Expression of Hard a-Keratins in Pilomatrixoma, Craniopharyngioma, and Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

Meikai University, Саитама, Saitama, Japan
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 04/2005; 123(3):376-81. DOI: 10.1309/WVTR-R1DX-YMC8-PBMK
Source: PubMed


To examine the properties of shadow and ghost cells, 3 kinds of antibodies were raised against human hair proteins and their immunoreactivity was examined in tumors expressing those cells: pilomatrixoma, 14 cases; craniopharyngioma, 17 cases; and calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC), 14 cases. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses demonstrated that 2 polyclonal antibodies, PA-HP1 and PA-HP 2, reacted strongly with type I acidic and type II neutral/basic hard alpha-keratins. The other monoclonal antibody, MA-HP1, reacted with type II neutral/basic hard alpha-keratins. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that all 3 antibodies reacted only with the hair shaft in sections of normal skin and dermoid cyst. In all pilomatrixoma cases, 3 antibodies reacted with the cytoplasm of transitional and shadow cells but not with that of basophilic cells. Positive reactions were found only in shadow cells of all 13 adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas. In all COCs, the antibodies reacted only with ghost cells, not with other epithelial components. Immunoreactivity for phosphothreonine, detected in hard alpha-keratins, also was found in transitional, shadow, and ghost cells. The appearance of shadow or ghost cells might represent differentiation into hair in these 3 kinds of tumors.

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    • "In this report, it was found that Ck6 was labeled ubiquitously not only in the tooth germ but also in odontomas, ameloblastomas, and peripheral odontogenic fibromas. Consistent with a prior report, the presence of hard keratins, as found in hair follicles, was only in the ghost cells of 14 cases of CCOTs, which suggests that differentiation into hair follicles occurs in these cells [9]. Here, Ck6 immunoreactivity was only found in the ghost cells, confirming such a statement. "
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    ABSTRACT: Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOTs) are benign cystic lesions of odontogenic origin characterized by an ameloblastoma-like epithelium and the presence of a group of cells named ghost cells. The pattern of cytokeratin (Ck) expression on these lesions remains unclear and needs to be clarified. To this end, the expression of Ck6, Ck13, Ck14, Ck18, and Ck19 in the epithelium lining of 7 cases of CCOTs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. For this, the epithelium lining was divided into 3 distinct regions: basal layer, suprabasal layer, and the compartment composed of ghost cells. In this study, 6 cases (85.7%) were classified as type 1 and 1 (14.3%) as type 4. All cases were negative for Ck13 and Ck18, despite the epithelial layer, as well as in the ghost cells. Ck6 was only positive in the ghost cells. Positivity for Ck14 and Ck19 was found in the basal and suprabasal layers, including the ghost cells. The results showing positivity for Ck14 and Ck19 in all of the analyzed cases reinforce CCOT as being of odontogenic origin, and the restricted expression of Ck6 in the ghost cells may be indicative that these cells suffer an altered differentiation into hair follicles in CCOTs.
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    • "Ghost cells stained positive, when Kusama,[22] et al. used hard α-keratin antibodies (hair protein) on Pilomatricoma, CCOT and CP. Thus, it appears that ghost cells might represent differentiation into hair in all these tumors of varying sites. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ghost cells have been a topic of controversy since a long time. The appearance of these cells in different lesions has given it varying terms. In lesions like that of Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), these cells have been termed as 'Ghost cells' whereas similar descriptive cells have been called shadow/translucent cells in non-odontogenic lesions like Craniopharyngiomas of the pituitary gland and Pilomatricomas of skin. Controversy arises because of the fact that there are varying opinions and incomplete knowledge about their origin, nature, significance and relation in different neoplasms. Irrespective of the origin, these cells are seen in odontogenic and non-odontogenic neoplasms, which probably direct us towards a missing link between these differing neoplasms. This article attempts to present a review on the concepts around these peculiar cells and shed some light on these ghosts that are still in dark.
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP 1 ; EC 2. 4. 2. 30) is a constitutively expressed enzyme that mediates the normal cel-lular response to DNA damage and interferes with cell differentiation through transcriptional control. PARP 1-deficient mice have been re-ported to exhibit teeth displasia similar to human odontoma. In the present study, we evaluated the contribution of PARP 1 to odontoma development by immunohistochemical staining of human odontoma sections with an anti-PARP 1 antibody. PARP 1 was expressed in odontoblasts, immature enamel and the epithelial component corresponding to ameloblasts. Interestingly, in odontoma, PARP 1 was ex-pressed in the cytoplasm of the ghost cells, which had no nucleus and showed positive staining for cytokeratins. Moreover, the ghost cells showed positive staining with the M30 CytoDEATH antibody, which recognizes a caspase cleavage product of cytokeratin 18 observed in the process of apoptosis, suggesting that some very early events of apoptosis have occurred in these ghost cells expressing PARP 1.
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