Automated analysis of individual particles using a commercial capillary electrophoresis system
Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Journal of Chromatography A
(Impact Factor: 4.17).
02/2005; 1064(1):107-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2004.12.018
Capillary electrophoretic analysis of individual submicrometer size particles has been previously done using custom-built instruments. Despite that these instruments provide an excellent signal-to-noise ratio for individual particle detection, they are not capable of performing automated analyses of particles. Here we report the use of a commercial Beckman P/ACE MDQ capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with on-column laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the automated analysis of individual particles. The CE instrument was modified with an external I/O board that allowed for faster data acquisition rates (e.g. 100 Hz) than those available with the standard instrument settings (e.g. 4 Hz). A series of eight hydrodynamic injections expected to contain 32 +/- 6 particles, each followed by an electrophoretic separation at -300 V cm(-1) with data acquired at 100 Hz, showed 28 +/- 5 peaks corresponding to 31.9 particles as predicted by the statistical overlap theory. In contrast, a similar series of hydrodynamic injections followed by data acquisition at 4 Hz revealed only 8 +/- 3 peaks suggesting that the modified system is needed for individual particle analysis. Comparison of electropherograms obtained at both data acquisition rates also indicate: (i) similar migration time ranges; (ii) lower variation in the fluorescence intensity of individual peaks for 100 Hz; and (iii) a better signal-to-noise ratio for 4 Hz raw data. S/N improved for 100 Hz when data were smoothed with a binomial filter but did not reach the S/N values previously reported for post-column LIF detection. The proof-of-principle of automated analysis of individual particles using a commercially available CE system described here opens exciting possibilities for those interested in the study and analyses of organelles, liposomes, and nanoparticles.
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ABSTRACT: The analysis of mitochondria by capillary electrophoresis usually takes longer than 20 min per replicate which may compromise the quality of the mitochondria due to degradation. In addition, low sample consumption may be beneficial in the analysis of rare or difficult samples. In this report, we demonstrate the ability to analyze individual mitochondrial events in picoliter-volume samples (approximately 80 pL) taken from a bovine liver preparation using microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (micro-chip CE-LIF). Using a commercial "double-T" glass microchip, the sample was electrokinetically loaded in the "double-T" intersection and then subjected to electrophoretic separation along the main separation channel. In order to decrease interactions of mitochondria with channel walls during the analysis, poly(vinyl alcohol) was used as a dynamic coating. This procedure eliminates the need for complicated covalent surface modifications within the channels that were previously used in capillary electrophoresis methods. For analysis, mitochondria, isolated from bovine liver tissue, were selectively labelled using 10-nonyl acridine orange (NAO). The results consist of electropherograms where each mitochondrial event is a narrow spike (240 +/- 44 ms). While the spike intensity is representative of its NAO content, its migration time is used to calculate and describe its electrophoretic mobility, which is a property still largely unexplored for intracellular organelles. The five-fold decrease in separation time (4 min for microchip versus 20 min for capillary electrophoresis) makes microchip electrophoretic separations of organelles a faster, sensitive, low-sample volume alternative for the characterization of individual organelle properties and for investigations of subcellular heterogeneity.
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