Estimates of prevalence of hip dysplasia in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and the influence of bias on published prevalence figures
To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and identify sources of bias in published reports.
200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and 140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60 months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and 93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2).
Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease. The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was determined from the number of official reports returned from the OFA.
Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation, radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal; of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA. Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs were significantly more likely to be submitted for OFA certification.
Prevalence of CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously reported in the United States. Results suggest substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes lower estimates of prevalence of CHD.
Available from: Yves Henrotin
- "Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints. It is highly prevalent in dogs (Paster et al., 2005; Smith et al., 2006) with 20 % of the canine population over 1 year old presenting various degrees of OA (Aragon et al., 2007; Moreau et al., 2011). This musculoskeletal disease is related to chronic pain, lameness, functional disability and reduced quality of life, leading finally to the loss of joint function and mobility (Henrotin et al., 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints and leads finally to the loss of mobility. It is highly prevalent in dogs. Nowadays, no cure exists, and the pharmacological treatment is limited to clinical signs alleviation. Some positive beneficial effects have been highlighted with dietary supplements in the course of dog OA. The goals of this narrative review are to summarize the scientific data available in the literature on dietary supplements assessed in dog OA and to discuss some trails about how to improve several aspects of research and issues with dietary supplements, such as bioavailability and dosage regimen. Chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine, undenaturated type II collagen, avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables, curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied in dog OA and therefore discussed in the present review. Most of them showed anticatabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning their pharmacokinetics. Their bioavailability is low, but new formulations are developed to enhance their gastrointestinal absorption. The clinical relevance of these new formulations compared to native forms should be demonstrated in good clinical trials. Even if further investigations are needed, dietary supplements should be considered in OA management.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Available from: Brett Nemke
- "Arthritis secondary to hip dysplasia is particularly common. The prevalence of hip dysplasia varies in different breeds and in many large breeds exceeds 50%
. Other appendicular joints that are commonly affected with OA in dogs include the stifle, the shoulder and the elbow. "
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Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo) for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication.
Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P < 0.001). Treatment with carprofen (P ≤ 0.01) and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001) led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01). Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P < 0.001). Questionnaire score and activity count at the end of treatment were correlated with age, clinical severity at trial entry, and outcome measure baseline status (SR ≥ ±0.40, P ≤ 0.005). Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied.
Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome measures, as well as an a priori analysis of effect size associated with each measure. Effect size data from the present study could be used to inform design of future trials studying analgesic treatment of canine OA. Our results suggest that analgesic treatment with ABT-116 is not as effective as carprofen or tramadol for treatment of hip arthritis pain in client-owned dogs.
Available from: Jerold S Bell
- "screening of radiographs with obviously dysplastic hips by veterinarians ; these radiographs may not be submitted to the OFA for evaluation (Paster et al., 2005). This would reduce the resultant frequencies of dysplastic individuals. "
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ABSTRACT: The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) maintains an on-line health pedigree database for inherited disorders of animals. With the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation, the OFA maintains the Canine Health Information Center (CHIC) for parent breed clubs to identify breed-specific required health tests. Analysis of the results of OFA evaluations in the hip and elbow registries show that selection based on phenotype improves conformation. Disorders with complex inheritance respond best to selection based on depth (ancestors) and breadth (siblings) of pedigree health test results. This information can be derived from vertical pedigrees generated on the OFA website.
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