Article

Overloaded circuits: why smart people underperform

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Abstract

Frenzied executives who fidget through meetings, lose track of their appointments, and jab at the "door close" button on the elevator aren't crazy--just crazed. They suffer from a newly recognized neurological phenomenon that the author, a psychiatrist, calls attention deficit trait, or ADT. It isn't an illness; it's purely a response to the hyperkinetic environment in which we live. But it has become epidemic in today's organizations. When a manager is desperately trying to deal with more input than he possibly can, the brain and body get locked into a reverberating circuit while the brain's frontal lobes lose their sophistication, as if vinegar were added to wine. The result is black-and-white thinking; perspective and shades of gray disappear. People with ADT have difficulty staying organized, setting priorities, and managing time, and they feel a constant low level of panic and guilt. ADT can be controlled by engineering one's environment and one's emotional and physical health. Make time every few hours for a "human moment;" a face-to-face exchange with a person you like. Get enough sleep, switch to a good diet, and get adequate exercise. Break down large tasks into smaller ones, and keep a section of your work space clear. Try keeping a portion of your day free of appointments and e-mail. The author recommends that companies invest in amenities that contribute to a positive atmosphere. Leaders can also help prevent ADT by matching employees' skills to tasks. When managers assign goals that stretch people too far or ask workers to focus on what they're not good at, stress rises. ADT is a very real threat to all of us. If we don't manage it, it will manage us.

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... Furthermore, it has been shown how interruptions facilitated or induced by information technology negatively impact on knowledge worker productivity (Spira/Feintuch 2005). Moreover previously unknown medical symptoms have been described like the so called 'Attention Deficit Trait' (ADT) which appears to make smart people underperform (Hallowell 2005). Across a range of knowledge working disciplines like accounting, marketing or management information systems (MIS), various studies have confirmed that information overload decreases decisionmaking performance (Eppler/Mengis 2004). ...
... Stone (2008) identified that such work patterns mean that people continuously pay partial attention which is driven by a desire to be a "LIVE node on the network" but "continuous partial attention used as our dominant attention mode contributes to a feeling of overwhelm, over-stimulation and to a sense of being unfulfilled (Stone 2008: 1). This is confirmed by Hallowell (2005) who recognizes a neurological phenomenon called attention deficit trait (ADT). "Marked by distractibility, inner frenzy, and impatience, ADT prevents managers from clarifying priorities, making smart decisions, and managing their time. ...
Book
This book assembles multi-disciplinary contributions to delve deeper into ReThinking Management. The first part provides some foundational considerations and inspirations. Further chapters offer more specific links to the arts and creativity sectors as well as empirical research and case reflections. ReThinking Management pursues the main idea that management theory is not merely a sub-discipline of economics, but rather a cross-disciplinary and critical field of research and practice, with a decidedly cultural perspective. While questioning the status and practices of conventional management, the book opens up for new understandings, turns and perspectives. Contents • ReThinking Management and Cultural Turns • Culture and Creativity • Applications and Activities Target Groups • Researchers, lectures and students of social sciences, cultural studies and management studies • Practitioners from different fields of business and management The Editors The editors are professors at Karlshochschule International University in Karlsruhe, Germany. Wendelin Küpers is Professor of Leadership and Organization Studies. Stephan Sonnenburg is Professor for Branding, Creativity and Performative Management. Martin Zierold is Professor for Arts Management and Cultural Studies.
... Previous studies have found that working on several tasks concurrently proves less efficient than performing each task separately (Pashler, 2000). Multitasking diminishes students' focus and performance and can increase impulsivity (Hallowell, 2005). ...
... This is posing a potential risk to the actual learning, which may be attributed to lack of focus and interest, with the learners switching over to different content and other activities concurrently. Working on several tasks concurrently is less efficient than performing each task separately (Pashler, 2000) and deviates students' focus and impacts their performance, as well as leading to increased impulsiveness (Hallowell, 2005). ...
Article
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The global health disaster- COVID-19 has imposed a self-refrainment from social gathering to contain the disease because social distancing is the only shielding from community spread. With COVID-19 engulfing the whole world for almost 5 months, as of now, home and work places are altogether giving an unanticipated, unpredicted and unpleasant milieu. The teaching –learning process is no exception with closure of all educational institution as a protective step to save the lives. The teaching-learning process has been reflecting a very wide and deep impact of COVID-19. With all the teachers and learners confined to places, the learning has been impacted to a large extent with sense of uncertainty, insecurity and dilemma of effective learning. In fact, COVID-19 pandemic has thrown the mission and rigor of teaching-learning out of gear. With all the classroom shut, the pandemic has exposed the teachers and learners more towards online learning mode with no other option perceptible at this point of time. Though online education has always been embraced by the academics as a supporting tool, yet switching over completely to online mode of learning has raised some serious concerns pertaining to its efficacy and reluctance of learners to embrace it as a substitute of regular mode of learning. This study reveals the perception of 2895 learners on efficiency of online learning as a substitute of regular mode of learning. The results shows the acceptance of online learning only as a supporting tool to regular learning instead of taking it as a substitute of regular learning mode on the basis of various factors of effective learning vis-a vis content, pedagogy, assessment, rigor.
... In combination with this condition, now widely recognized yet defined in many ways, it is often described that these dense bursts of information overload and interaction with technology are sought after (by the user or consumer of information) similar to states of drug addiction; for example "Information anxiety", a state of anxiety/stress induced from a lack of information accessibility (Wurman et al, 2001); and, "Infobesity" (Bawden and Robinson, 2009) a situation of "personal information overload" that is similar to "feasting on fast food". A natural response occurs to these states of information overload defined by Hallowell (2005) as acquiring an "Attention Deficit Trait" (ADT); "ADT isn't an illness or character defect. It's our brains' natural response to exploding demands on our time and attention. ...
... Some sufferers eventually melt down." (p55, Hallowell, 2005) These qualities of unremarkable and invisible computing, technological addiction and attention deficit trait may be understood as invoking states of, or, the body/mind exhibiting Mindlessness: "… Mindlessness, which we denote as the relative absence of Mindfulness, can be defensively motivated, as when an individual refuses to acknowledge or attend to a thought, emotion, motive, or object of perception. These forms of consciousness thus serve as concrete counterpoints to Mindful presence and the attention to current experience within and without oneself that such presence entails." ...
Thesis
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This thesis questions how Mindfulness and Mindlessness might be understood, measured and invoked in relation to Human-Computer Interactions. Current designs of user interfaces often follow a design trend, drawing upon familiar layout and icons across a broad range of applications. Designers often try to make the interface easier to understand, familiar, and more intuitive. While the use of technologies that are familiar holds qualities such as low cognitive demand and ease of use; they hold within them an intrinsic problem. The familiarity and repetition in design qualities produces habitual response and reduces the facilities of reflection and contemplation upon the interaction. Subsequently this inhibits the discovery of novel solutions to challenges and / or formation of novel goals for the user of a technology. The primary goal of this thesis is to provide (and justify) a definition of Mindfulness and Mindlessness that is suitable to be applied in the field of human- computer interaction; and clearly describe these experiential and behavioural phenomena of the user of interactive technology. These definitions draw upon related fields to better inform understanding through the application of their methods of evaluation and advancements in understanding. Resultantly an additional goal of this thesis is to pave way for future work in this area in providing insight to, and example of, methods for the measuring of Mindfulness and Mindlessness that are suited to the field of human-computer interaction and supported in the informing related work. Lastly, this thesis holds the goal of situating the work in related literature of how the states of Mindfulness and Mindlessness might be invoked and their effect upon human-computer interaction. More broadly, this thesis seeks to provide the framing of human-computer interaction and interface design through a lens of Mindfulness and Mindlessness as a means of better understanding and designing for the distinct qualities each holds. These goals are achieved through three stages; first this body of work provides a pragmatic definition of Mindfulness and Mindlessness that can be applied to interactions with technologies. In doing so it overcomes the problematic qualities of directly applying previous definitions and facilitates further study of the phenomenon through empirical modalities founded in cognitive science. Second, this research provides the reporting of an exploratory study conducted, and findings for future works to build upon, in the analysis of Mindful and Mindless experiences during interactions with digital technologies. This is achieved through a neuro- phenomenological methodology, combining first person reporting alongside physiological measurement highlighting Mindful and Mindless interactions. Finally, this thesis provides insight to how the design of technologies can invoke Mindful and Mindless interactions and the consequences of these, followed by design considerations in the final conclusion. Through this the thesis addresses the Understanding, Measuring, and, Invoking of Mindfulness and Mindlessness During Human-Computer Interactions.
... Getting these devices out of stressful situations and gauging the point at which they are not able to handle processing anymore are both excellent proactive methods to avoid demanding atmospheres. Otherwise, simple care of our physical wellness through sleep, avoidance of abusive substances, and introduction of appropriate nutrients in the form of proteins and vitamins (i.e., Omega-3) will improve the base rate of processing of our cognitive regions (Hallowell, 2005). On a final note, bringing back research on second-language learning, Schumann (1976) mentions the presence of an "ego permeability, i.e., the ability to partially and temporarily give up their separateness of identity" (p. ...
... Alternatively, organization of the information and timing are what the individual ought to be conscious about. For example, allotting specific times of day to manage specific tasks and data, prioritizing activities that need more attention, or are lengthy, as well as isolate them from other distracting obligations (Hallowell, 2005). Clearly, we also should consider the viable strategies in the presented ideas, regarding distraction and converting procrastination, or multitasking, with sections of concentrated effort. ...
... Getting these devices out of stressful situations and gauging the point at which they are not able to handle processing anymore are both excellent proactive methods to avoid demanding atmospheres. Otherwise, simple care of our physical wellness through sleep, avoidance of abusive substances, and introduction of appropriate nutrients in the form of proteins and vitamins (i.e., Omega-3) will improve the base rate of processing of our cognitive regions (Hallowell, 2005). On a final note, bringing back research on second-language learning, Schumann (1976) mentions the presence of an "ego permeability, i.e., the ability to partially and temporarily give up their separateness of identity" (p. ...
... Alternatively, organization of the information and timing are what the individual ought to be conscious about. For example, allotting specific times of day to manage specific tasks and data, prioritizing activities that need more attention, or are lengthy, as well as isolate them from other distracting obligations (Hallowell, 2005). Clearly, we also should consider the viable strategies in the presented ideas, regarding distraction and converting procrastination, or multitasking, with sections of concentrated effort. ...
Article
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Special Issue: Collaboration with the Florida Undergraduate Research Association (FURA)
... This, in turn, has impacted how businesses operate as they adopt and implement new operating models to stay ahead of the competition (Rowland and Higgs, 2008;Buckley, 2013;Rowland, 2017;First, 2017), further complicating one's ability to cope with this environment. As a result, a new neurological affliction was discovered -Attention Deficit Trait (ADT) (Hallowell, 2005), attributed to people who have trouble prioritizing, staying organized and focused and making good decisions. Thus, it may be even more difficult to implement organizational change in today's ever-changing environment, as well as, how organizational members cope with and adapt to it. ...
... While "listening" was cited in this research as a key word related to mindfulness and also ranked as the second most important change practice, it appeared as if survey and interview participants did not always apply this attribute based on their responses. "Distraction" is also aligned with Hallowell's (2005) As the literature indicates (Chapter 2), studies have also shown that Mindfulness practices have been associated with improved attention and concentration, namely, through mindfulness practices one becomes more adept at noticing when the mind is wandering and is able to quickly return to the present moment (Baer, 2003;Good et al., 2016). Moreover, mindfulness may help stabilize one's attention and reduce performance variability and improve safety by decreasing the number of errors due to attention lapses or distractions and improving alertness during interruptions (Good et al., 2016). ...
Article
The Capstone examines whether mindfulness can be applied to help individuals and organizations cope with organizational change. Though mindfulness, defined as being fully aware in the present moment, has been examined in clinical, educational and other non-corporate settings, there remains a significant research gap towards understanding the potential uses and actual benefits of mindfulness in the workplace – particularly during organizational change. Through this research, a Mindful Organizational Change Questionnaire was developed, based on both Eastern and Western constructs and statements thought to be most relevant to organizational change. Seventy-four (74) working professionals, across various industries, participated in this study between April and May 2016. This inquiry also included conducting fifteen (15) qualitative interviews with Change Leaders. When triangulating the data, results indicated that, though participants have some natural capacity to be mindful, there is an opportunity for them to increase their levels of mindfulness during change, which may be highly beneficial. Furthermore, when reviewing the quantitative data related to both mindfulness facets and change elements, Change Leaders scored consistently lower when compared with the Overall Averages. Likewise, Generation Ys scored higher than Change Leaders in all facets with the exception of “Positivity and Organizational Change.” Thus, it can be concluded that mindfulness practices (such as meditation and other mindful interventions) could be extremely beneficial towards helping individuals and leaders cope with organizational change.
... The intensive use of social media and the steady exposition to information overload might cause emotional, mental and physical effects. In the last decade, there are studies which focus on mental (e.g., Braun-LaTour et al. 2007;Hallowell 2005) and physical health parameters (e.g., Chan and Huang 2013), showing information overload's negative effects on emotions (e.g., Swar et al. 2017) and on perceived health (e.g., Hallowell 2005; Misra and Stokols 2012). Information overload does not only affect working behavior, but also leads to less time devoted to contemplative activities (Misra and Stokols 2012). ...
... et al. (2013), McCoy et al. (2007), Speier et al. (1999), Speier et al. Hunter and Goebel(2013)Perceived fearful corporate culture PSYHallowell (2005) High technology dependency IS Karr-Wisniewski and Lu(2010) ...
Article
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In the light of the information age, information overload research in new areas (e.g., social media, virtual collaboration) rises rapidly in many fields of research in business administration with a variety of methods and subjects. This review article analyzes the development of information overload literature in business administration and related interdisciplinary fields and provides a comprehensive and overarching overview using a bibliometric literature analysis combined with a snowball sampling approach. For the last decade, this article reveals research directions and bridges of literature in a wide range of fields of business administration (e.g., accounting, finance, health management, human resources, innovation management, international management, information systems, marketing, manufacturing, or organizational science). This review article identifies the major papers of various research streams to capture the pulse of the information overload-related research and suggest new questions that could be addressed in the future and identifies concrete open gaps for further research. Furthermore, this article presents a new framework for structuring information overload issues which extends our understanding of influence factors and effects of information overload in the decision-making process.
... A hectic and nerve-racking work environment characterized by "stress" causes individuals to feel overloaded and distracted from the assigned task. Hallowell (2005) defined distractibility, inner frenzy, and impatience as three indications of this dysfunctional stress. The increasing work pressures to attain quality and time-based achievements trigger such types of stress-reaction and destabilize the efficiency and effectiveness of conventional work design models (Elsbach and Hargadon, 2006;Grant and Parker, 2009). ...
... creative work performance) of individuals. The work done by Hallowell (2005) proposes that individuals in today's organizations may fail to achieve the expected performance level because of a dearth of creativity resulting from stress imposed by severe workload pressures. Intense workload and time pressure followed by frequent disruptions can diminish an individuals' creativity by even up to 50 percent (Amabile et al., 2002). ...
Article
Purpose This study attempts to empirically examine the influence of employees’ character strengths of wisdom on stress and creative work performance, assuming stress to be a potential mediator. Design/methodology/approach The study uses survey questionnaires to gather information. Using random sampling technique, the data was collected from 753 respondents from 200 organizations of Pakistan. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyze data in order to explore proposed relationships. Findings The findings of the study suggest a positive relationship between wisdom strengths and the creative work performance of employees. In addition, stress was found to be negatively associated with both wisdom strengths and creative work performance. Research limitations/implications The contributes to existing literature of human resource and positive psychology as results of the study provide support to develop a link in research between creativity and personality, in general, and character strengths, in particular. Practical implications The findings suggest that by incorporating character strengths, firms may develop and foster the means that can expand the bounded-rationality of employees to help them promote their creative activity and identify new and better ways to accomplish a task, thus ensuring better performance and increasing the likelihood of human resources becoming a source of competitive advantage. Originality/value The study is unique in its scope and implications because it focuses on empirical investigation of effect of character strengths on stress and creative work performance in Asian context, particularly in Pakistan.
... The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in particular has been linked specifically to a rise in attention deficit disorder (ADD) [7], although this link has not been proven yet. In this context, the case of television (TV) is particularly interesting, with TV exposure considerably increasing the probability of children suffering from ADD [8] when they grow older. Multitasking, an activity that decreases the opportunity for reflection, has been linked to ADD as well. ...
Article
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This article presents some pressing issues on roboethics, which lie at the frontier between roboethics and information ethics. It relates them to the well-established field of marketing ethics, stressing two main points. First, that human attention and willpower is limited and susceptible to be exploited. Second, that the possibility of using consumer profiles considerably increases the possibility of manipulation. It presents the interactions with robots as a particularly intense setting, in which the humanlike presence and the possibility of tailoring communications to the profile of the human target can be especially problematic. The paper concludes with some guidelines that could be useful in limiting the potentially harmful effects of human–robot interactions in the context of information ethics. These guidelines focus on the need for transparency and the establishment of limits, especially for products and services and vulnerable collectives, as well as supporting a healthy attention and willpower.
... While notions of the digitalized information society in the early days of the Internet were largely enthusiastic about digital technologies that would improve participation, enlightenment, and democracy (Robins and Webster 1983, Selwyn 2003, van Dijk 2006, Levy 2007, Syvertsen 2017), current perceptions are slightly different. Workfulness is part of a larger trend that engages with discussions about 'healthy' use and a retreat from excessive digital connectivity, which is reflected in a growing body of self-help literature and experiments with disconnecting from the digital world (see, for example, Young 1998, Hallowell 2005, Maushart 2011). ...
Article
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The Scandinavian telecommunication company Telenor recently introduced the notion of Workfulness by adapting digital detox to the workplace. Workfulness is a management program aimed at technology-intensive companies that rely strongly on digital media. The program encompasses strategies of disconnection for employees, including mobile and email-free work hours and technology-free meetings, in order to enhance focus and efficiency. This article investigates Workfulness as one prominent example of managerial approaches that are based on neuroscientific assumptions about human decision-making. Drawing on textual materials and interviews, the analysis shows that Workfulness manages digital distractions in the workplace by establishing a form of stimulus-control rather than appealing to rational self-control. Workfulness alludes to the necessity of making choices, but it considers unconscious behavior, which is explained with reference to preconscious workings of the brain. The human brain becomes a battleground between rational and impulsive decisions, and it is the disobedient brain that needs to be governed in order to become an efficient employee. We situate the Workfulness program as part of and at the same time extending the biopolitical economy by incorporating advances in neurosciences into modes of governance.
... The working memory of the executive brain (Goldberg, 2010) holds up to 120 bits of information per second, being the bottleneck of the brain. In consequence, this part of the cortex can easily be information overloaded (Levitin, 2015), leading to Attention Deficit Trait (ADT) (Hallowell, 2005). Our susceptibility to distracting high-tech world (Gazzaley & Rosen, 2016) -acting as a collection of supernormal stimuli -results mainly from the mismatch between our ancient bodies and our fast changing world (Gluckman & Hanson, 2006). ...
Article
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The paper presents a new approach to cognitive aspects of public space based on the Bayesian framework for cognition. According to it, cognition is powered by hypothesis-testing brain, constantly minimizing its prediction error. Expectations the brain generates can be analyzed at three different levels of organization: (1) neural implementation, comprising of three distinctive cortical networks, (2) mental computation, consisting of three parts of the Bayes’ rule, and (3) social behavior inside three different social networks. Properly designed the public space can be part of the extended mind of its inhabitants, enhancing or substituting their brains’ activity.
... Multitasking has been demonstrated to be routine in most workplaces (KC, 2014), and many believe this is the best way to complete work in a timely manner. However, research has shown that multitasking has negative effects on job performance (Monsell, 2003;O'Conaill & Frohlich, 1995;Rogers & Monsell, 1995;Rubinstein, Meyer, & Evans, 2001), learning (Foerde, Knowlton, & Poldrack, 2006), attention deficit trait (Hallowell, 2005), productivity (Aral, Brynjolfsson, & Van Alstyne, 2007), and stress (Sum & Ho, 2015). Although multitasking has negative effects on job performance, the nature of work done by TIMs requires some tasks to be done in parallel (e.g., filling out reports while monitoring an incident). ...
Article
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Traffic Incident Managers (TIMs) coordinate first responders and help resolve traffic-related incidents. Currently, some use over fifteen different software applications with unique functionalities across three monitors to manage incidents, leading to redundant data entry, unnecessary task switching, and delayed responses. 40 hours of TIMs’ screens were recorded during their normal work hours at the Iowa Department of Transportation (DoT). The resulting task analysis from these videos greatly influenced the design of a simplified, web-based, user interface (UI) prototype. The new UI offers a 42.9% reduction in the steps required to manage an incident by combining the functionality of the fifteen different applications used in the existing system into a single, structured UI. This research approach offers a UI model to other DoTs that can lead to faster and more effective incident management.
... Furthermore, the results of our second study showed that external regulation plays a similar role. This is in line with the recommendations of other researchers (e.g., Hallowell, 2005;McFarlane & Latorella, 2002) and experts (e.g., Harvard Business Review, 2009) who, to boost one's productivity, encourage the use of external regulation strategies, such as working in uninterrupted time intervals before turning to interrupting activities, creating do-lists designed to minimize engaging in unplanned disruptive activities, or turning off the sources of interruption by shutting office doors or switching to the "do not disturb" mode on one's electronic devices. ...
Article
Ophir, Nass and Wagner (2009) showed that as multitasking frequency increases, multitasking performance decreases. Other studies, however, have not replicated this effect (e.g., Minear, Brasher, McCurdy, Lewis & Younggren, 2013). In this paper, we argue that the association between frequent media multitasking and poor multitasking performance depends on self-regulation ability and external factors, such as manipulation of the task execution strategy (sequential vs. free switching). In Study 1, we determined participants’ media multitasking frequency and measured their self-regulation ability. Then, participants performed a multiple media task in which they could freely switch between browser tabs. The results showed that high media multitasking levels were associated with more switches between tabs but only for participants with low (but not high) self-regulation ability. No differences in performance were observed. In Study 2, instead of measuring self-regulation ability, we manipulated task execution strategy (as an external form of regulation). As predicted, media multitasking frequency and performance on multiple tasks (overall score) were negatively related only in the free switching condition and not in the sequential condition. The results elucidate the relationship between media multitasking frequency and multitasking performance by showing its boundary conditions, and they help explain contradictory findings in the media multitasking literature.
... This is particularly true in healthcare organizations. Hallowell (2005) suggests that managers can help to motivate employees by encouraging them to eat right, exercise regularly, take "real" vacations, get organized, and slow down. ■ Get subordinates to take responsibility for their own motivation. ...
... The steps from information to knowledge and from knowledge to wisdom, and thence to insight and understanding, are held captive to the nominal insufficiency of processing capacity" (Hancock, 2014, p.450). Managers and employees who suffer cognitively from overload may end up making an increasing number of errors and poor decisions while trying to process dizzying amounts of data (Hallowell, 2005). They may also suffer emotionally from the overload, IT addiction, and workplace stress. ...
Book
We live in a world of limitless information. With technology advancing at an astonishingly fast pace, we are challenged to adapt to robotics and automated systems that threaten to replace us. Both at home and at work, an endless range of devices and Information Technology (IT) systems place demands upon our attention that human beings have never experienced before, but are our brains capable of processing it all? In this important new book, an in-depth view is taken of IT's under-studied dark side and its dire consequences on individuals, organizations, and society. With theoretical underpinnings from the fields of cognitive psychology, management, and information systems, the idea of brain overload is defined and explored, from its impact on our decision-making and memory to how we may cope with the resultant 'technostress'. Discussing the negative consequences of technology on work substitution, technologically induced work-family conflicts, and organizational design as well as the initiatives set up to combat these, the authors go on to propose measurement approaches for capturing the entangled aspects of IT-related overload. Concluding on an upbeat note, the book's final chapter explores emerging technologies that can illuminate our world when mindfully managed. Designed to better equip humans for dealing with new technologies, supported by case studies, and also exploring the idea of 'IT addiction', the book concludes by asking how IT processes may aid rather than hinder our cognitive functioning. This is essential reading for anyone interested in how we function in the digital age. © 2019 Anne-Françoise Rutkowski and Carol S. Saunders. All rights reserved.
... in-role performance) achievements of employees. Hallowell (2005) suggests that employees in modern organizations are probably inadequate to reach targeted performance level due to the stress imposed by acute burden of work, which causes diminishing of creative abilities. Exceptional workload and time stress with continuous interference may erode employees' creative ability as half and reduce in-role job performance (Amabile, Hadley & Kramer, 2002;Elmadağ & Ellinger, 2018). ...
Article
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Th e aim of this research was to examine the impact of job stress on performance (creativity and in-role performance) of employees working in tourism sector of Pakistan. Over and above the direct eff ect of stress on performance, this study also proposes and empirically tests the moderating eff ects of social support and perceived organizational politics. Social support is proposed to have positive moderating eff ect such that higher level reduces, whereas lower level of social support enhances the adverse eff ect of stress on performance. Contrary to this, perceived organizational politics is suggested as negative moderator where a greater level of perceived organizational politics increases the negative eff ect of stress on performance. Data were collected from 322 employees working in tourism organizations of Pakistan and were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Findings suggest that employees with higher level of stress perform poor on both creativity and in-role performance. Further, if employees are provided low social support at workplace, it increases the detrimental eff ect of stress on employee creativity and in-role performance. In addition to that, the fi ndings highlight that higher level of organizational politics catalyzes the detrimental eff ect of stress on performance. Findings imply that tourist fi rms can foster employee creativity and in-role performance by providing social support and facilitating workplace environment to cope with stress and organizational politics.
... Previous studies have found that working on several tasks concurrently is less efficient than performing each task separately (Pashler, 2000). Multitasking diminishes students' focus and performance and can increase impulsivity (Hallowell, 2005). A stream of research has demonstrated that students in physical classrooms who misuse technology become distracted, which subsequently lowers their academic performance (e.g., Fried, 2008;Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Wainer et al., 2008). ...
Article
Research has shown that multitasking in classrooms negatively impacts students' academic performance. This study investigated the indirect effects of multitasking on academic performance (i.e., Grade Point Average [GPA]) through self-efficacy for self-regulated learning (SESRL) in males and females (i.e., by gender). Measures of multitasking behaviors, in both online and traditional (i.e., face-to-face [F2F]) format classrooms, and SESRL were administered to university students. Two simple mediation and moderated mediation models were tested. The simple mediation analysis indicated that SESRL fully mediated the relationship between multitasking behaviors and GPA in F2F classes, and partially mediated this relationship in online classes. Evidence of moderated mediation effect was only found in online classes suggesting that there was a significant indirect effect for female students only. Female students with higher levels of SESRL experience a limited impact of online multitasking on GPA, resulting in better academic performance.
... A 2005 research study commissioned by Hewlett-Packard (Wilson, 2010) reported that IQ scores of knowledge workers tested while they were subjected to distraction and overload were reduced by 10 points; and subsequent to emails or other digital distractions took 23 to 30 minutes to restore cognitive awareness and concentration on the original task. Infomania derailed knowledge workers by causing them to work well below their full potential by producing less output, thinking superficially, and generating fewer new ideas, despite investing increased time (Hallowell, 2005). ...
Article
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Coined by Gross (1964) and popularized by Toffler (1970) and Carr (2010), information overload represents an overwhelming bombardment of digital information that often substantiates underpinnings of continuous mental stress, anxiety, and distraction caused by a combination of queued info glut and incessant interruptions. But it was the advent of the World Wide Web in 1989 (Berners-Lee, 2000) and the onset of ubiquitous connectivity that turned information overload into a daunting and even debilitating phenomenon. Informationists have written extensively about the corporate manifestation of info glut in the workplace requiring agile mitigation strategies to retain knowledge workers and managers. And a new Pew Report (Dec. 2016) disclosed positive results that users are discovering their own ways to ameliorate the tensions of today's information-saturated-world when organizations place high demands on employees. However, this research represents a pragmatic approach to understanding the present environment of organizational information overload. The professional employees and managers of a large US global corporation were studied for coping strategy feedback regarding an infinite and unwieldy information glut; results were analyzed for successful or failed remedies set-forth by employers; and then findings were compared to the Pew Report results to assess the current state of infomania (Ferrarini, 1984) in the workplace.
... Le constat de perte de sens et de qualité dans les relations, les interactions, les actions via le numérique, pour cause de techniques de captation, est largement partagé par les chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales et les politiques qui proposent une politique du care ou du bienêtre au travail comme réponse. Les chercheurs en psychologie de travail dénoncent l'apparition de pathologies du type hyperactivité nommé Attention Deficit Trait ADT (Hallowell, 2005, cité par Datchary, 2007. Dans les termes Carole Datchary, la personne atteinte d'ADT « éprouve de très grandes difficultés à s'organiser et notamment à gérer son temps. ...
... Whether or not IO relates to a spill-over and interference from work to home has been the focus of only few studies to date, at least to our knowledge. Hallowell (2005) describes that IO makes it difficult for people to stay organized, set priorities, and manage time. The way this affects working at home was only addressed in a few studies. ...
Article
In the information age we live in, we are constantly threatened by being drowned in a huge flood of information. Information overload (IO) describes this state where information can no longer be adequately processed by an individual. However, the danger posed by IO to individuals as well as organizations can still not be assessed properly due to a missing integration of previous findings. In this quantitative meta-analysis, we analysed the data of 133.011 people within 117 studies, and overall, 330 effect sizes. We performed multi-level as well as robust variance estimation analyses and found, among other things, positive correlations between IO and information avoidance, stress states, burnout and fatigue, and negative correlations between IO and performance and satisfaction. Explorative subgroup analyses revealed different moderating effects based on different vocational settings. Overall, the results of this meta-analysis indicate a negative relationship between IO and peoples’ behaviour and experience, which call for an evaluation of the exchange and handling of information. Across a wide range of studies and contexts, this meta-analysis reveals that IO may provoke the information fatigue syndrome that has been poorly considered to date, leading to severe consequences in both work and home contexts.
... It further aligns with the finding within the hidden profile paradigm that the allocation of information within teams-i.e., the team's deep-level diversity-is an important driver of intelligent decision-making [4], [19], [74]. We, therefore, vary both the diversity of information within teams and the degree of information overload, which is itself influenced by organizational factors, such as the use of information technology and organizational culture [35]- [37], [75]. ...
Article
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Organizations rely on teams for complex decision-making. By bringing diverse information together and utilizing information sharing strategies, teams can make intelligent decisions. However, as organizations face increasing information overload, it has become unclear whether such strategies remain adequate or whether bounds on human rationality will prevail. We develop an agent-based model that simulates information sharing in teams, where critical information is distributed across its members. We tested how robust various information sharing strategies are to information overload and bounds on rationality in terms of the speed and accuracy of collective decision-making. Our results suggest distinct strategies depending on whether speed or accuracy is imperative and, more broadly, shed light on how intelligence is best attained in collective decision-making.
... Similar results have been found in classic studies on multitasking, where the usual finding is that performing several activities at the same time (or frequently switching between them) leads to more errors, distraction, interference, and lost time as compared to a situation in which these activities are performed one at a time [see Pashler (1994), Monsell (2003), Courage et al. (2015), for overviews]. Some researchers even argue that multitasking, and digital multitasking especially, seems to (temporarily) reduce people's cognitive capacity and make "smart people underperform" (Hallowell, 2005). ...
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In the digital world of today, multitasking with media is inevitable. Research shows, for instance, that American youths spend on average 7.5 h every day with media, and 29% of that time is spent processing different forms of media simultaneously (Uncapher et al., 2017). Despite numerous studies, however, there is no consensus on whether media multitasking is effective or not. In the current paper, we review existing literature and propose that in order to ascertain whether media multitasking is effective, it is important to determine (1) which goal/s are used as a reference point (e.g., acquiring new knowledge, obtaining the highest number of points in a task, being active on social media); (2) whether a person's intentions and subjective feelings or objective performance are considered (e.g., simultaneous media use might feel productive, yet objective performance might deteriorate); and finally (3) whether the short-or long-term consequences of media multitasking are considered (e.g., media multitasking might help attain one's present goals yet be conducive to a cognitive strategy that leads to lesser attentional shielding of goals). Depending on these differentiations, media multitasking can be seen as both a strategic behavior undertaken to accomplish one's goals and as a self-regulatory failure. The article integrates various findings from the areas of cognitive psychology, psychology of motivation, and human-computer interaction.
... Work extending technology, such as smartphones and laptops have been said to improve productivity (Smith, 2005) and help in the goal of WLB (Cousins and Robey, 2005) therefore these mobile technologies offering the benefit of flexibility in completing work can be viewed as having positive outcomes on stress and satisfaction. However, mobile technology has also been criticised for being invasive and counterproductive (Hallowell, 2005;Jackson, 2007) as it can allow work to intrude during personal time and vice versa. This can be seen as WLC which can cause stress and have a negative impact on satisfaction and perceived balance. ...
Thesis
Technology has been criticised for blurring boundaries and making them more permeable, which has been previously portrayed as having a negative impact on work-life balance (WLB) and a cause for burnout among employees. With burnout a growing concern for organisations and governments, this thesis uses a boundary theory lens to explore the effects of technology on WLB. To improve understanding in this area, social media practitioners (SMPs) were selected as the sample to study because it could be said they are extensive users of technology and social media. Studying this group as an “extreme case” produces learnings and practices that could be applied to the rest of the social media industry and the digital workforce. Informed by a constructivist grounded theory (CGT) approach, this thesis draws from in-depth interviews with thirty-one UK SMPs and observation of an additional five SMPs, in their place of work, to investigate the role technology plays in managing boundaries between work and non-work and maintaining perceived WLB. Presented in this document are four contributions. Firstly, this thesis turns its attention to the boundaries in the digital landscape. I introduce the new term digital virtual boundary (DVB) and acknowledge how these differ from their analogue counterpart and what this means for how we manage our boundaries. This research also recognises how Clark’s (2000) “borderland” can assist role demand management and WLB when a user is within a digital virtual space. Secondly, this thesis presents a typology of new digital boundary preference groups that recognise the impact technology has on SMPs boundary preference and management. For each group, characteristics are defined so that one can identify and align themselves with the most suitable group to assist them in their boundary management style. Thirdly, technological strategies and tactics shared by my participants are listed in this thesis as a means of practices that can be adopted by others to aid them in their boundary management and technology use, to avoid burnout and maintain their ideal WLB. Lastly, the unique data collection method for this area of work, although growing in use for boundary theory, is the first time to my knowledge it has been applied to the WLB literature. Unlike its earlier counterpart grounded theory (GT), CGT places priority on the studied phenomenon over the methods of studying it and acknowledges the researcher's role in interpreting data and creating categories. This research contributes to the WLB literature and boundary theory by providing a better understanding of how employees in digital facing roles manage their boundaries and avoid burnout whilst extensively using technology. It must be noted that the data presented in this research was collected and analysed in 2019 prior to the outbreak of COVID-19. This had a significant impact not only on the way in which people work and interact with technology, but the national lockdowns have meant the majority of those employed were forced to work from home. This means now more than ever workers have undoubtedly thought about their WLB and how they manage their boundaries. This work could be of significant benefit to individuals learning to align appropriate strategies to their boundary preference.<br/
... The results of verifying this model shed new light on information anxiety and subject-object interaction theories. Previous studies of information anxiety have found that information overload could lead to information anxiety stress and attention deficit, which then affects behavioural decision-making and judgement (Hallowell, 2005;Stone, 2006). Some studies have found that self-evaluation affects information anxiety and subsequent behaviour (Bruce, 1997), while Bawden and Robinson (2009) claimed that from an information choice perspective, the lack of self-evaluation in information exchange aggravated negative emotions that could lead to information avoidance behaviour. ...
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This study applied the intergroup emotion theory framework to explore the internal driving framework of hotel employees' information anxiety and the internal correlation mechanism of intergroup emotions and coping actions under normal epidemic prevention conditions. In this study, a mixed research method was used. Based on 105 videos and 15 in-depth interview records, the internal driving framework of hotel employees' information anxiety identified in the qualitative research context and the internal correlation mechanism of hotel employees' information anxiety, analysed within the framework of intergroup sentiment analysis, was examined based on 213 valid questionnaires. The results verified the internal relationship between information anxiety of hotel employees and behaviour tendency and intergroup relationship, and also confirmed information anxiety of employees as a mediating variable on intergroup relationship and cognitive evaluation.
... The unsanctioned use of technology by students in the classroom could be easily dismissed as misbehavior. However, recent findings from cognitive neuroscience show that our information-rich lifestyle may lead to information addiction 32 and in turn, to a type of induced ADD referred to as attention deficit trait 33 . The consequences of these attention disorders are dire: inability to attain and sustain deep focus and the state of flow 34 , which are both directly related to learning, problem solving, creativity, productivity, and even life satisfaction 35,36 . ...
... and what economists sometimes call "cognitive dissonance" as an answer to "why smart people underperform?" (Halliwell 2005). Barry Schwartz talks persuasively about the "paradox of choice" that either impedes making choices at all or leads to irrational choices (2005). ...
Conference Paper
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The participation of “first generation” students in higher education is of concern to policy-makers concerned about equity of access and practitioners concerned about student progress. Although it is known generally that “first generation” students do not participate in higher education at the rate that larger student populations do, less is known about who “first generation” students are, how they make decisions to participate in higher education, and how they respond to study groups, peer mentoring, and on-campus residence programs. This investigation, which is based on four separate but related research projects, for each of which a multi-year data set spanning several years set was assembled. First generation students can be identified and studied separately in each data set. The study presents a deeper definition of “first generation” students and finds two quite different populations of “first generation” students: one that comprises students whose families immigrated recently to Canada and another that comprises students whose families have been in Canada for several generations. Students in the first population are “pushed” by their families to attend college or university, while students in the second population have to be “pulled” by other agents, for example, school guidance counselors and targeted recruitment initiatives to participate. The study also finds that first generation students perform in some respects differently in first year depending on peer support, study groups, and residential programs, and in other respects– for example year one to year two retention -- are not different from non-first generation students.
... Other studies have also shown that higher levels of chronic media multitasking are related to poorer academic performance (Bellur et al., 2015;Junco, 2012;Rosen et al., 2013), longer reading time (Bowman et al., 2010), and greater distractibility (Hallowell, 2006). These differences in attention have been termed "overall diffuse attentional state" (Gorman & Green, 2016), "continuous partial attention" (Friedman, 2006) or "attention deficit trait" (Hallowell, 2005). In line with this, a cross-sectional brain imaging study showed that frequent and chronic (as opposed to low) engagement in media multitasking is associated with structural differences in the brain. ...
Preprint
Research shows that high levels of media multitasking (either situationally induced or chronic) may be associated with a decreased cognitive function. Since cognitive capacity is required for efficient correction of one’s judgment after learning that the judgement base is no longer valid, we expected that high levels of media multitasking would decrease one’s ability to adequately update their beliefs. We ran two studies in which participants were asked to form an impression of a target person based on their online profile from a professional networking site. The profile contained either neutral information (control condition) or negative comment from a former supervisor which was later debunked (false information conditions). We additionally manipulated media multitasking demands (in Study 1) or measured participants’ frequency of media multitasking (Study 2) and tested whether the level of media multitasking is related to the degree to which the initial attitudes were adjusted after learning that the negative comment was false. We found a significant but rather small effect of manipulation in Study 1 indicating that participants in both multitasking conditions had more negative attitudes after correction compared to the baseline, but not to the mono-tasking condition. Crucially, media multitasking demands did not impact attitude adjustment. Results of Study 2 showed that the relationship between media multitasking frequency measured with a scale and attitude adjustment were non-significant. Overall, the current findings suggest that media multitasking, experimentally manipulated or chronic, plays a negligible role in correction after misinformation.
... Adaptive Design is important because of the nature of modern society and social research. More and more, people and organizations operate in dynamic environments (Anderson, 1999;Galinsky, Bond, Kim, Brownfield, & Sakai, 2005;Hallowell, 2005, Jensen, 1991. In addition, significant disruptions often cause step-functions changes that obviate fixed research designs (Meyer, Gaba, & Colwell, 2005). ...
Article
A guide book and a research model – Doing Excellent Small - Scale Research (Layder, 2013) provides both. First, Professor Layder has written a book that is just what he intended: “an introductory guide” for research students. It provides a process for clearly defining problem and topic questions, advice regarding research designs, methods for data collection and analysis, real - life examples, and a logical sequence tying everything together. Second, the author offers an Adaptive Research Model as a practical approach for conducting social research. This model and this book are recommended (by the reviewer) for research students and teachers, both undergraduate - and graduate - level.
... Typically overload is described in general terms rather than being specifically associated with emotions and with cognition. We divide overload into two types: (1) Cognitive overload which is associated with the cognitive processing of the mental load and is manifested by economizing the mental effort, by adapting the load to make it more manageable, cognitive weariness (Shirom et al., 2006), or even by a sense of professional non-accomplishment (Friedman, 2007); and (2) Emotional overload which is associated with stress, with short-term emotional consequences such as frustration (Wickens 1992), emotional exhaustion (Malasch et al., 1986;Friedman, 2007;Shirom et al., 2006), technostress (Tarafdar et al. 2007), distractibility, inner frenzy, and impatience representing the emotional side of the cognitively-overwhelming effort (Hallowell 2005), and with long-term chronic stress (Schlotz et al. 2004) similar to burnout symptoms (Maslach and Jackson 1981). ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we employ a perspective on overload that focuses on information processing rather than on the amount of information an individual receives. To understand how individuals determine whether or not to use a new technology, we introduce a new type of overload: Emotional and Cognitive Overload (ECO). To understand the role of ECO on the adoption and use of a new technology, we develop an Input-Process-Output model which opens up the black box related to the processes leading to overload. In particular, the model distinguishes mental processes from overload’s emotional and cognitive consequences. We test the research model using the results of a large survey (N=2037) that was underwritten by a large Dutch bank that was interested in delivering healthcare information online through the use of a video contact technology (VCT). The study’s findings are significant and support our hypotheses. We report them and discuss the implications.
... Other studies have also shown that higher levels of chronic media multitasking are related to poorer academic performance (Bellur et al., 2015;Junco, 2012;Rosen et al., 2013), longer reading time (Bowman et al., 2010), and greater distractibility (Hallowell, 2006). These differences in attention have been termed "overall diffuse attentional state" (Gorman & Green, 2016), "continuous partial attention" (Friedman, 2006) or "attention deficit trait" (Hallowell, 2005). In line with this, a cross-sectional brain imaging study showed that frequent and chronic (as opposed to low) engagement in media multitasking is associated with structural differences in the brain. ...
Article
Research shows that high levels of media multitasking (either situationally induced or chronic) may be associated with decreased cognitive function. Since cognitive capacity is required for efficient correction of one’s judgment after learning that the basis of the judgement is no longer valid, we expected that high levels of media multitasking would decrease one’s ability to adequately update one’s beliefs. We ran two studies in which participants were asked to form an impression of a target person based on their profile on a professional networking site. The profile contained either neutral information (control condition) or a negative comment which was later disproven (false-information conditions). We additionally manipulated media multitasking demands (in Study 1) or measured participants’ frequency of media multitasking (Study 2) and tested whether the level of media multitasking is related to the degree to which the initial attitudes were adjusted after learning that the negative comment was false. We found a significant but rather small effect of the manipulation in Study 1 indicating that participants in both multitasking conditions had more negative attitudes after the correction compared to the baseline, but not to the mono-tasking condition. Crucially, media multitasking demands did not impact attitude adjustment. The results of Study 2 showed that the relationship between media-multitasking frequency measured with a scale and attitude adjustment was non-significant. Overall, the findings provide no evidence that media multitasking – whether experimentally manipulated or chronic – plays a role in correction after misinformation. The study data and code are available at https://osf.io/xu6qd/
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Motivated by behavioural and psychological phenomena that occur in human operators, we study single-machine multitasking scheduling with job efficiency promotion. In traditional multitasking scheduling, the primary task is assumed to be interrupted by every waiting task. In this paper we take into account job efficiency promotion that helps reduce the actual interruption time. We propose two functions to model job efficiency promotion based on the job positions in a given schedule. The objective is to minimize the makespan, total completion time, and total absolute difference in completion times. We show that the problem is polynomially solvable for each objective. We also provide efficient solutions for some special cases.
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2. Cuvântul coordonatorului „Majoritatea eşecurilor din viaţă sunt ale oamenilor care nu-şi dau seama cât de aproape sunt de succes, atunci când renunţă.” Thomas Edison Există în viață numeroase cumpene, intersecții importante în care te oprești și te întrebi oare care este drumul pe care ar fi bine să-l alegi. Asta în cazul fericit în care ai o destinație și cunoști punctul terminus, pentru că, așa cum spunea Seneca,, dacă nu știi în ce port vrei să ajungi, nici un vânt nu îți este favorabil!”. Decizia devine cu atât mai importantă cu cât este vorba despre propria carieră. În cei peste 20 ani de activitate ca medic neurolog clinician, am întâlnit adolescenți sau părinți de adolescenți pe care i-am întrebat despre copii și ce ar dori să facă aceștia în viață. Puțini au fost cei care cunoșteau răspunsul, în ciuda oportunităților și a pleiadei de profesii existente ! Medicina, arta vindecării, suscită un viu interes în populația generală fiind o profesie dinamică, cu stress, suspans, incertitudini, uzură, emoții, suferință, bucurie. Dovadă stă și cel mai longeviv serial General Hospital, care a rezistat timp de peste 40 de ani, inclus în 2007, în topul 100 al celor mai bune seriale ale tuturor timpurilor. În același top se află și serialul E.R.(Emergency Room) din 1994, totalizând 15 sezoane. Succesul lor se datorează și faptului că au încercat să reproducă situaţiile tensionate întâlnite zilnic la camera de primiri urgenţe, dar și trăirile medicilor și asistenților care lucrează în acest mediu. Doctor House desemnat în 2008 cel mai urmărit serial TV din lume și Anatomia lui Grey sunt alte exemple în acest sens. Așadar, o carte despre profesia medicală în care să descriem diferitele aspecte ale acesteia, fără pretenția de a fi exhaustivi, este binevenită pentru consilierea în carieră. Cartea se adresează liceenilor, studenților unor facultăți cu profil medical, care nu sunt convinși că asta își doresc pentru viitor, sau celor care având deja o carieră, se gândesc la o schimbare din varii motive. Predând cursul despre managementul carierei medicale, am observat că mulți tineri au ajuns acolo absolut din întâmplare și nu din vocație, sau din convingere, de multe ori alții fiind cei care le-au decis soarta. Așa cum spunea medicul american de origine indiană Atul Gawande în cartea ,,Pe muchie de cuțit-însemnările unui chirurg despre o știință imperfectă”, medicina este o profesie îndrăzneață, dar o știință imperfectă, cu schimbări permanente ale nivelului de cunoaștere, cu erori și riscuri. Pe lângă știință vorbim de experiențe, deprinderi, intuiție sau fler. Pentru a oferi pacienților o îngrijire optimă, este nevoie de practică și cunoaștere, iar avalanșa poluării informaționale este năucitoare, ajungând la deplina maturitate profesională să avem acumulată de câteva ori mai multă informație decât în timpul facultății sau al rezidențiatului. Cartea se adresează deopotrivă atât medicilor cât și asistenților medicali, deoarece împreună formăm o echipă fără de care actul medical nu ar putea fi îndeplinit, iar sistemul medical nu ar funcționa. Pornim de la motivațiile care există astăzi pentru o carieră medicală, încercăm să răspundem câtorva întrebări despre aceasta, arătăm avantajele unor profesii de viitor. Sunt abordate teme precum oportunitățile statutului de student, arta managementului timpului, al stress-ului, a personalității. Alte capitole la fel de importante sunt cele legate de etica universitară și de deontologia medicală, lidershipul în sănătate. Este bine ca drumul către succesul profesional să înceapă cu o introspecție ce detectează calitățile și defectele fiecăruia. În acest fel, munca va fi cea care va aduce un venit existențial, dublat de libertate, satisfacție, provocare, independență și împlinire. Domeniul medical este unul al reușitelor dar și al eșecurilor, al vindecării sau al infirmității, al durerii sau al bucuriei, al deciziilor dificile, al responsabilității și devotamentului față de semeni, al curajului rațional, al intuiției. Alegerea carierei medicale este influențată de statutul social înalt al profesionistului, prețuit de comunitate pentru serviciile aduse oamenilor. Studiile sociologilor demonstrează că profesiile de medic și asistent medical, rămân cele mai respectate, în percepția populației, fiind urmate de cele de profesor și cercetător. Citind acest ghid, veți călători pe tărâmul fascinant al carierei medicale și vă veți alege profesia fără ezitări, lamentări, sau regrete. De asemeni așteptăm sugestiile, comentariile, părerile, experiențele voastre de viață și carieră pe adresa: sircar13@yahoo.com, sau pe cele ale colaboratorilor, expuse în capitolul patru. Să pornim la drum! Călătorie plăcută!
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