Imaging Technology for Neurodegenerative Diseases: Progress Toward Detection of Specific Pathologies

ArticleinJAMA Neurology 62(2):196-200 · March 2005with5 Reads
DOI: 10.1001/archneur.62.2.196 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Advances in neuroimaging over the past 2 decades are products of breakthroughs in imaging technology, developments of more powerful computers and image-processing software, and expanding knowledge in basic and clinical neuroscience. In addition to the insights into normal brain structure and function that such methods provide and the information that can be gained from disease-related changes in structure and function, the promise of achieving diagnostic specificity through neuroimaging lies with the potential identification of pathognomonic proteins. Recent advances in imaging beta-amyloid plaques, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease, offer such a technological breakthrough and the possibility for more efficient assessment of antiamyloid interventions as well as specific noninvasive diagnostic capabilities.
    • "So far, the most successful molecules have been those with a relatively low molecular weight (Figure 2) (Mathis et al., 2005). It has been shown that some benzimidazole and quinoline derivatives tag aggregated forms of tau in vitro and in the context of human brain (Mathis et al., 2005; Okamura et al., 2004; Okamura et al., 2005; Rojo et al., 2007a). This could serve as the milestone for developing neuroimaging technologies to visualize NFTs in the brain of AD patients and those affected with mild cognitive impairments (MCI). "
    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2016 · Current Drug Metabolism
    • "As presented above, the first challenge to consider in the ND context is to establish the diagnosis as early as possible. Some dyes are available to stain amyloid or amyloid-like structures such as a thioflavin T derivative, can cross the BBB, and the Pittsburgh compound B, used in PET-scan imaging [131] . However, for example for the case of AD, the amyloid burden is not well correlated with the cognitive decline, but the cognitive decline is associated with a decrease in the cortical thickness [103] and many efforts are made with the goal to develop diagnostic tools [132, 133]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As we enter the twenty-first century, several therapies based on using nanoparticles (NPs) ranging in size 1 - 1000 nm have been successfully brought to the clinic to treat cancer, pain and infectious diseases. These therapies bring together the ability of NPs to target the delivery of drugs more precisely, to improve solubility, to prevent degradation, to improve their therapeutic index and to reduce the immune response. NPs come in all shapes and sizes, designed specifically for biomedical applications such as solid lipid polymers, liposomes, dendrimers, nanogels, and quantum dots. These NPs offer many attractive characteristics such as biological stability and biocompatibility, thus incorporating different biological or drug molecules. Among the major therapeutic challenges from neurological diseases through to cancer is the development of nanomaterials that are able to be effective against the disease. In the case of neurodegeneration, one of the most difficult areas to penetrate for drug discovery in the body is the central nervous system, protected by the blood-brain-barrier. Whilst in the case of cancer, the biggest problem is how to specifically target a tumor with sufficient drug without causing side effects or inducing resistance. A new generation of intelligent NPs is emerging for the treatment of human disease such as neurological disorders and cancer. The use of natural alternative therapy is an encouraging idea in drug discovery. To this end as we gain more knowledge into the biological function of exosomes, this will allow us to harness their potential as natural NPs in future therapeutics.
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    • "The results (Fig. 6) show that AST reaches the maximum blood concentration at 28 min and the maximum concentration in brain was reached at 55 min. This is compatible with a radiotracer use [49]. Another finding of these studies is that after the first 60 min, the brain/ blood concentration ratio tends to stabilized, which means that AST somehow is not cleared from the brain with a first order kinetic, as it for the rapid clearance occurred in peripheral blood. "
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