Platelet activation in cystic fibrosis

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 07/2005; 105(12):4635-41. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2004-06-2098
Source: PubMed


Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). We examined platelet function in CF patients because lung inflammation is part of this disease and platelets contribute to inflammation. CF patients had increased circulating leukocyte-platelet aggregates and increased platelet responsiveness to agonists compared with healthy controls. CF plasma caused activation of normal and CF platelets; however, activation was greater in CF platelets. Furthermore, washed CF platelets also showed increased reactivity to agonists. CF platelet hyperreactivity was incompletely inhibited by prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)). As demonstrated by Western blotting and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), there was neither CFTR nor CFTR-specific mRNA in normal platelets. There were abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of membrane fractions of CF platelets. In summary, CF patients have an increase in circulating activated platelets and platelet reactivity, as determined by monocyte-platelet aggregation, neutrophil-platelet aggregation, and platelet surface P-selectin. This increased platelet activation in CF is the result of both a plasma factor(s) and an intrinsic platelet mechanism via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/adenylate cyclase, but not via platelet CFTR. Our findings may account, at least in part, for the beneficial effects of ibuprofen in CF.

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    • "Evidence has shown that platelets are activated in the CF patients [7], [24]. Mutation of CFTR causes severe thrombocytopenia in a LPS-induced lung inflammation mouse model. "
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    ABSTRACT: CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del) or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2) or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase) inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The most important finding of this study is that in response to LPS challenge, F508del mice developed thrombocytopenia and severe lung inflammation manifested by higher BAL neutrophils and protein levels compared to wildtype mice. Our result is different from the previous clinical research that CF patients have an increase in circulating activated platelets determined by leukocyte-platelet aggregation [4]. In that study, (i) 32 CF patients were recruited, but the complications of these patients were unclear; (ii) Platelets in the peripheral blood were not numerated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) leads to cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation) mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels). Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), platelet activating factor (PAF), and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF), or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "While not routinely used as a diagnostic assay in clinical medicine, whole blood flow cytometric measurement of monocyte-platelet aggregates is considered an early and sensitive marker of in vivo platelet activation and atherothrombosis in adults [6], [9], and proposed as a potential diagnostic tool in the assessment of acute coronary syndromes [9]. Monocyte-platelet aggregates have also been used as a sensitive marker of platelet activation in the context of thromboinflammatory disease state of relevance to paediatric populations, such as cystic fibrosis [29]. However, in the current study circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates observed in healthy children were not associated with platelet activation, and the adherent platelets had not undergone exocytosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Platelets are subcellular fragments which circulate in blood and have well established roles in thrombosis and haemostasis in adults. Upon activation, platelets undergo granule exocytosis and express P-Selectin on the cell membrane which binds a ligand on monocytes, leading to monocyte-platelet aggregation. Elevated circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates in adults are linked to atherothrombosis, but have not been investigated in children where thrombosis is less common. This study aimed to measure monocyte-platelet aggregate formation in children using whole blood flow cytometry. Monocyte-platelet aggregates as well as activation and granule exocytosis of platelets were measured in healthy adults (n = 15, median age 28 years) and healthy children (n = 28, median age 7 years). Monocyte-platelet aggregates in healthy children were elevated compared to healthy adults (37.8±4.4% vs 15.5±1.9% respectively, p<0.01). However, this was not accompanied by any difference in platelet activation (PAC-1 binding 6.8±1.5% vs 6.3±2.0% respectively, p = ns) or granule exocytosis (P-selectin expression 4.4±0.5% vs 3.1±0.5% respectively, p = ns). Despite comparable numbers of platelets bound per monocyte (GPIb MFI 117.3±13.7 vs 130.9±28.6 respectively, p = ns), surface P-selectin expression per platelet-bound monocyte was lower in children compared to adults. We therefore provide the first data of elevated monocyte-platelet aggregates in healthy children.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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