Yeast Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate Aminotransferase (Gfa1) Requires Methionine Aminopeptidase Activity for Proper Function

ArticleinJournal of Biological Chemistry 280(14):14356-60 · May 2005with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M501059200 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) catalyzes the co-translational processing of initiator methionine from nascent proteins. A cellular requirement for MetAP activity is likely due to dysfunction of MetAP substrates that require methionine removal for proper protein function. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (Gfa1) is an essential enzyme in yeast that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in hexosamine biosynthesis. The α-amino group of Gfa1 Cys-1 has been proposed to act as a nucleophile in the catalytic mechanism. We used two mutational strategies to evaluate whether removal of initiator methionine, catalyzed by MetAP, is required for Gfa1 function. Our results demonstrate that exposure of the α-amino group of Cys-1 is required for normal Gfa1 function as failure to do so results in decreased enzyme activity and slow growth. Further, either isoform of MetAP in yeast is sufficient for Gfa1 processing in vivo. These results are the first demonstration of an endogenous yeast protein that requires the exposure of the α-amino group by MetAP action for normal function. Additionally, Gfa1 will be a relevant target in therapeutic or physiological applications in which MetAP activity is inhibited.
    • "TRI14 export the deoxynivalenol outside the mycelia in addition to its major role in aggressiveness [15]. The function of MetAP1 is still not described in Fusarium spp., a deletion, however, reduces growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [18,25,26]. In both, prokaryotes and eukaryotes the N-terminal methionine is often cleaved by methionine aminopeptidase encoded by the gene MetAP1 [18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.) is an ubiquitous pathogen of cereals. The economic impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB) is characterized by crop losses and mycotoxin contamination. Our objective was to associate SNP diversity within candidate genes with phenotypic traits. A total of 77 F. graminearum s.s. isolates was tested for severity of fungal infection (= aggressiveness) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production in an inoculated field experiment at two locations in each of two years. For seven genes known to control fungal growth (MetAP1, Erf2) or DON production (TRI1, TRI5, TRI6 TRI10 and TRI14) single nucleotides polymorphic sites (SNPs) were determined and evaluated for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Associations of SNPs with both phenotypic traits were tested using linear mixed models. Decay of LD was in most instances fast. Two neighboring SNPs in MetAP1 and one SNP in Erf2 were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with aggressiveness explaining proportions of genotypic variance (pG) of 25.6%, 0.5%, and 13.1%, respectively. One SNP in TRI1 was significantly associated with DON production (pG = 4.4). We argue that using the published sequence information of Fusarium graminearum as a template to amplify comparative sequence parts of candidate genes is an effective method to detect quantitative trait loci. Our findings underline the potential of candidate gene association mapping approaches to identify functional SNPs underlying aggressiveness and DON production for F. graminearum s.s populations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012
    • "Our data showed gfa1 and chitin synthase had lower mRNA expression in E 2 -treated samples at earlier time points. Glucosamine-fructose-6-phospho aminotransferase (i.e., gfa1) is essential in S. cerevisiae, catalyzing the first step in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway [54]. Chitin synthase is a membrane-bound protein, involved in the polymerization of chitin in the fungal cell wall [55]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Paracoccidioides is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection is initiated by inhalation of conidia (C) or mycelial (M) fragments, which subsequently differentiate into yeast (Y). Epidemiological studies show a striking predominance of paracoccidioidomycosis in adult men compared to premenopausal women. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the female hormone (17β-estradiol, E(2)) regulates or inhibits M-or-C-to-Y transition. In this study we have profiled transcript expression to understand the molecular mechanism of how E(2) inhibits M-to-Y transition. Methodology: We assessed temporal gene expression in strain Pb01 in the presence or absence of E(2) at various time points through 9 days of the M-to-Y transition using an 11,000 element random-shear genomic DNA microarray and verified the results using quantitative real time-PCR. E(2)-regulated clones were sequenced to identify genes and biological function. Principal findings: E(2)-treatment affected gene expression of 550 array elements, with 331 showing up-regulation and 219 showing down-regulation at one or more time points (p≤0.001). Genes with low expression after 4 or 12 h exposure to E(2) belonged to pathways involved in heat shock response (hsp90 and hsp70), energy metabolism, and several retrotransposable elements. Y-related genes, α-1,3-glucan synthase, mannosyltransferase and Y20, demonstrated low or delayed expression in E(2)-treated cultures. Genes potentially involved in signaling, such as palmitoyltransferase (erf2), small GTPase RhoA, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase, and protein kinase (serine/threonine) showed low expression in the presence of E(2), whereas a gene encoding for an arrestin domain-containing protein showed high expression. Genes related to ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, and oxidative stress response genes were up-regulated by E(2). Conclusion: This study characterizes the effect of E(2) at the molecular level on the inhibition of the M-to-Y transition and is indicative that the inhibitory actions of E(2) may be working through signaling genes that regulate dimorphism.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
    • "A defect in removal of N-terminal methionine caused by MetAP2 inhibition might lead to aberrant levels of proteins important for cell proliferation and apoptosis [26,27]. Non-proper processing of the N-terminal methionine residue by MetAP results in difference of the first N-terminal residue which may significantly alter the function or binding affinities of the molecules.. Decreasing activity of glutamine- fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [28]; and reduction in binding of interleukin-1beta to its receptor [29] by dysfunction of MetAP2 are evident. TNP-470, a derivative of fumagillin, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of solid tumors and arthritis in several animal studies and preclinical trials [30,31]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAP) are proteases which remove the N-terminal methionine from newly synthesized proteins. Associations of MetAP2 with tumor progression of different cancers have been repeatedly reported. We aim to determine if MetAP2 is expressed in cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) and investigate to see if it would be a useful therapeutic target. We evaluated MetAP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 82 patients of intrahepatic CCA. MetAP2 was expressed in bile ducts to various degrees. It was occasionally expressed with weak staining in normal bile duct epithelium but was strikingly over-expressed in dysplastic bile duct epithelia, primary and metastatic CCA tissues (p < 0.001). The increased expression of MetAP2 in proliferating bile duct was evident. All metastatic tumors had stronger expression of MetAP2 than the corresponding primary tumors. Fumagillin, a MetAP2 specific inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and the degree of growth inhibition was dependent on the amount of cellular enzyme. The present study highlights the involvement of MetAP2 in an early event of carcinogenesis of CCA. The findings represent the first description of increased MetAP2 expression in CCA. The inhibition of enzyme activity using MetAP2 inhibitors may be a potential strategy for long-term control of tumor development and progression in CCA patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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