Concomitant physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia
Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Skeletal Radiology
(Impact Factor: 1.51).
08/2005; 34(7):427-30. DOI: 10.1007/s00256-004-0888-1
Concomitant physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia are very rare in children and adolescents. They are included in the classification of the "floating knee" injuries. Two cases with this combined injury are reported. They were closed injuries and in both patients the fracture of the proximal tibial epiphyseal plate was nondisplaced. In the first, a six-year-old girl, an early diagnosis was made radiographically. The intra-articular femoral fracture was operatively reduced and fixed. No growth abnormality was encountered 12 years later. The second patient, a 16-year-old boy, was conservatively treated for a displaced fracture-separation of the distal femoral epiphysis. Four weeks later there was physeal widening on both sides of the knee which indicated an associated fracture of the proximal tibial epiphyseal plate. One year after injury there was a varus deformity of the knee that was treated with a corrective osteotomy. Ten years later there is normal alignment of the leg.
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ABSTRACT: Bone bruising represents a new category of bone injury that can only be demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fat suppression. This study proposed the nature of non-radiographically evident injuries of the distal radius and wrist in children whose symptoms did not resolve after 5 weeks. We aimed to describe and classify the lesions and delineate the importance and potential complications of the injuries. Bone bruising was diagnosed in 20 patients (mean age: 11.6 years; range: 9-13 years). Bone bruises were classified according to anatomical location and whether they were solitary lesions or were combined with other injuries. Injuries of the distal radius were classified according to location: type 1 was localised to the metaphysis, close to the physeal plate; type 2 involved both the metaphysis and diaphysis; and type 3 extended on both sides of the distal radial growth plate. The type 1 injuries were consistent with complete, un-displaced Salter-Harris type I fractures, whilst type 3 lesions were potentially Salter-Harris type V injuries. Our data indicate that an MRI should be considered for a child with an injury to the distal radius or wrist whose symptoms do not resolve after 5 weeks of immobilisation.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Injuries of the distal femur are rare in children; however, they are frequently associated with complications. They are almost always physeal, most frequently Salter-Harris type II epiphyseolysis. The treatment of such injuries is similar in all physeal injuries. It is intended to provide growth plate recovery by gentle reduction and stable fixation thus preventing secondary complications, and also to provide decompression of the segment to solve the compartment syndrome and recover the neurovascular structures. Case Outline A seven-year old boy presented with a right knee injury while sleigh riding. He was admitted three weeks following the injury with distal femoral epiphysiolysis associated with peroneal palsy. A day after admission to our Institute the reduction was performed using the Ilizarov device. Physical therapy was started immediately after surgery, as well as walking with weight bearing on the operated leg. Five months after surgery the patient was anatomically and functionally recovered. Conclusion The presented method is recommended in the treatment of such injuries because of several reasons; reposition is simple and complete, there is no need to open the fracture site, fixation is stable, the growth plate is preserved, there is no need for additional external immobilisation, and physical therapy involving walking with weight bearing on the operated leg may be started immediately after surgery. .
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