Cigarette advertising in Black, Latino and White magazines, 1998-2002: An exploratory investigation

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Abstract
To examine the number, type (menthol vs non-menthol), brand (Black, White, Women's, Other), and size of cigarette ads in Black, Latino, and White magazines. Analysis of digital photographs of 274 cigarette ads appearing in Ebony (Black), People (White), and People in Spanish (Latino) for the 4.5-year period of January 1998 to August 2002. Black magazines were 9.8 times and Latino magazines 2.6 times more likely than White magazines to contain ads for menthol cigarettes. Black and Latino magazines also contained significantly more ads for brands (Virginia Slims) that target women. The tobacco industry continues to target Blacks with menthol cigarette ads, appears now to be targeting Latinos similarly, and targets Black and Latino women with additional, tailored cigarette ads.
63Ethnicity & Disease, Volume 15, Winter 2005
O
RIGINAL
R
EPORTS
:C
ANCER
C
IGARETTE
A
DVERTISING IN
B
LACK
,L
ATINO
,
AND
W
HITE
M
AGAZINES
, 1998–2002:
A
N
E
XPLORATORY
I
NVESTIGATION
Objectives: To examine the number, type
(menthol vs non-menthol), brand (Black,
White, Women’s, Other), and size of cigarette
ads in Black, Latino, and White magazines.
Method: Analysis of digital photographs of 274
cigarette ads appearing in Ebony (Black), Peo-
ple (White), and People in Spanish (Latino) for
the 4.5-year period of January 1998 to August
2002.
Results: Black magazines were 9.8 times and
Latino magazines 2.6 times more likely than
White magazines to contain ads for menthol
cigarettes. Black and Latino magazines also
contained significantly more ads for brands
(Virginia Slims) that target women.
Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues
to target Blacks with menthol cigarette ads, ap-
pears now to be targeting Latinos similarly, and
targets Black and Latino women with addition-
al, tailored cigarette ads. (Ethn Dis. 2005;15:
63–67)
Key Words: Blacks, Ethnicity, Latinos, Tobac-
co Advertising
From San Diego State University, San
Diego, California.
Address correspondence and reprint re-
quests to Hope Landrine, PhD; Joint Doc-
toral Program in Clinical Psychology; San
Diego State University; 6363 Alvarado
Court; San Diego, CA 92120; 619-594-
3852; 619-594-3854 (fax); landri-
ne@sciences.sdsu.edu
Hope Landrine, PhD; Elizabeth A. Klonoff, PhD; Senaida Fernandez, MS;
Norval Hickman, BA; Kennon Kashima, PhD; Bina Parekh, PhD;
KaMala Thomas, MA; Catherine R. Brouillard, BA; Michelle Zolezzi, BA;
Jennifer A. Jensen, MPH; Zorahna Weslowski
I
NTRODUCTION
Cigarette advertising plays a role in
smoking initiation and maintenance in
several ways: 1) advertising may encour-
age youth to experiment with smoking
and to initiate regular smoking; 2) it
may deter adult smokers from quitting;
3) it may prompt adult former-smokers
to begin smoking again; and 4) it may
increase daily cigarette consumption.
1–3
In addition, cigarette advertising appears
to shape both youth and adult percep-
tions about the acceptability and per-
vasiveness of smoking, which in turn
plays a role in the aforementioned pro-
cesses.
3
Unfortunately, the extent to
which cigarettes are differentially adver-
tised to different ethnic communities is
unclear.
3
Although a ‘large and increas-
ing portion of advertising and market-
ing is targeted to racial/ethnic groups,’
3
studies examining this effect have fo-
cused primarily on African Americans.
For example, most studies of cigarette
advertising on billboards have examined
the greater advertising in African-Amer-
ican vs White neighborhoods, with only
a handful of studies examining such ad-
vertising in Latino or Asian neighbor-
hoods.
3,26–28
Likewise, studies of ciga-
rette ads in ethnic magazines have ex-
amined magazines geared for African
Americans vs those targeting Whites/the
general public, but no study has inves-
tigated ads in magazines that target oth-
er ethnic minority groups.
3
We con-
ducted the first study of cigarette ads in
magazines that target Latinos, and we
used prior studies on African Americans
as a model for this preliminary investi-
gation.
Studies have found more cigarette
ads and more ads for menthol cigarette
brands in Black than in White/general
public magazines, irrespective of wheth-
er the readers of the magazines tend to
be adults (.25 years) or young people
(17–24 years).
4–10
The most well known
of these studies is the 1987 Cummings
et al study
4
because it is the only study
designed to examine ads in Black vs
White magazines (rather than in maga-
zines for youth). Cummings et al ex-
amined cigarette ads in one year (June
1984 through May 1985) of issues of
three African-American (Ebony, Jet, and
Essence) and four White/general public
magazines (Newsweek, Time, People, Ma-
demoiselle). They found 12% more cig-
arette ads in the Black magazines and
found that 65.9% of the cigarette ads in
the Black magazines were for menthol
cigarette brands, but only 15.4% of the
cigarette ads in White/general maga-
zines were for such brands. This target-
ed advertising of menthol cigarettes (eg,
Newport, Kool) to Blacks and of non-
menthol cigarettes (eg, Marlboro, Camel,
Winston) to Whites
4–11
might account
for the finding that most Black youth
and adult smokers smoke a menthol
brand, whereas most White youth and
adult smokers smoke a non-menthol
brand.
8–17
The marketing of menthol
cigarettes to Blacks is particularly prob-
lematic because smoking mentholated
(vs non-mentholated) cigarettes has
been linked to increased rates of cancer
64 Ethnicity & Disease, Volume 15, Winter 2005
C
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- Landrine et al
. . .cigarette advertising
appears to shape both youth
and adult perceptions about
the acceptability and
pervasiveness of smoking,
which in turn plays a role in
the aforementioned processes.
3
Table 1. Number of menthol vs non-menthol cigarette ads in ethnic magazines*
Menthol Ads
%(N)
Non-Menthol
Ads%(N)
White magazine (People)
Latino magazine (People in Spanish)
Black magazine (Ebony)
17.3% (17)
35.3% (18)
67.2% (84)
82.7% (81)
64.7% (33)
32.8% (41)
* Overall likelihood ratio x
2
df 2
5 60.266, P
,
.0005; White vs Black
x
2
df 1
5 58.551, P,.0005; Black vs Latino
x
2
df 1
5 15.103, P,.0005; White vs Latino x
2
df 1
5 5.801, P,.016.
of the pharynx
18
and lung,
19
and both
types of cancer are 50%-60% higher in
Blacks than in Whites,
18–19
despite their
equal smoking prevalence rates.
3
Although the Cummings et al
4
study
is important and served as our model,
the study has a few limitations. Notably,
Cummings et al examined only one year
(1984–1985) of magazines. In addition,
the Black and the White/general maga-
zines used were not comparable: the
Black magazines were popular maga-
zines (focusing on celebrities, music, en-
tertainment, and so forth) but only one
of the White/general magazines (People)
was a popular magazine. Two of the
White/general magazines were news
magazines (Time, Newsweek) and hence
not similar to Ebony or Jet, and the third
White/general magazine was a womens
magazine (Mademoiselle) and hence also
not similar to the Black magazines.
Likewise, Cummings et al focused on
menthol vs non-menthol brands but did
not examine possible targeting of mi-
nority women by placing ads for ciga-
rette brands that are tailored to women
(eg, Virginia Slims, Misty, Eve)
20–24
in
minority vs White magazines. Finally,
possible differences in the size (number
of pages) of tobacco ads in minority vs
White magazines have yet to be exam-
ined. Hence, in this preliminary study,
we explored the total number, type
(menthol vs non-menthol), brand
(Black, White, Womens, Other), and
size of cigarette ads in comparable
Black, Latino, and White magazines for
the first time.
M
ETHOD
Three popular magazines were se-
lected: Ebony (Black magazine, 2002
readership51.89 million), People
(White magazine, 2002 reader-
ship53.62 million), and People in Span-
ish (Latino magazine, 2002 reader-
ship5approximately 500,000).
27
Ebony
and People were used in the Cummings
study
4
and have been used in other
studies as well
5,9
to represent Black and
White magazines, respectively. Latino
magazines, however, have never been
analyzed. People in Spanish was selected
as the Latino popular magazine for two
reasons. First, People in Spanish and His-
panic Lifestyle have the largest (equal)
nationwide circulation among Latinos.
25
In addition, People and People in Spanish
are the same magazine, with the same
publisher. Selecting the Spanish version
of People as the Latino popular magazine
thereby controls for magazine content,
length, advertising policies etc, such that
any differences in tobacco ads between
the English and the Spanish versions of
People provides strong evidence for dif-
ferentially targeting Latinos vs Whites.
Hence, People in Spanish was viewed as
superior to Hispanic Lifestyle for data-
analysis purposes.
Every issue of the monthly magazine
(Ebony) was examined, along with the
first weekly issue of each month of the
weekly magazines (People and People in
Spanish) for the 4.5-year period of Jan-
uary 1998 through August 2002. This
method yielded 56 issues of Ebony, 54
issues of People, and 32 issues of People
in Spanish (first year of publica-
tion51999), for a total of 141 issues of
magazines. Each of the 141 issues was
searched for cigarette ads. Digital pho-
tographs were taken of all ads discov-
ered, and these were used in analyses of
the number, type (menthol vs non-men-
thol), brand, and size (length x width,
number of pages) of cigarette ads. These
ad characteristics were coded by 2–3 re-
search assistants for each ad with 100%
agreement.
R
ESULTS
Number of Ads
The 141 magazine issues contained
a total of 274 cigarette ads. The White
magazine (People, N554 issues) con-
tained 98 ads (mean51.87 ads per is-
sue), the Black magazine (Ebony, N556
issues) contained 125 ads (mean52.25
ads per issue), and the Latino magazine
(People in Spanish, N531) contained 51
ads (mean51.58 ads per issue). Analysis
for differences in the average number of
ads per issue by magazine approached
but did not reach statistical significance
(ANOVA mean square54.718,
F
2,141
52.923, P5.06).
Menthol vs Non-Menthol Ads
Significant differences in the preva-
lence of ads for menthol cigarettes
(Newport, Kool, Salem etc) were found.
As shown in Table 1, 67% of the ciga-
rette ads in the Black magazine, 35% of
the cigarette ads in the Latino magazine,
and 17% of cigarette ads in the White
65Ethnicity & Disease, Volume 15, Winter 2005
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- Landrine et al
Table 2. Brands of cigarettes advertised in ethnic magazines*
Magazine
White Brands
%(N)
Black Brands
%(N)
Women’s Brand
%(N)
Other Brands
%(N)
White (People)
Latino (People in Spanish)
Black (Ebony)
31.4%
27.5%
3.1%
(33)
(14)
(4)
15.2%
45.1%
56.9%
(16)
(23)
(74)
6.7%
27.5%
16.9%
(7)
(14)
(22)
46.7%
0%
23.1%
(49)
(0)
(30)
* Overall likelihood ratio x
2
df 6
5 116.342, P5.0005; White vs Black x
2
df 3
5 76.568, P5.0005; White vs Latino x
2
df 3
5 60.391, P5.0005; Black vs Latino x
2
df 3
5 41.808,
P5.0005.
magazine were for menthol cigarettes.
Each of these differences was statistically
significant, with Black.Latino.White
magazines for the presence of menthol
ads, and White.Latino.Black maga-
zines for presence of non-menthol ads.
To clarify this finding, a stepwise logistic
regression predicting menthol vs non-
menthol cigarette ads from magazine
type (ethnic audience) was conducted.
Results revealed that the Black magazine
was 9.8 times more likely (OR59.761,
95% CI55.13,18.56, b52.278,
P5.0005), and the Latino magazine 2.6
times more likely (OR52.599, 95%
CI51.19,5.65, b50.955, P5.01) than
the White magazine to contain ads for
menthol cigarettes.
Ad Size
Analyses of the average size of all to-
bacco ads by ethnicity of magazine au-
dience revealed no significant differenc-
es (ANOVA F
2, 285
51.228, P5.294).
Brands Advertised
Sixteen different brands of cigarettes
were advertised in the White magazine,
compared to 7 brands in the Black mag-
azine, and 4 brands in the Latino mag-
azine. To explore the possibility that a
restricted set of specific brands of ciga-
rettes are marketed to minorities, all
brands were categorized as follows, in a
manner consistent with prior studies:
White brands (those advertised most of-
ten to Whites)5Marlboro 1 Camel
1
Winston,
4–9
Black brands (those adver-
tised most often to Blacks)5Kool 1
Newport,
4,9
and womens brand (adver-
tised most often to women)5Virginia
Slims.
20–24
All remaining brands were
categorized as other brands (Pall Mall
1
Basic
1
GPC
1
Carlton
1
Salem 1
Cambridge
1
Merit
1
others). As
shown in Table 2, the magazines dif-
fered significantly in the pattern of ads
for these four categories of brands: for
White brands of cigarettes, the pattern of
ads was White magazine.Latino mag-
azine.Black magazine. For Black brands
of cigarettes, the pattern of ads was
Black magazine.Latino maga-
zine.White magazine. For women’s
brands of cigarettes, the pattern of ads
was Latino magazine.Black maga-
zine.White magazine. For other brands
of cigarettes, the pattern of ads was
White magazine.Black maga-
zine.Latino magazine. Stated different-
ly, brands advertised to Whites were
other brands.White brands
.
Black
brands
.
womens brands. Brands market-
ed to Blacks were Black brands
.
other
brands
.
womens brands
.
White brands
Brands targeting Latinos were Black
brands
.
womens brands
5
White brands
.
other brands (based on x
2
analyses and
analyses of x
2
residuals).
D
ISCUSSSION
The total number of cigarette ads in
White, Black, and Latino popular mag-
azines did not differ, and this finding is
contrary to that of Cummings.
4
One
possible explanation for this is that
Cummings might have found more ads
in Black than in White magazines be-
cause the magazines examined were not
comparable; ie, the Black magazines
were popular magazines whereas 75% of
the White magazines were news maga-
zines (Newsweek, Time) and magazines
for women (Mademoiselle), both of
which might contain fewer tobacco ads
than popular magazines. Alternatively,
our finding of a similar number of cig-
arette ads per issue, irrespective of the
ethnicity of the magazine’s audience,
might be an artifact of our small sample
size; therefore, the analysis approached
but did not reach statistical significance
(P5.06), with the trend suggesting
more ads in the Black magazine as
Cummings found. Our preliminary
finding must be verified by studies that
use a larger sample of comparable mag-
azines to assess the extent to which the
number of cigarette ads per issue does
or does not differ by ethnic audience.
Although the number and size of
cigarette ads did not differ across the
magazines, the content of those ads did,
in three important ways. First, cigarette
ads in the Black magazine continue to
be for menthol brands, with the Black
magazine 9.8 times more likely to have
such ads than the White magazine, and
67% of all cigarette ads in the Black
magazine were ads for menthol brands.
This finding is consistent with that of
the Cummings study,
4
where 66% of
the cigarette ads in the three Black mag-
azines examined were for menthol
brands. Likewise, we found that 17% of
the cigarette ads in the White magazine
were for menthol brands, and this find-
ing is comparable to the Cummings
finding of 15.4%. Although we exam-
ined only one (prototypical, popular)
magazine for each ethnic group, our use
of 3 to 4.5 years of those magazines (as
opposed to only one year, as Cummings
66 Ethnicity & Disease, Volume 15, Winter 2005
C
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- Landrine et al
This preliminary study is the
first to examine cigarette ads
in Latino magazines, and it
suggests that the tobacco
industry may target Latinos
in a manner similar to its
targeting of Blacks, ie, with
ads for menthol brands.
did) may make our data comparable to
the Cummings data.
Likewise, in this first exploration of
cigarette ads in magazines for Latinos,
we found many ads for menthol brands:
the Latino magazine was 2.6 times more
likely than the White magazine to con-
tain ads for menthol cigarettes; 35% of
ads in the Latino magazine (vs 17% in
White magazine) were ads for menthol
brands. Because the magazines in ques-
tion were the same magazine—the En-
glish versus the Spanish version of Peo-
ple—these data strongly suggest that the
tobacco industry targets Latinos in a
manner that it does not target Whites,
and indeed, in a manner highly similar
to its targeting of Blacks. This interpre-
tation is bolstered by the findings on
specific brands of cigarettes marketed to
Blacks and Latinos relative to Whites:
57% of the brands advertised to Blacks
were Black brands, and 45% of the
brands advertised to Latinos were Black
brands, compared to only 15% Black
brands in the White magazine. This
suggests that the tobacco industry may
view Blacks and Latinos similarly and so
treats them similarly, ie, with a prepon-
derance of ads for what may be the most
dangerous brands of cigarettes and with
ads for a specific, restrictive set of
brands (ie, 16 different brands adver-
tised to Whites, vs 7 brands to Blacks,
vs 4 brands to Latinos).
The third finding was on the adver-
tising of Virginia Slims. The purpose of
this cigarette is to attract women to
smoking by ads that link smoking this
brand to womens emancipation and
empowerment.
20–24
In the 1960s, the
slogan for Virginia Slims was ‘Youve
come a long way, baby,’ and that slogan
purposefully has been changed each de-
cade to continue to attract women to
smoking.
24
In the 1970s and 1980s, the
slogan was changed to ‘We made Vir-
ginia Slims especially for women because
they are biologically superior to men;’
in the 1990’s it was changed to Virg-
inia Slims. Its a woman thing,’ then to,
’’Virginia Slims. Find your voice,’ and
most recently to, ‘Tame and timid?
That goes against my instincts.
24
’’ In
this first exploration of targeting minor-
ity women by placing ads for this brand
in popular, minority magazines, we
found significantly more ads for Virgin-
ia Slims in minority than in White mag-
azines: 27.5% of the brands advertised
to Latinos were Virginia Slims, com-
pared to 17% for Blacks and 7% for
Whites (Latino.Black.White maga-
zines in ads for Virginia Slims). This
finding suggests the targeting of minor-
ity women, Latina in particular. Further
research comparing the number and
types of cigarette ads in popular maga-
zines for White (Glamour, Cosmopoli-
tan), Black (Essence, Black Woman), and
Latina (Glamour in Spanish, Cosmopoli-
tan in Spanish) is needed to clarify this
possibility, and such a study is under-
way. This novel finding requires verifi-
cation through additional studies.
Each finding reported here requires
verification and must be viewed in light
of the limitations of this exploratory
study. Foremost among those is that
only one magazine was examined for
each ethnic group. Although those mag-
azines are comparable, and both Ebony
and People have been used in prior stud-
ies, different results may have been
found if greater number and diversity of
magazines had been included. Our find-
ing on advertising menthol brands to
Blacks vs Whites is comparable to the
Cummings finding, which suggests that
our results may be valid, but verification
is needed. Likewise, the total number of
magazine issues examined was small and
limited. Therefore these findings are
preliminary, require verification through
studies with larger samples of maga-
zines, and are regarded as suggestive.
Prior studies have noted that the to-
bacco industry has targeted Latinos by
sponsoring sporting and cultural events
in Latino communities, by a greater per-
centage of tobacco billboards in Latino
than in White neighborhoods, and by
marketing the culturally tailored Rio and
Dorado cigarette brands to Latinos.
3
This preliminary study is the first to ex-
amine cigarette ads in Latino magazines,
and it suggests that the tobacco industry
may target Latinos in a manner similar
to its targeting of Blacks, ie, with ads
for menthol brands. This study high-
lights the need for further research on
the tobacco industrys targeting Blacks
and Latinos and implies the need for
more active tobacco-control efforts in
those minority communities.
3,26
A
CKNOWLEDGMENTS
Supported by funds provided by National
Cancer Institute Grant No. 1-U56-
CA92079-01A1, the University of California
Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program
Grant No. 9RT–0043, and the California
Department of Health Services Tobacco
Control Section Grants 90–11528, 94–
20962, and 96–26617.
A
UTHOR
C
ONTRIBUTIONS
Design and concept of study: Landrine, Klonoff
Acquisition of data: Landrine, Klonoff, Fernandez,
Hickman, Kashima, Parekh, Thomas, Brouillard,
Zolezzi, Jensen, Weslowski
Data analysis and interpretation: Landrine, Klon-
off, Fernandez, Hickman, Kashima, Parekh,
Thomas, Brouillard, Zolezzi, Jensen, Weslowski
Manuscript draft: Landrine, Klonoff
Statistical expertise: Landrine, Klonoff
Acquisition of funding: Landrine, Klonoff
Administrative, technical, or material assistance:
Landrine, Klonoff
Supervision: Landrine, Klonoff
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1232–1233.
    • "Although not directly examined in our data, identification of younger smokers and females as more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes than non-menthol cigarettes suggests younger smokers and females have been successful targets of the tobacco industry. Publicly available tobacco industry documents revealed the marketing strategies used to make menthol cigarettes attractive to younger African American and women (Gardiner, 2004; Landrine et al., 2005). In 1998, tobacco industry documents were made public following the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between state attorneys general and the major tobacco companies (Hurt & Robertson, 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011
    • "The Hispanic/Latino audience did not appear to be a large focus of cigarette ads overall, with a mean of 1.58 ads per issue (compared with 1.87 ads per issue of People and 2.25 ads per issue of Ebony). Although most ads were for non-menthol cigarettes, the Spanish version of People was 2.6 times more likely than the English version of People to contain ads for menthol cigarettes [8]. The authors concluded that the tobacco industry appeared to be using similar strategies to market to the Hispanic/Latino population as had been used with the Black/African American population. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011
    • "Ethnic minorities also are differentially exposed to product advertising as part of targeted media plans by industry. For example, African American consumers are targeted for tobacco and alcohol products by billboard (Altman, Schooler, & Basil, 1991; Hackbarth et al., 2001; Stoddard, Johnson, Sussman, Dent, & Boley-Cruz, 1998) and magazine advertisers (Hoffman & Heald, 2000; Landrine et al., 2005; Pollay, Lee, & Carter-Whitney, 1992; Primack, Bost, Land, & Fine, 2007). Little is known about the message cues used within newspaper advertising with respect to this targeted strategy, or about tobacco-and alcohol-control advertisement placements. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011
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