥99% radiochemical purity. The KD was 6.6 ± 0.7 nM and the Bmax for CT26 cells was 3.3 ± 0.1 × 106 receptors/cell. Target to background ratios (TBR) for CT26 tumors compared to colonic uptake demonstrated high values for both 18F-FDG (3.95 ± 0.13) and the developed 64Cu-DOTA-cetuximab-F(ab′)2 probe (4.42 ± 0.11) in control mice. The TBR for the EGFR targeted probe remained high (3.78 ± 0.06) in the setting of colitis, while for 18F FDG, this was markedly reduced (1.54 ± 0.08). Assessment of the EGFR targeted probe in the GEM models demonstrated a correlation between radiotracer uptake in spontaneous colonic lesions and the EGFR staining level ex vivo. A clinically translatable PET imaging probe was successfully developed to assess EGFR. The imaging agent can detect colonic tumors with a high TBR for detection of in situ lesions in the setting of colitis, and opens the possibility for a new approach for screening high-risk patients.
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- "Radionuclidic control showed the presence of 93(40%), 184(24%), 296(22%) and 378(7%) keV gamma energies, all originating from 67Ga and showed a radionuclidic purity higher than 99% (E.O.S.). The concentrations of zinc (from target material) and copper (from target support) were determined using polarography and shown to be below the internationally accepted levels, i.e. 0.1 ppm for Zn and Cu (4, 5). "
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer radioimmunoscintigraphy targeting HER2/neu expression is a growing field of work in nuclear medicine research. In this study, trastuzumab was successively labeled with [67Ga] GaCl3 after conjugation with DOTA-NHS-ester. The conjugates were purified by molecular filtration, the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb was calculated and total concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. DOTA-Trastuzumab was labeled with 67Ga. Radiochemical purity, integrity of protein after radiolabeling and stability of 67Ga-DOTA-Trastuzumab were determined followed by biodistribution studies in wild-type rats (30 ± 5.5 μCi, 2, 4 and 24 h p.i.). The radioimmunoconjugate was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 95% (RTLC). The average chelate to antibody ratio (c/a) for the conjugate used in this study was 5.8:1. The final compound was stable in presence of PBS at 37ºC and room temperature. The sample was showed to have similar patterns of migration in the gel electrophoresis similar to the native protein. The accumulation of the radiolabeled antibody in liver, spleen, kidney, heart and other tissues demonstrates. 67Ga-DOTA-Trastuzumab was prepared as a surrogate for important clinically applicable radionuclides used in SPECT and PET including In-111 and Cu-64 as a model of radiolabeling. It is also a potential compound for molecular imaging of SPECT for diagnosis and treatment studies and follow-up of HER2 expression in oncology.
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