Song, H. D. et al. Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 2430-2435

State Key Laboratory for Medical Genomics/Pôle Sino-Français de Recherche en Sciences du Vivant et Génomique, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Second Medical University, 197 Rui Jin Road II, Shanghai 200025, China.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 03/2005; 102(7):2430-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0409608102
Source: PubMed


The genomic sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from human and palm civet of the 2003/2004 outbreak in the city of Guangzhou, China, were nearly identical. Phylogenetic analysis suggested an independent viral invasion from animal to human in this new episode. Combining all existing data but excluding singletons, we identified 202 single-nucleotide variations. Among them, 17 are polymorphic in palm civets only. The ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide substitution in palm civets collected 1 yr apart from different geographic locations is very high, suggesting a rapid evolving process of viral proteins in civet as well, much like their adaptation in the human host in the early 2002-2003 epidemic. Major genetic variations in some critical genes, particularly the Spike gene, seemed essential for the transition from animal-to-human transmission to human-to-human transmission, which eventually caused the first severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2002/2003.

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Available from: Guo-Wei Zhang, May 14, 2014
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    • "Follow-up studies in Zhao' group further delineated molecular insights into cross-host evolution of SARS- CoV in palm civets and humans (Song et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the 'well-known' reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences
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    • "SARS- CoV-like viruses with extremely high sequence identity to SARS-CoV were isolated from masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) and a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides ) from a live-animal market, suggesting that these animals played important roles in the transmission of SARS-CoV (Guan et al., 2003). Later on, several investigations confirmed that masked palm civet in the market was a critical intermediate host, but not a natural reservoir, for SARS-CoV (Tu et al., 2004; Kan et al., 2005; Poon et al., 2005; Song et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2005). Horseshoe bat was later on identified as a natural reservoir for SARS- CoV-like viruses (Lau et al., 2005; W. Li et al., 2005b); however, the variation of the spike (S) protein of bat SARS- CoV-like virus indicated that the viruses discovered so far from bats cannot infect human cells directly (Ren et al., The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the full-length sequence of the raccoon dog ACE2 gene determined in this study is EU024940. "
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    ABSTRACT: Raccoon dog is one of the suspected intermediate hosts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). In this study, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene of raccoon dog (rdACE2) was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence of rdACE2 has identities of 99.3, 89.2, 83.9 and 80.4 % to ACE2 proteins from dog, masked palm civet (pcACE2), human (huACE2) and bat, respectively. There are six amino acid changes in rdACE2 compared with huACE2, and four changes compared with pcACE2, within the 18 residues of ACE2 known to make direct contact with the SARS-CoV S protein. A HeLa cell line stably expressing rdACE2 was established; Western blot analyses and an enzyme-activity assay indicated that the cell line expressed ACE2 at a similar level to two previously established cell lines that express ACE2 from human and masked palm civet, respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus-backboned pseudoviruses expressing spike proteins derived from human SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-like viruses of masked palm civets and raccoon dogs were tested for their entry efficiency into these cell lines. The results showed that rdACE2 is a more efficient receptor for human SARS-CoV, but not for SARS-CoV-like viruses of masked palm civets and raccoon dogs, than huACE2 or pcACE2. This study provides useful data to elucidate the role of raccoon dog in SARS outbreaks.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of General Virology
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    • "The tree topologies presented in figures 2, 3, 4 were used for different models. In previous studies, SARS-CoV isolates have been divided into five groups: 02–03 palm civets, 02–03 early, middle, late human patients, and 03–04 civet and human [20,21]. In the current study, we included an additional group containing the bat SARS-like-CoVs. "
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    ABSTRACT: SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was identified as the etiological agent of SARS, and extensive investigations indicated that it originated from an animal source (probably bats) and was recently introduced into the human population via wildlife animals from wet markets in southern China. Previous studies revealed that the spike (S) protein of SARS had experienced adaptive evolution, but whether other functional proteins of SARS have undergone adaptive evolution is not known. We employed several methods to investigate selective pressure among different SARS-CoV groups representing different epidemic periods and hosts. Our results suggest that most functional proteins of SARS-CoV have experienced a stepwise adaptive evolutionary pathway. Similar to previous studies, the spike protein underwent strong positive selection in the early and middle phases, and became stabilized in the late phase. In addition, the replicase experienced positive selection only in human patients, whereas assembly proteins experienced positive selection mainly in the middle and late phases. No positive selection was found in any proteins of bat SARS-like-CoV. Furthermore, specific amino acid sites that may be the targets of positive selection in each group are identified. This extensive evolutionary analysis revealed the stepwise evolution of different functional proteins of SARS-CoVs at different epidemic stages and different hosts. These results support the hypothesis that SARS-CoV originated from bats and that the spill over into civets and humans were more recent events.
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