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Diagnostic conversion from depression to bipolar disorders: Results of a long-term prospective study of hospital admissions

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To analyse the time course and some risk factors for a diagnostic change from major depression to bipolar disorders (BP) over an average of 20 years from the onset of the disorders. Patients (406) with major mood disorders hospitalised at some time between 1959 and 1963 were followed-up until 1985. The analysis also included the course prior to hospitalisation. Survival analyses and Cox regression models were applied. A diagnostic change from depression to bipolar I occurred in about 1% of the patients per year and to bipolar II disorders in about 0.5% per year. Risk factors for a change from depression to BP-I disorder were male sex and an early onset of the disorder; risk factors for a change from depression to BP-II disorder were female sex, a later onset of the disorder and a positive family history of mania. Across the entire lifetime, every new episode of depression brings a new risk for mania; more than half of our severe mood disorder cases became bipolars. The risk of depression developing into bipolar disorder remains constant lifelong. The diagnostic classification of ICD-9 met RDC criteria for bipolar disorder in only 90% of cases. Part of the data collected in retrospect may be less reliable; the prospective data were only collected every 5 years from 1965 to 1985 using multiple sources; mild manifestations between the follow-ups may have been partially missed. The sample of subsequent hospital admissions for major depression and mania represents a severe group of patients and generalisations to ambulatory cases may not be possible. Not all risk factors for diagnostic conversion described in the literature could be assessed in this study.
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Research report
Diagnostic conversion from depression to bipolar disorders:
results of a long-term prospective study of hospital admissions
Jules Angst*, Robert Sellaro, Hans H. Stassen, Alex Gamma
Epidemiological Research, Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital, Lenggstrasse 31, P.O. Box 68, 8029 Zurich, Switzerland
Received 26 March 2003; accepted 3 April 2003
Abstract
Objectives: To analyse the time course and some risk factors for a diagnostic change from major depression to bipolar
disorders (BP) over an average of 20 years from the onset of the disorders. Methods: Patients (406) with major mood disorders
hospitalised at some time between 1959 and 1963 were followed-up until 1985. The analysis also included the course prior to
hospitalisation. Survival analyses and Cox regression models were applied. Results: A diagnostic change from depression to
bipolar I occurred in about 1% of the patients per year and to bipolar II disorders in about 0.5% per year. Risk factors for a
change from depression to BP-I disorder were male sex and an early onset of the disorder; risk factors for a change from
depression to BP-II disorder were female sex, a later onset of the disorder and a positive family history of mania. Conclusions:
Across the entire lifetime, every new episode of depression brings a new risk for mania; more than half of our severe mood
disorder cases became bipolars. The risk of depression developing into bipolar disorder remains constant lifelong. Limitations:
The diagnostic classification of ICD-9 met RDC criteria for bipolar disorder in only 90% of cases. Part of the data collected in
retrospect may be less reliable; the prospective data were only collected every 5 years from 1965 to 1985 using multiple
sources; mild manifestations between the follow-ups may have been partially missed. The sample of subsequent hospital
admissions for major depression and mania represents a severe group of patients and generalisations to ambulatory cases may
not be possible. Not all risk factors for diagnostic conversion described in the literature could be assessed in this study.
D2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Diagnostic change; Risk factors; Depression; Bipolar disorders
1. Introduction
The homogeneity and unity of manic-depressive
disorders (Kraepelin, 1898) were disproved in the late
1960s by three monographs (Angst, 1966; Perris,
1966; Winokur et al., 1969) and the distinction
between bipolar disorder (BP) (Falret, 1851) and
depression was re-introduced. Since then, a persistent
problem has been the uncertain diagnosis of depres-
sive disorder, since it is clear that the group of recurrent
depressives includes hidden bipolar subjects whose
depression may develop into hypomania or mania at
any time. One consequence of this is the long time
elapsing between the onset of depression and a
diagnosis of BP. This period was more than 7.5 years
in the retrospective study of Ghaemi et al. (1999) and
8 years in a national survey of the NDMDA (1993) in
0165-0327/$ - see front matter D2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00195-2
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +41-1-384-2611; fax: +41-1-384-
2446.
E-mail address: jangst@bli.unizh.ch (J. Angst).
www.elsevier.com/locate/jad
Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005) 149 – 157
the United States. Underdiagnosis of minor bipolar
syndromes is the rule.
Although there have been many reports on the rates
of diagnostic changes from depression to bipolar
disorder (reviewed by Angst, 1988), few of them
have taken the length of follow-up into account. On
the basis of four large studies (Kinkelin, 1954; Mar-
neros et al., 1991; Coryell et al., 1995; Angst and
Preisig, 1995a), we estimated a mean diagnostic
change rate of 1% per year of observation (Angst,
2000).Coryell et al. (1995), for instance, found 5.0%
diagnostic changes from depression to hypomania and
5.2% to mania over 10 years of follow-up; 7.5% of
bipolar II patients developed mania.
The rates recently reported by Goldberg et al. (2001)
in a 15-year follow-up of 74 initially hospitalised
patients were higher, with the diagnosis changing from
depression to hypomania in 26% and from depression
to mania in 19% of patients. Their survival analyses
suggested a constant (linear) risk of diagnostic change.
This paper will not deal with the risk of depressive
episodes switching into hypomania or mania, and will
therefore not discuss the hypothesis that antidepres-
sants are risk factors for such a switch (Goodwin and
Jamison, 1990). Nor will it analyse the time-point of
such switches within a depressive episode.
The goal of this paper is to specifically describe the
risks of long-term diagnostic conversion from depres-
sion to bipolar disorder (bipolar I and bipolar II) as a
function of time, and in relation to age of onset,
number of depressive episodes, sex and family history
for bipolar disorder. In contrast to earlier analyses of
the course (Angst and Preisig, 1995a), this paper
applies survival techniques for the description of the
time course of diagnostic changes over lifetime,
including 26 years of prospective follow-up.
2. Methods
2.1. Sample and assessments
The sample consists of 406 patients (186 unipolar
and 220 bipolar depressive or manic) who were
admitted to the University Psychiatric Hospital of
Zurich between 1959 and 1963 with a diagnosis of
mania or endogenous depression, endo-reactive de-
pression, manic-depressive disorder or affective disor-
der with mood-congruent or mood-incongruent
psychotic features (hallucinations or delusions) includ-
ing schizo-affective disorder. Sixty-one percent of the
patients met the criteria for psychosis at least once over
their lifetime, underlining that we are dealing with a
hospitalised group of seriously ill patients.
Psychopathology was assessed between 1959 and
1963 in 331 patients who were depressed at admis-
sion and discharge. The unstructured clinical inter-
views were systematically guided by a comprehensive
rating scale for psychopathology (Angst et al., 1964),
which included 44 psychological items and the syn-
dromes agitation, retardation, hypochondriasis, sui-
cidal thoughts and suicide attempts. In addition, data
from significant others were collected in all cases. A
family history of psychiatric disorders and suicidality
was taken from the probands and from at least one
first degree relative. Prospectively psychopathology
was documented by a list of 10 syndromes (Angst et
al., 1968).
Bipolarity was assumed as soon as hypomania
occurred for a few days, regardless of whether it
seemed to be drug-induced or not. The diagnosis of
bipolar I vs. bipolar II disorder was made by ICD-9
criteria approximating the original criteria of Dunner
et al. (1976), applying hospitalisation as a classifier:
bipolar II disorder required hospitalisation for depres-
sion, bipolar I disorder required hospitalisation for
mania. In a methodological study of a random sub-
sample of 152 cases, the diagnostic criteria of Feigh-
ner et al. (1972) were applied (Grigo, 1981). There
was diagnostic agreement in 89% of unipolar depres-
sion and 90% of bipolar disorders (specificity 0.8;
sensitivity 0.93). With the exception of two bipolar II
cases, whose hypomania lasted only 1 week, all
bipolars met the 2 weeks minimum criterion. A
detailed description of the sample, all of whom
qualify for DSM-III-R criteria for major depression
and mania or hypomania, has been published (Angst
and Preisig, 1995a).
Follow-ups were carried out in 1963, 1965, 1970,
1975, 1980 and 1985. For each episode, the onset and
end were dated, and the treatment status (none,
ambulatory, hospitalisation) and the status between
episodes (no symptoms, residual symptoms, prophy-
lactic treatment) were recorded. Patients’ previous
history was reconstructed as fully as possible on the
basis of information from numerous sources, includ-
J. Angst et al. / Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005) 149–157150
ing other institutions, family doctors and significant
others (Angst and Preisig, 1995b).
The statistical analysis will mainly focus on the
entire course of the disorders (including the retrospec-
tive period). In addition, a subsample followed purely
prospectively will be analysed comparatively for
methodological reasons.
2.2. Statistics
Analyses were carried out in STATISTICA 5.5 and
STATA 7.0 for Windows. Non-parametric survival
analyses according to Kaplan and Meier (1958) with
log-rank tests were used to compare survivorship
functions across groups. Multivariate Cox models
(MULCOX, Wei et al., 1989) were used to assess
the effects of explanatory variables (sex, age of onset,
number of episodes, family history of mania) on the
rates of diagnostic change (hazard ratios) over the
study period. Continuous variables were dichotomised
at the median or polytomised if they were not linear in
the log hazard function. Linearity was assessed by
fitting first- and second-order fractional polynomial
models to the variable. If there was a significant
statistical gain from a higher-order compared to the
linear model, the variable was assumed not to be
linear. Variables that violated the proportional hazard
assumption (as assessed using STATA’s ‘‘stphtest’’
command) were excluded from the models.
3. Results
3.1. Status at first episode
As stated earlier, the sample consists of consecutive
hospital admissions for major depression or mania
over 5 years. It includes both first admissions and re-
admissions; hence, the data collected on a subject’s
first episode are in many cases retrospective: 118 of
406 (29.1%) patients were selected for study in their
first episode, 288 cases in later episodes. During their
first episode, 45 (11.1%) patients were not treated, 38
(9.4%) treated as outpatients, 270 (66.5%) treated as
inpatients; in 53 (13.1%) cases, data on treatment of
the first episode were missing. 309 (76.1%) of first
episodes manifested as depression, 27 (6.7%) as bipo-
lar disorders, 40 (9.9%) as manic and the remaining 30
(8.6%) as other psychotic syndromes (paranoid/cata-
tonic/hallucinatory/hebephrenic).
3.2. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar
disorders: retrospective/prospective vs. purely
prospective subsample
Intuitively, one would expect the purely prospec-
tively observed subsample (P) to show more diagnos-
tic changes to bipolar disorder than the subsample RP,
observed retro- and prospectively. Surprisingly, this
was not the case: Group P (n= 97) manifested as
depression at first admission and was studied pro-
spectively; 15 cases (15.5%) converted from depres-
sion to bipolar disorders (7.2% BP-I, 8.25% BP-II)
over an average observation period of 13.8 years. In
the larger subsample RP (n= 212), who was studied
both retrospectively and prospectively, the conversion
rate was significantly larger. Over an average obser-
vation period of 23.4 years, 106 patients (50%)
switched from depression to bipolar disorder (32.1%
to BP-I and in 17.9% to BP-II disorders).
The higher conversion rate observed in subsample
RP cannot be explained solely by the longer observa-
tion, since there was also a significant difference
(p< 0.02 in the survival curves of diagnostic changes
(Fig. 1)) censoring for drop-outs.
The age of onset of the prospective subsample was
considerably higher (mean 47.9 years, s.d. 16.8) than
that of subsample RP (mean 33.5 years, s.d. 13.4). In
additional survival analyses (not shown in detail),
group P showed significantly (log rank test, p<0.05)
fewer diagnostic changes to bipolar I disorder than
group RP with its much earlier age of onset.
The survival curves of the changes from depression
to bipolar II disorders did not differ significantly
between the two groups P and RP.
3.3. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar
disorders
The analysis will first deal with the sample as a
whole and study the change from depression to
bipolar disorder. The analysis describes the diagnostic
change starting with the first episode of the illness as a
function of years of follow-up.
A diagnostic change from depression to bipolar
disorder occurred in 39.2% of cases (121/309), in 75
J. Angst et al. / Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005) 149–157 151
of them (24.3%) changing to BP-I disorder and in 46
(14.9%) changing to BP-II disorder. 41.2% of all BP-
II cases (40/97) later developed into BP-I disorder.
Taking into account only prospectively observed epi-
sodes, there was 27.2% diagnostic changes to bipolar
disorder (15.7% to BP-I and 11.6% to BP-II); the
respective mean survival times were 13.0 (BP), 15.1
(BP-I) and 15.6 years (BP-II).
The survival analysis for the diagnosis of depres-
sion resulted in a mean survival time of 30.8
(s.d. = 1.09) years. The gradient of the survival curve
over the first 4 years is slightly steeper (change in
about 10% of cases), but from the 5th to the 50th year
of follow-up, it approximates a linear function (Fig.
2). This means that after the first 5 years, the risk of a
diagnostic change from depression to bipolar disor-
ders was constant over lifetime with a change rate of
about 1.25% per year.
The Cox model including sex, age of onset,
family history of bipolar disorder and number of
episodes (dichotomised at six episodes) showed that
patients with more than six episodes in their lives
changed diagnoses at 3.6 times the rate of those with
fewer episodes ( p< 0.0001). Women tended to have
a slower rate of change than men (hazard ratio = 0.7,
p= 0.1). The age of onset and family history were
not significantly related to the rate of diagnostic
change.
All Cox models are summarised in Table 1.
UP to BP (N=309)
p(log-rank)<0.02
Years since onset of first episode
Cumulative proportion surviving
0 1020304050607080
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Retrospective + prospective (N=212)
Prospective only (N=97)
Fig. 1. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar disorders: comparison of prospectively studied subsample and also including retrospective
observations.
DE (UP) to BP (n=309)
conversion
Years since onset of first episode
Cumulative proportion surviving
01020304050
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fig. 2. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar disorders.
J. Angst et al. / Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005) 149–157152
3.4. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar I
and bipolar II disorder
3.4.1. Change from depression to BP-I disorder
The survival curve (Fig. 3) demonstrates a linear
function similar to that in Fig. 2. The change rate was
about 1% per year. According to the Cox model,
patients with more than six episodes changed diagno-
sis at 3.2 times the rate of those with fewer episodes
(p< 0.0001). The rate of change in women was again
slower than that in men (hazard ratio = 0.5, p< 0.003).
An increase of 10 years in the age of onset was
associated with an 80% reduction in the rate of change
(p< 0.03).
3.4.2. Change from depression to BP-II disorder
Fig. 4 shows that the rate of change is about 0.5%
per year of follow-up; the rate of change during the
first year of follow-up was not elevated. In contrast to
the change from depression to BP-I disorder, the Cox
model showed that the rate of change from depression
to BP-II disorder was higher in women than in men
(hazard rate = 2.4, p< 0.06). The diagnosis of patients
with more than six episodes changed 2.5 faster than
that of patients with fewer episodes ( p< 0.01). Age of
onset was not linear in the log hazard and was
polytomised into 20-year bins. A 20-year increase in
age of onset resulted in a minimal, but significant,
increase in the rate of diagnostic change (hazard
ratio = 1.02, p< 0.03). A positive family history for
Table 1
Cox proportional hazard models for the diagnostic change between
subtypes of mood disorder
Hazard ratio 95% C.I. P
DE !BP
Sex 0.7 0.48 – 1.07 0.1
No. of episodes
a
3.6 2.30 – 5.57 0.0001
DE !BP-I
Sex 0.5 0.30 – 0.78 0.003
No. of episodes
a
3.2 1.75 – 6.01 0.0001
Age of onset
b
0.8 0.66 – 0.97 0.03
DE !BP-II
Sex 2.4 0.96 – 6.20 0.06
No. of episodes
a
2.5 1.25 – 5.03 0.009
Age of onset
c
1.02 1.00 – 1.05 0.03
FH + mania 3.0 0.92 – 9.74 0.07
BP-II !BP-I
Sex 0.5 0.25 – 0.91 0.02
DE = depression, BP = bipolar disorder.
a
Dichotomised at six episodes.
b
Calculated for a change of 10 years.
c
Polytomised into 20-year bins.
DE (UP) to BP-I (n=309)
conversion
Years since onset of first episode
Cumulative proportion surviving
01020304050
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fig. 3. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar I disorder.
DE (UP) to BP-II (n=309)
conversion
Years since onset of first episode
Cumulative proportion surviving
01020304050
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fig. 4. Diagnostic change from depression to bipolar II disorder.
J. Angst et al. / Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005) 149–157 153
mania tended to increase the rate of diagnostic change
3.0-fold ( p< 0.07).
3.5. Diagnostic change from BP-II to BP-I disorders
Bipolar patients (97) manifested first with BP-II
disorders. Forty of them (41.2%) later developed BP-
I disorder, with a mean survival time of 29.1 (s.d. =
2.59) years. Restricted to the prospective observation
period, 33.3% changes occurred over a mean survival
time of 13.2 years. Over 25 years of follow-up, the
diagnostic change rate was almost linear and the risk
was therefore constant, with a rate of change of 2% per
year. Only gender was a significant variable in the Cox
model. Women changed from BP-II to BP-I disorder
more slowly than men (hazard ratio = 0.5, p< 0.03).
4. Discussion
A change in diagnosis from depression to bipolar
disorders has practical clinical implications for the
prognosis and choice of treatment, and it helps define
homogenous subgroups of mood disorders for biolog-
ical research purposes.
In this naturalistic study, patients were recruited at
many different points of their illness; it was therefore
inevitable that for most patients, some data were
retrospective and per se less reliable than data on
the prospectively assessed episodes. To our surprise,
the diagnostic changes were significantly less frequent
in the subsample studied purely prospectively than in
the partly retrospectively studied group. We think that
the much higher average age of onset of (49 years) of
the prospective group explains its lower diagnostic
switch rate; bipolar disorder manifests in most cases
between the second and fourth decades of life. There-
fore, had we confined the analysis of the course to
purely prospective periods, it would have consider-
ably restricted the size of the sample and made it less
representative.
For many reasons, depressive disorders are over-
diagnosed (Ghaemi et al., 1999), and the diagnosis is
always loaded with uncertainty. Clearly every new
episode is accompanied by a certain risk of mani-
festing as mania or hypomania. Two questions arise:
how high is the recurrence risk and does it change
over a lifetime?
A careful analysis of the 10-year prospective data
of the NIMH Collaborative Study on the Biology of
Depression suggested a constant risk of recurrence of
bipolar disorder and depression (Lavori et al., 1996);
this finding was recently confirmed on the basis of a
40-year follow-up (both retrospective and prospec-
tive) of our patient sample (Angst et al., 2003). Frailty
models would even indicate that the risk of recurrence
increases slightly (Kessing and Andersen, 1999; Kess-
ing et al., 1999, in press).
Our survival analyses demonstrated that the risk of
depression converting into any bipolar disorder
remained constant over decades, which is compatible
with the findings of Goldberg et al. (2001) of a
constant recurrence risk. Our finding of a higher initial
risk of diagnostic change is unexpected and difficult
to interpret. It could mean that (1) the risk is really
higher over the first 2 3 years of depressive disor-
ders, or rather, that (2) the finding is merely an artifact
of unreliable first onset data of hypomania/mania
resulting in higher age of onset. We would favour
the second explanation.
The survival analyses showed that rates of diag-
nostic change varied according to the bipolar sub-
group: from depression to bipolar I, the change was
about 1% per year and to bipolar II disorders about
0.5% per year. The risk of a diagnostic change from
bipolar II to bipolar I disorder was approximately 2%
per year of observation (Fig. 5). These results are
compatible with the estimates in the literature men-
tioned in the Introduction.
The analyses of diagnostic changes from depres-
sion to bipolar disorders clearly showed that the
proportion of depressive disorders converting into
bipolar disorders is highly dependent on the length
of the follow-up. In our study, 39% of the depressives
developed bipolar disorder; we found the change in
diagnosis from depression to bipolar disorder in 50%
of cases over an average of 37 years.
Including cases which manifested mania already in
their first episode, more than half of our total sample
ultimately became bipolars.
The research into the risk factors for conversion
from unipolar to bipolar disorders was recently
reviewed by Goldberg et al. (2001). Risk factors
included young age (Coryell et al., 1995), an earlier
age of onset (Akiskal et al., 1983), sudden onset
(Strober and Carlson, 1982), high number of previous
J. Angst et al. / Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005) 149–157154
episodes (Angst, 1965; Angst et al., 1978), psychotic
features (Akiskal et al., 1983; Strober and Carlson,
1982; Strober et al., 1993; Winokur and Morrison,
1973), previous hypomanic swings (Angst, 1965) or
psychomotor retardation (Akiskal et al., 1983; Strober
and Carlson, 1982). A positive family history for
bipolar disorder was found in some (Akiskal et al.,
1983; Coryell et al., 1995; Winokur et al., 1993) but
not in all studies (Angst, 1985). According to Akiskal
et al. (1995), temperamental instability and mood
lability in major depressives were strong predictors
of bipolar II disorders. Not all of these risk factors
could be investigated in our study. Although in both
BP-I and BP-II, the diagnostic change was correlated
with a higher number of episodes, in our study, risk
factors for bipolar I and II disorders differed to some
extent. Male sex and an early onset of the disorder
were correlated with a diagnostic change to BP-I
disorder; female sex and a later onset of the disorder
correlated with a change to BP-II disorder, as did a
positive family history of mania. As a general rule,
men seem to have a higher propensity to mania and
women to hypomania.
4.1. Limitations
The obvious limitations of the study arise from
sample selection. Firstly, the findings refer to severe,
hospitalised cases of mood disorders and can there-
fore not be generalised to outpatient or community
samples. Secondly, the study unavoidably included
retrospective course data. These shortcomings could
be remedied by a lifelong prospective epidemiologi-
cal study following a cohort from childhood to death.
The assessment intervals of 5 years may have also led
to a loss of information on hypomania occurring
between them. On the other hand, the strength of
the study is its duration and the fairly precise pro-
spective dating of the diagnostic changes allowing
survival analyses.
4.2. Conclusions
The main implication of this study for psychiatric
practice and research is the high ratio of bipolar
disorder to depression (approximately 1:1), a finding
which is compatible with earlier estimates of diagnos-
tic error (Angst et al., 1978), with some findings in
patient samples (Akiskal and Mallya, 1987; Allilaire
et al., 2001; Benazzi, 2001; Benazzi and Akiskal,
2003) and with our prospective cohort study of a
community sample (Angst et al., 2003).
In practice, this implies checking every depressive
patient carefully for any personal history of hypoman-
ic symptoms (taking into account reports by signifi-
cant others) and for any family history of mania. The
aim would be to reduce the overdiagnosis of depres-
sion and to identify a suspected group of hidden
bipolars as a predictor of so-called drug-induced
hypomania or future diagnostic changes to bipolar
disorders.
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... It has been well-documented that during this transition, students are more prone to develop mental health problems, and those with pre-existing mental health issues are at greater risk of exaggerated symptoms [13]. People diagnosed with major depressive disorders may develop bipolar disorder and present with poor performance, substance abuse, suicidal tendencies, increased hospitalization, and involvement in legal issues [19,20]. It could be related to the alterations in the brain, particularly in the white matter and neural circuitry, since both these structures are critically involved in sensory processing and emotion regulation [20]. ...
... GAD-7 and PHQ-9 features 7 and 9 questions respectively, with scoring based on the 4-point Likert scale, and both questionnaires are reported to have a good internal consistency (GAD-7 = 0.92, PHQ-9 = 0.89) [29,30]. Participants were required to score each statement on a scale of 0-3, and the total score was calculated and we categorized the students into none (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10)(11)(12)(13)(14), moderately severe (15)(16)(17)(18)(19) or severe (� 20) depression; and minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10)(11)(12)(13)(14), or severe (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21) anxiety. Students with a PHQ-9 and GAD-7 score of 4 or less than 4 were categorized as not having any depression or anxiety respectively. ...
... GAD-7 and PHQ-9 features 7 and 9 questions respectively, with scoring based on the 4-point Likert scale, and both questionnaires are reported to have a good internal consistency (GAD-7 = 0.92, PHQ-9 = 0.89) [29,30]. Participants were required to score each statement on a scale of 0-3, and the total score was calculated and we categorized the students into none (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10)(11)(12)(13)(14), moderately severe (15)(16)(17)(18)(19) or severe (� 20) depression; and minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10)(11)(12)(13)(14), or severe (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21) anxiety. Students with a PHQ-9 and GAD-7 score of 4 or less than 4 were categorized as not having any depression or anxiety respectively. ...
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Background Young adults, particularly university students might be at greater risk of developing psychological distress, and exhibiting symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary objective of this study was to explore and compare the determinants and predictors of mental health (anxiety and depression) during and after the COVID-19 lockdown among university students. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a sample size of 417 students. An online survey utilizing International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ-SF), General Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was distributed to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman students via Google forms. Results During lockdown, family income [χ ² (1, n = 124) = 5.155, p = 0.023], and physical activity (PA) [χ ² (1, n = 134) = 6.366, p = 0.012] were associated with anxiety, while depression was associated with gender [χ ² (1, n = 75) = 4.655, p = 0.031]. After lockdown, family income was associated with both anxiety [χ2 (1, n = 111) = 8.089, p = 0.004], and depression [χ2 (1, n = 115) = 9.305, p = 0.002]. During lockdown, family income (OR = 1.60, p = 0.018), and PA (OR = 0.59, p = 0.011) were predictors for anxiety, while gender (OR = 0.65, p = 0.046) was a predictor for depression. After lockdown, family income was a predictor for both anxiety (OR = 1.67, p = 0.011), and depression (OR = 1.70, p = 0.009). Conclusion Significant negative effects attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, and certain factors predisposed to the worsening of mental health status in university students. Low family income, PA, and female gender were the major determinants and predictors linked to anxiety and depression.
... In addition, patients with UD continue to be at risk of developing BD throughout their lives. Every year, about 1% of patients with UD changed their diagnosis into type I bipolar disorder, and about 0.5% changed into type II bipolar disorder (Angst et al., 2005b). The above shows that patients who were strictly diagnosed with UD may be transformed into BD (tBD) during the follow-up. ...
Article
Objective: Because of the similar clinical symptoms, it is difficult to distinguish unipolardisorder (UD) from bipolar disorder (BD) in the depressive episode using the availableclinical features, especially for those who meet the diagnostic criteria of UD, however,experience the manic episode during the follow-up (tBD). Methods: Magnetoencephalography recordings during a sad expression recognition task wereobtained from 81 patients (27 BD, 24 tBD, 30 UD) and 26 healthy controls (HCs). Source analysis was applied to localize 64 regions of interest in the low gamma band (30–50 Hz).Regional functional connections (FCs) were constructed respectively within three timeperiods (early: 0–200 ms, middle: 200–400 ms, and post: 400–600 ms). The network-basedstatistic method was used to explore the abnormal connection patterns in tBD compared toUD and HC. BD was applied to explore whether such abnormality is still significant betweenevery two groups of BD, tBD, UD, and HC. Results: The VMPFC-PreCG.L connection was found to be a significantly differentconnection between tBD and UD in the early time period and between tBD and BD in themiddle time period. Furthermore, the middle/early time period ratio of FC value ofVMPFC-PreCG.L connection was negatively correlated with the bipolarity index in tBD. Conclusions: The VMPFC-PreCG.L connection in different time periods after the onset ofsad facial stimuli may be a potential biomarker to distinguish the different states of BD. TheFC ratio of VMPFC-PreCG.L connection may predict whether patients with depressiveepisodes subsequently develop mania.
... In BD-II, a subset of patients reached stage 4 early in their course of illness, while others did not undergo relapse of episodes in 5 years. The interval (years) between episodes is widely distributed [30,31], emphasizing heterogeneous features in the longitudinal course of BD-II. ...
Article
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Background Clinical staging of bipolar disorder (BD) requires application of real-world data, as the next step in hypothesis. This study used the staging model to analyze the long-term course of BD in Korean patients based on clinical features and treatment responses to map the progression of bipolar illness from its early phase after the onset of illness. Methods A total of 136 patients diagnosed with BD-I (n = 62) or BD-II (n = 74) were recruited. Their progressive stages were retrospectively evaluated. A multi-state model was used to calculate the probability of progression to each stage. Hazard ratios of covariates expected to influence different courses of BD were calculated. Using the Alda score, long-term responses to mood stabilizers depending on the current stage were compared. Results Several sub-populations showed varied courses during the first five years after the onset of illness, with 41.5% remaining in stage 2 and 53% progressing to higher stages with shortened time for transition. Profiles of patients with BD-I and BD-II were different, suggesting biologically distinct groups. Comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and bulimia nervosa (BN) were associated with a recurrent course (stage 3a or 3b) or a malignant course (stage 3c or 4). Early age of onset, shorter duration of illness, older age at the start of medication, and poor response to lithium affected the illness progression. Conclusion We were able to apply the stage model based on episode recurrence patterns in early illness courses of Korean patients with BD. The stage progression pattern differed from the early phase in BD-I and BD-II patients. Psychotic comorbidity, age at onset, age at starting psychiatric treatment showed associations with the illness progression.
... Больным БАР на начальных этапах заболевания наиболее часто ошибочно выставляются такие диагнозы, как депрессивное и/или тревожное расстройства, шизофрения, расстройство личности, зависимость от психоактивных веществ, шизоаффективное расстройство [8][9][10][11]. Нередко диагноз униполярной депрессии в последующем изменяют на диагноз БАР [12][13][14][15]. Неправильный диагноз депрессивного расстройства вместо БАР может быть связан с рядом причин: в большинстве случаев БАР манифестирует с депрессивной фазы, чаще пациенты обращаются за помощью во время депрессивных эпизодов, воспоминания пациентов в актуальной депрессии о предыдущих гипоманиакальных симптомах часто бедны [16,17]. ...
... High risk was defined as having the following: (1) a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) or other specified bipolar disorder (OSBD), with recurrent and brief periods of elevation and activation; (2) mood symptoms in the 1 to 2 weeks before study entry; and (3) a family history of BD I or II. The inclusion of youth with MDD with a family history of BD reflected 3 considerations: (1) about 50% of adults with BD I or II report that their first episode was a major depressive episode 16 ; (2) youth with a family history of BD are at high risk for conversion to BD I/II in the 4 to 5 years after onset of a major depressive episode, with conversion estimates ranging from 15% to 40% in 2 years [17][18][19][20][21][22] ; and (3) depressed youth with unstable moods are at particularly high risk for conversion. 23,24 High-risk participants were randomly assigned to 4 months of family-focused therapy (FFT) or enhanced usual care (brief family psychoeducation and individual support), both with pharmacotherapy as needed. ...
Article
Objective Mood instability is associated with the onset of bipolar disorder (BD) in youth with a family history of the illness. In a clinical trial with youth at high risk for BD, we examined the association between mood instability and symptomatic, psychosocial, and familial functioning over an average of two years. Method Youth (ages 9–17 yrs.) with major depressive disorder or other specified BD, current mood symptoms, and a family history of BD were rated by parents on a mood instability scale. Participants were randomly assigned to four months of family-focused therapy or enhanced care psychoeducation, both with medication management as needed. Independent evaluators rated youth every four to six months for up to four years on symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, while parents rated youths’ mood instability and levels of family conflict. Results High risk youth (N=114; mean age 13.3+2.6 years; 72 female) were followed for an average of 104.3+65.8 weeks (range 0–255) following randomization. Youth with other specified BD (vs. major depressive disorder), younger age, earlier symptom onset, more severe mood symptoms, lower psychosocial functioning, and more familial conflict over time had higher mood instability ratings throughout the study period. Mood instability mediated the association between baseline diagnosis and mother/offspring conflict at follow-up (Z=2.88, p=0.004, αβ=0.19, 95% CI=0.06-0.32). Psychosocial interventions did not moderate these associations. Conclusion A questionnaire measure of mood instability tracked closely with symptomatic, psychosocial, and family functioning in youth at high risk for BD. Interventions that are successful in reducing mood instability may enhance long-term outcomes among high risk youth.
Article
Importance: Since its inception under Kraepelin in the modern era, diagnostic stability and familial/genetic risk have been among the most important psychiatric nosologic validators. Objective: To assess the interrelationships of family genetic risk score (FGRS) with diagnostic stability or diagnostic change in major depression (MD), bipolar disorder (BD), other nonaffective psychosis (ONAP), and schizophrenia. Design, setting, and participants: This longitudinal population-based cohort (N = 4 171 120) included individuals with incident cases of MD (n = 235 095), BD (n = 11 681), ONAP (n = 16 009), and schizophrenia (n = 6312) who had at least 1 further diagnosis of the 4 disorders during follow-up, as assessed from Swedish national medical registries, observed over a mean (SD) of 13.1 (5.9) years until a mean (SD) age of 48.4 (12.3) years. Data were collected from January 1973 to December 2018, and data were analyzed from August to September 2022. Exposures: FGRS for MD, BD, ONAP, and schizophrenia, calculated from morbidity risks for disorders in first-degree through fifth-degree relatives, controlling for cohabitation effects. Main outcomes and measures: Final diagnostic outcome of MD, BD, ONAP, or schizophrenia. Results: Of 269 097 included individuals, 173 061 (64.3%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at first registration was 35.1 (11.9) years. Diagnostic stability was highest for MD (214 794 [91.4%]), followed by schizophrenia (4621 [73.2%]), BD (7428 [63.6%]), and ONAP (6738 [42.1%]). The second most common final diagnosis for each of these MD, schizophrenia, BD, and ONAP were BD (15 506 [6.6%]), ONAP (1110 [17.6%]), MD (2681 [23.0%]), and schizophrenia (4401 [27.5%]), respectively. A high FGRS for the incident diagnosis was consistently associated with diagnostic stability, while a high FGRS for the final diagnosis and a low FGRS for the incident diagnosis was associated with diagnostic change. In multivariate models, those in the upper 5% of genetic risk had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 or greater for the following diagnostic transition: for MD FGRS, ONAP to MD (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.59-2.29) and schizophrenia to MD (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.64-3.68); for BD FGRS, MD to BD (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.47-2.73), ONAP to BD (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.85-2.52), and schizophrenia to BD (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.39-3.49); for ONAP FGRS, MD to ONAP (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.62-2.02), MD to schizophrenia (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.58-2.41), and BD to schizophrenia (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.39-2.56); and for schizophrenia FGRS, MD to schizophrenia (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.46-2.23), and BD to schizophrenia (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.25-2.45). FGRS profiles for incident cases confirmed at final diagnosis were more homogenous than genetic profiles for those who changed diagnoses. Conclusions and relevance: In a large population-based longitudinal cohort, the genetic risk factors for MD, BD, ONAP, and schizophrenia were meaningfully and systematically associated with the diagnostic trajectories of these 4 disorders. Over time, clinical diagnosis and genetic risk profiles became increasingly consilient, thereby providing genetic validation of these diagnostic constructs. Diagnostically unstable incident cases were more genetically heterogeneous than those who were diagnostically stable over time.
Article
To evaluate the impact of age at onset on late-life depression course and on risk of conversion to bipolar disorder (BD). A retrospective chart review of 100 elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) diagnosed with a moderate-to-severe depressive episode and followed up for at least 18 months was conducted. Among patients affected by major depressive disorder (N = 57), follow-up morbidity differences between those with typical onset depression (TOD) (<60 years) and those with late-onset depression (LOD) (≥60 years) were investigated using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Cox proportional hazard model. Patients belonging to the LOD group had a significantly lower percentage of follow-up time spent with depressive symptoms compared with patients with TOD (r = 0.36; P = 0.006), but significantly more time spent with (hypo)manic episodes (r = -0.31; P = 0.021). Moreover, LOD was significantly associated with a faster conversion to BD (hazard ratio = 3.05; P = 0.037). Depression first emerging in late life may represent an unstable condition with a high risk to convert to BD. Given the potential clinical implications, further studies on the course of LOD are required.
Article
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Lipidomics has been established as a potential tool for the investigation of mental diseases. However, the composition analysis and the comparison of the peripheral lipids regarding adult women with major depressive depression (MDD) or bipolar depression (BPD) has been poorly addressed. In the present study, age-matched female individuals with MDD (n = 28), BPD (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC, n = 25) were enrolled. Clinical symptoms were assessed and the plasma samples were analyzed by comprehensive lipid profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We found that the composition of lipids was remarkably changed in the patients with MDD and BPD when compared to HC or compared to each other. Moreover, we identified diagnostic potential biomarkers comprising 20 lipids that can distinguish MDD from HC (area under the curve, AUC = 0.897) and 8 lipids that can distinguish BPD from HC (AUC = 0.784), as well as 13 lipids were identified to distinguish MDD from BPD with moderate reliability (AUC = 0.860). This study provides further understanding of abnormal lipid metabolism in adult women with MDD and BPD and may develop lipid classifiers able to effectively discriminate MDD from BPD and HC.
Article
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All patients suffering from affective psychoses (ICD 296) who were admitted to the Psychiatric University Clinic of Zurich between 1959 and 1963 were studied in a follow-up investigation until 1975. Of 254 affective psychoses, 95 were bipolar patients (37.4%) and 159 were monopolar (62.6%). The sample of bipolar patients was complemented with all patients who had been admitted in the period 1959–1963 because of manic or mixed manicdepressive syndromes. This paper describes the change of diagnosis in the two diagnostic groups. In 10% (N= 20) of monopolar depression cases there was a change of diagnosis to bipolar affective illness. An analysis shows that the diagnosis of patients with three or more depressive episodes (unipolar depressives) was especially prone to change. A mathematical correction of some diagnostic errors leads to the conclusion that the ratio of unipolar depression to bipolar illness may be about 1∶1. A major source of diagnostic error lies in the change of affective to schizoaffective illness. Up to now, no clinical criterion exists that would exclude this error, which was found in 6% (n=12) of the monopolar but also in 7.5% (n=3) of the bipolar index patients. It is recommended that studies of affective disorders should be based on truly representative samples of the illness, including patients with one or two episodes, and that the term ‘unipolar depression’ be used synonymously with the term ‘monopolar depression,’ originally created by Kleist (1947) and Leonhard (1957).
Chapter
Ever since Kahlbaum's monograph 1863 the course and outcome of mental disorders have played important roles as criteria and validators of psychiatric classification. The prognosis is fundamental for doctor and patient when deciding whether to start long-term prophylactic medication and, at a later stage, whether to stop a successful long-term treatment. Course is a crucial factor in estimating the social consequences, costs, suicide risk, and mortality associated with mood disorders. The description of course includes the age of onset, episode length, recurrence of episodes, residual symptoms between episodes and outcome (remission, chronicity, death). These aspects are covered in this chapter.
Article
Mit dem Ziel einheitlicher Bewertungskriterien in der Depressionsbehandlung wird ein Schema zur Erfassung der Befunde und für die Bewertung der Therapieergebnisse vorgeschlagen. Das skizzierte Vorgehen basiert auf einem Erhebungsbogen für die Datenerfassung, welcher die hauptsächlichen Fragen bei der Prüfung von Antidepressiva berücksichtigt und gleichzeitig den allgemeinen Anforderungen bei der klinischen Prüfung neuer Stoffe Rechnung trägt.
Book
The group of European Medical Research Councils (EMRC) was formed in 1971 and became a Standing Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF) in 1975. EMRC is an association of medical research councils or equivalent organizations in Western Europe. The National Institutes of Health, the Israel Academy of Sciences and the European Office of WHO are associated with EMRC and take an active part in EMRC activities. The main aims of EMRC are to exchange information on the research policies pursued by its member organizations and to initiate and stimulate international cooperation in biomedical research. Since biomedical research is highly international in itself, EMRC concentrates its activities on furthering international collaboration in those fields where it can play a significant role as a complement to existing channels. Mental illness research has been judged by EMRC to fulfill these criteria. After a survey of the activities of the member organizations in mental illness research, EMRC decided in 1978 to set up a study group to look for areas within this field to which EMRC could contribute. As a result of the work of the study group, four work­ shops have been arranged to define present knowledge in some specific areas and to delineate research needs. The present volume contains the proceedings of the fourth workshop, held in 1985 and dealing with the course and outcome of depressive illness. EMRC hopes that this volume will stimulate intensified research and research cooperation on mental illnesses.
Chapter
A total of 402 patients were followed up for, on average, 25 years after the onset of their illness. The diagnoses, made longitudinally, were as follows: schizophrenic disorder (n=148) schizoaffective disorder (n=101) affective disorder (n=106). The remaining 47 patients did not fulfil the criteria for any of these diagnoses. A distinction was made between „episode“ (cross-sectional diagnosis) and „illness“ or „disorder“ (longitudinal diagnosis). The „episodes” (cross-sectional diagnosis) were classified according to slightly modified DSM-IIÏ criteria into schizophrenic, affective (melancholic, manic, manic-depressive mixed), schizoaffective (schizodepressive, schizomanic, schizo- manic-depressive mixed) and non-characteristic episodes. The criteria for the episodes are: Schizophrenic episode: criteria of DSM-IÏI, slightly modified. Melancholic episode: according to „Major Depression, Melancholic Type“ of DSM-III-R. Manic epissode: according to the criteria of DSM-III, slightly modified. Manic-depressive mixed episode: Presence of manic and depressive symptomatology during one episode. Schizodepressive episode: Presence of schizophrenic and depressive symptomatology during one episode. Schizomanic episode: presence of schizophrenic and manic symptomatology during one episode. Schizomanic-depressive mixed episode: Presence of schizophrenic, manic and depressive symptomatology during one episode. The diagnosis of an „illness“ or „disorder“ (longitudinal diagnosis) took account of all the kinds of episodes that occurred during the whole course. The final diagnosis (longitudinal diagnoses) were defined as follows: Schizophrenic disorder: only schizophrenic episodes during the whole course Affective disorder: only affective episodes during the whole course (melancholic, manic, manic-depressive mixed episodes)
Article
Diagnostic criteria for 14 psychiatric illnesses (and for secondary depression) along with the validating evidence for these diagnostic categories comes from workers outside our group as well as from those within; it consists of studies of both outpatients and inpatients, of family studies, and of follow-up studies. These criteria are the most efficient currently available; however, it is expected that the criteria be tested and not be considered a final, closed system. It is expected that the criteria will change as various illnesses are studied by different groups. Such criteria provide a framework for comparison of data gathered in different centers, and serve to promote communication between investigators.