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The Impact of Team Building on Communication and Job Satisfaction of Nursing Staff


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A series of team-building activities were conducted on a medical-surgical unit and their impact on staff's communication and job satisfaction was examined. Forty-four unit personnel participated in the interventions. Staff communication and job satisfaction were measured before and after the intervention. The findings linked team-building activities with improved staff communication and job satisfaction. Team-building strategies assisted the nurse leader/manager to build an effective work team by strengthening communication and interpersonal relationships so that the staff could function as a more cohesive group. Staff development consultants can help nurse managers become more effective team leaders by identifying the necessary resources and by helping to plan and coordinate team-building strategies.
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The Impact of Team Building on Communication and Job Satisfaction of Nursing Staff
By: Mary Anne Amos, Jie Hu, Charlotte A. Herrick
Amos, Hu, J. & Herrick (2005). The impact of team building on communication and job satisfaction of a
nursing staff. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 21(1), 10-16.
Made available courtesy of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc:
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A series of team-building activities were conducted on a medical-surgical unit and their impact on staff's
communication and job satisfaction was examined. Forty-four unit personnel participated in the interventions.
Staff communication and job satisfaction were measured before and after the intervention. The findings linked
team-building activities with improved staff communication and job satisfaction. Team-building strategies
assisted the nurse leader/manager to build an effective work team by strengthening communication and
interpersonal relationships so that the staff could function as a more cohesive group. Staff development
consultants can help nurse managers become more effective team leaders by identifying the necessary resources
and by helping to plan and coordinate team-building strategies.
In 2000, The North Carolina Center for Nursing conducted a survey and found that in many North Carolina
hospitals, vacancy rates ranged from 6% to 16 % (Letvak, 2002). Registered Nurse (RN) turnover is currently
a major problem, contributing to the critical shortage of nurses and affecting the economic stability of
hospitals (White & Rice, 2001). In 1998, the median turnover rate for RNs was 15% and the cost to hospitals
to replace a nurse was between US$42,000 and US$64,000 (Advisory Board Company, 2000). A common
factor leading to staff dissatisfaction is the perception that pay is inadequate (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2002;
Joshua-Amadi, 2002; Stamps, 1997; Yaktin, Azoury, & Doumit, 2003). White and Rice (2001) noticed two of
the most common factors in retention of nurses are job satisfaction and a positive work environment, with
good staff relationships. A study conducted by Shader, Broome, Broome, West, and Nash (2001) found a
positive association between higher rates of group cohesion and work satisfaction and a lower anticipated
turnover rate in an acute care setting. This suggests that in order to retain nursing staff in acute care, strategies
should be implemented to create cohesive work teams (Kerfoot, 2000).
The perception that the work place is supportive influences both job satisfaction and retention (Sullivan &
Decker, 2001). A study by Garret and McDaniel (2001), which explored interpersonal relationships,
environmental uncertainty, social climate, and burnout, found that social networks and a supportive workplace
were important in preventing job dissatisfaction. Leppa (1996), using the Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS),
found that a cohesive support group might compensate for other frustrations in the work environment (Huber,
2000). Leppa found that interpersonal relationships were an important part of job satisfaction and were also
associated with greater patient safety and higher quality of care.
Hinshaw, Smeltzer, and Atwood (1987) identified the work environment as an important aspect in retaining
nurses and positively affecting the quality of patient care. In their study of over 1,500 nursing staff members
(nurses and nurse assistants), they found that group cohesiveness was positively related to job satisfaction and
staying in the work setting.
Effective teams are characterized by a common purpose, clear goals, competent members, a unified
commitment, complementary skills, a collaborative climate, mutual accountability, standards of excellence,
and principled leadership (Homans, 1995; Tuckman, 1965). Teams with these characteristics develop
enthusiastic work groups, in which members share resources, information, and skills (Tuckman & Jensen,
Grohar-Murray and DiCroce (2003) claimed that team building brings a fundamental change in the way that
work in healthcare institutions is structured today, changing the work environment and the way staff perceive
it. They found that the benefits of a well-functioning cohesive team included increased productivity, improved
quality, reduced costs, reduced conflict, and increased adaptability and flexibility of both managers and
workers. Most importantly, they found that staff members were more motivated, which greatly reduced
absenteeism and staff turnover. "A team, by definition, is a motivated group of people who work together,
share resources, are committed to a common objectives through coordinated efforts, and produce a product or
service that is far superior than that of an individual alone" (p.133).
The leader/manager has the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and monitor the group's activities and to convey
a vision, inspiring team collaboration (Homans, 1995). It is important for the nurse leader/manager to
understand the principles of group dynamics in order to apply them to team building (Antai-Otong, 1997;
Blegen, 1993). Helping staff develop interpersonal skills is essential to building a cohesive team (Homans,
1995). Open communication and supportive interpersonal relationships have been consistently linked with
positive attitudes toward the work environment, which leads to job satisfaction, improved job performance,
and an increase in retention. Few studies, however, have investigated team building in relation to job
satisfaction. The current study, therefore, examined the impact of team-building strategies on communication
and job satisfaction.
Homans' social system conceptual model served as a framework for the team-building activities (Garrett &
McDaniel; 2001; Pincus, 1986). The model focuses on the relationships among members of small groups and
consists of "activities," defined as the tasks that individuals perform, "interactions," the behaviors that occur
among group members while performing the tasks, and "attitudes," the feelings individuals have toward each
other. A change in any one element produces a change in the others. Homans' model incorporates the stages of
group development identified by Tuckman (1965) and Tuckman and Jensen (1977). Stage 1, forming, is the
initial coming together; group members approach each other cautiously as they begin to understand each other.
Stage 2 includes storming and norming. Storming occurs when there are interpersonal conflicts and members
are competitive, leading to dissatisfaction. Norming occurs when the group overcomes interpersonal conflicts,
becomes cohesive, and develops structure, roles, and relationships. Stage 3, performing, occurs when members
cooperate, communicate, collaborate, and work is accomplished. Stage 4, adjourning or reforming, is the final
phase, when the group may dissolve because of a major change, the goals may have been reached or have
changed, or group members may have left and been replaced by new members, so that the group needs to
recycle to the initial stage of development (Antai-Otong, 1997; Blegen, 1993). This conceptual framework
provided a guide for developing the design of the team-building intervention.
A group pretest and posttest design was used to measure staff communication and job satisfaction before and
after receiving a team-building intervention. Pretest or baseline data were obtained using a demographic
questionnaire, a staff communication evaluation tool, and the IWS (Stamps, 1997). The subjects then attended
a team-building intervention program. Three months later, a posttest was given, using the same questionnaires.
In addition, participants completed the hospital employee perceptions survey given to all employees 2 months
after completing the team-building intervention program.
Sample and Setting
The convenience sample consisted of 44 of the 52 nurses, nursing assistants, and nursing secretaries/monitor
technicians working on a medical-surgical unit in a general hospital. Both the university and the hospital
Institutional Review Boards approved the study. An oral and a written introduction with an explanation of the
study's procedure was given to the participants, who signed an informed consent form. The subjects received
educational credit for attending the team-building intervention program. Two sessions were conducted. One
half of the participants attended each session, while the other half covered the unit. Each session was for 8
hours and the sessions were held twice, once in the fall and once in the spring. Thus, participants received a
total of 16 hours of continuing education credit. The costs of the program included staff salaries and the staff
development consultant's fee, the cost of the location, and the cost of food. US$3,200 were budgeted for the
two sessions.
The Intervention Program
The group facilitator, a consultant in private practice, was an expert in staff development. The facilitator acted
as a consultant to the nurse manager. Together they planned the team-building program. The program included
the following topics presented by the facilitator: (a) identification of communication styles, effective
communication, and listening skills; (b) conflict resolution; (c) stress management; (d) a review of different
personality styles and suggestions for working with different personality types; (e) information about the
stages of normal group development and group dynamics. Activities included presentations by the facilitator
and other experts, group discussions, and role play. Role play was used to demonstrate the stages of group
development and to provide opportunities to practice communication skills and strategies for conflict
management. Strategies for stress management were also introduced to assist staff with self-care.
The facilitator presented the phases of group development and used group exercises to illustrate concepts. The
first stage of group development, identified by Tuckman (1965) and Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as the
forming phase, was called by the facilitator the orientation and exploration phase. Staff members practiced
listening skills to illustrate the importance of active listening during group formation. They were divided into
groups of three and instructed to tell a story to each other about an event that had happened to them in the past;
the other members were asked to repeat the story exactly as it was told. The facilitator pointed out that
listening requires energy and stressed the importance of listening intently in order to fully understand the other
The facilitator explained that in the second stage of group formation, called the storming and norming stage,
group members first become defensive and uneasy, fearing loss of control, and this may cause interpersonal
conflicts. The group was reminded that conflict during the storming phase is natural and healthy and must be
openly dealt with for effective resolution. Norming occurs when group members master the ability to resolve
conflicts. The staff was divided into small groups, and each group was given a scenario based on actual
conflicts that had occurred on the nursing unit prior to the intervention. Each group was asked to create a win-
win solution for the assigned situation.
The facilitator presented Stage 3 as the working, or the performing, phase when group members work together
collaboratively, use open communication, take risks, become more trusting, and rely on one another to get the
work done. The staff participated in an activity to learn more about each other's roles as charge nurse, staff
nurse, nurse assistant, or nursing secretary/monitor technician. Each staff group discussed one of the nursing
roles and identified responsibilities and associated stressors and problems of the role. The group was asked to
offer suggestions to make each role easier. Knowledge of all of the roles and their interdependence helped staff
to better understand each team member and the importance of each role to a well-functioning team.
The final stage discussed was the consolidation and termination phase, when members are working well
together until someone leaves the group or new members join it or major changes occur on the unit. In this
stage, labeled by Tuckman (1965) and Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as the adjourning, reforming phase, it is
necessary for the team to recycle to the initial phase of group development.
Following the presentations on group development, strategies for stress management were presented,
relaxation techniques were introduced, and a massage therapist provided recommendations to reduce stress in
the work place.
A demographic questionnaire was administered to determine staff characteristics. The Staff Communication
Evaluation Tool and the IWS were used to measure the outcomes of the team-building intervention. The Staff
Communication Evaluation Tool included eight concepts with 25 items in the following categories: open,
honest communication; recognition, respect, and trust in peers and their contributions; problem solving toward
the goals of the agency or the profession; the ability to convey constructive feedback to the peers regarding
their practice; identification of conflict; accountability for one's own role; objectivity and empathy regardless
of personal feelings; sharing of knowledge and skills with others; and support for team, system, and
organizational goals. Participants responded to items using a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (rarely) to 5
(always). The Staff Communication Evaluation Tool had been used in the Nursing Department at this hospital
with approximately 150 people for 4 years. The tool demonstrated good reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha
coefficient of .96 in this study.
The IWS (Stamps, 1997) was used to measure job satisfaction. The two-part IWS is a 44-item scale that
contains six subcomponents: pay, autonomy, task requirements, organizational policies, interaction, and
professional status. Part A of the IWS asks respondents to rank order the importance of the six components.
Part B asks about levels of satisfaction in these six areas of work. A high level of satisfaction is reflected by
higher scores on each subscale. The reliability and validity of the instrument are well established. Construct
validity was reported for all subscales in the IWS as significantly related to the overall scale (p < .0001)
(Stamps,1997). In this study, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale was .91 and for the subscales
were as follows: pay scale, .84; professional status, .77; autonomy, .76; organizational policies, .80; task
requirements, .64; nurse-to-nurse interaction, .70; and nurse-to-physician interaction, .80.
The Continuous Employee Perceptions Survey is used annually by the hospital to assess staff satisfaction of all
hospital employees. It was administered to the subjects 2 months after the completion of the intervention on
team building. The survey includes components such as leadership, compensation and benefits, team
environment, and overall satisfaction, using a Likert-type scale. Satisfaction with the team environment was
considered a valuable outcome of the study. Scores that range from 76.0% to 100% are considered high,
acceptable scores range from 61.0% to 75.9%, negative scores range from 46.0% to 60.9%, and very negative
scores range from 20.0% to 45.9% (The Jackson Group, 2002).
The 44 participants in the study consisted of 24 nurses (55%), 13 nursing technicians (30%), and 7 nursing
secretaries/monitor technicians (15%). The mean age of the sample was 35 years (SD = 11.19) with a range
from 21 to 58 years. The average number of years of employment was 8 (SD = 7.55) with a range from 3
months to 26 years. The average number of years in nursing was 9 (SD = 8.38) with a range from 3 months to
31 years. Table 1 summarizes demographic data.
TABLE 1 Demographics of the Subjects (N = 44)
TABLE 3 Index of Work Satisfaction Component Scores (N = 44)
The staff development consultant, as an unbiased group facilitator, educator, and strategist, can be extremely
helpful to the unit manager in developing positive relationships among staff members. Team building in today's
healthcare environment is important to improve morale and enhance staff retention. A nursing unit's reputation
as a positive work environment becomes well known among other hospital employees, and this also helps to
recruit motivated and dedicated staff. Table 4 contains helpful hints for the staff development educator.
Strategies to enhance communication and provide an understanding of group dynamics and the importance of
interdependent roles promoted good working relationships. Building a successful team is essential to create a
positive work environment. Team-building activities must be ongoing; however, the nurse leader/manager
must nurture interpersonal relationships and encourage staff's efforts at effective communication. Skill
building to improve communication should be a managerial goal. With improved interstaff communication,
team members will become more comfortable in addressing issues among themselves, problem solving
together, and resolving conflicts. Promoting activities that increase teamwork will ultimately improve staff
satisfaction. Staff members who are satisfied with their work environment will want to remain on the job,
saving hospitals' money needed for staff recruitment. Retaining a stable work force will enable hospitals to
provide quality care, resulting in positive outcomes for patients and economic viability for healthcare
organizations. The staff development expert can assist the leader/manager to develop strategies for building an
effective team and helping nursing staff develop interpersonal skills and function as a cohesive group.
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... The link between teamwork, clinician occupational wellbeing, and patient safety is well-established across many areas of healthcare (Amos et al., 2005;DiMeglio et al., 2005;Kalisch et al., 2007) but has been under-explored in the OR. At the same time, there has been a proliferation of OR teamwork interventions in recent decades, but the impact of these interventions on clinician occupational well-being has yet to be systematically assessed. ...
... (Carpenter et al., 2017;White et al., 2018;Wolf et al., 2010). Our findings are in contrast to previous studies exploring the implementation of teamwork interventions in order to improve occupational well-being amongst nursing staff across different settings (Amos et al., 2005;DiMeglio et al., 2005;Kalisch et al., 2007). This may reflect the unique challenges associated with improving interprofessional teamwork (Raveendran et al., 2022;Ziman et al., 2018) and the complexities of well-being across the different perioperative professions (James-Scotter et al., 2019). ...
... Taylor et al. (2010) reported that levels of job satisfaction were higher amongst groups who were involved in direct patient care, such as nurses and surgeons, when compared to groups that did not, suggesting that teamwork interventions may yield the best results in improving occupational well-being in specific groups involved in patient care. This notion is supported by previous studies demonstrating significant improvements in job satisfaction amongst nurses following teamwork interventions (Amos et al., 2005;DiMeglio et al., 2005;Kalisch et al., 2007). The nurse-surgeon relationship has been frequently cited as critical for perioperative nurse job satisfaction and retention (James-Scotter et al., 2019). ...
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The occupational well-being of healthcare providers is crucial for safe and effective patient care, especially in the complex, high acuity operating room (OR) setting. There has been a recent proliferation of interventions to improve teamwork in the OR setting, but the impact of these interventions on clinician occupational well-being has yet to be systematically assessed. This systematic review aimed to summarize the impact of interprofessional teamwork interventions on occupational well-being among perioperative healthcare providers. We included all qualitative or quantitative peer-reviewed studies assessing a multidisciplinary teamwork intervention including members of at least two professions. We included seven studies which involved checklists (n = 2), simulation-based training (n = 2), and various teamwork development and training programs (n = 3). Five of the seven included studies reported no significant effect on job satisfaction, while one found a significant negative association between the intervention and job satisfaction (p < .0001), and another showed significant decrease in worker stress. Our findings highlight the gaps in our understanding of the impact of interprofessional teamwork interventions on healthcare worker well-being in the perioperative environment and the multi-level factors influencing OR teamwork, intervention implementation, and well-being across the different professions.
... Research suggests that good interdisciplinary communication leads to improved patient and family outcomes (high levels of patient and family satisfaction, symptom control, reductions in length of stay and hospital costs) [5]. Research has demonstrated that interdisciplinary teamwork can improve the diagnostic and prognostic abilities of health professionals, more than individual health professionals working alone [6]. In recent years there have been significant advances in the development of technologies that support teamwork. ...
... In team meetings, where there was no clear team leader, the team often lapsed into random conversation, losing its focus (their focus drifted away from the patient being discussed). However, in cases where leadership was present, the team leader facilitated and focused team discussion upon the patient being discussed [6]. ...
... Team members must first share relevant knowledge (i.e., knowledge about the task at hand) with others, and, second, that voiced knowledge must impact the team's work. The communication processes of speaking up and influencing others both come with challenges [6]. In addition to gathering the right people on a team, those with relevant knowledge must speak up if their expertise is to be used effectively by the team. ...
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Introduction: Interdisciplinary collaboration (IDC) is important in health care settings as the complex nature and demands of the health care work environment requires the expertise and knowledge of different individuals or specialists working together to solve multifaceted and complex patient care problems. Objective: To assess the health professionals attitude towards the development of an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to patient care in health institutions and to systematically review the impact of IDC as a panacea for effective health outcomes in Nigeria. Methodology: The research is a systematic review that provides various approaches for studying interdisciplinary teams. Fifty articles were selected from different search engines such as Google, google scholar, science direct and research gate with the search term Interdisciplinary collaboration among health care professionals. Articles were arranged based on most relevant, relevant and closely related articles. Result: The study revealed that IDC is pivotal in evidence-based care and contributes immensely to effective and efficient health outcomes. It puts the patient at the centre of the healthcare team s focus and allows all health professionals, with the patient, to collaboratively provide input, be part of the decision making, and improve outcomes. Although there are several obstacles to IDC, adopting this team-based culture of mutual respect and understanding is possible and, in fact, necessary. Conclusion: This study reveals that there are many benefits to IDC. It can improve safety and healthcare delivery, as well as reduce costs. The interprofessional team supports patient and personnel engagement, organizational efficiency and innovation.
... The most obvious and identifiable event for this shift in the American workforce was the 2019 Pandemic. With the pandemic forcing a shift toward the work from home environment, key social factors that contribute to job satisfaction were removed such as team building seminars (Amos, Hu & Herrick, 2005). On the other hand, there were significant benefits to the work-from-home lifestyle such as time and monetary efficiency with a lack of commute, and scheduling autonomy (Hashim et al., 2020). ...
... Employees that have been onboarded remotely or shifted to remote work might have difficulties connecting to their organization and therefore accessing resources. Remote and hybrid employees can suffer from the lack of social connections and team building that on-site employees' experience through their day-to-day (Amos, Hu & Herrick, 2005). Many organizations struggled to maintain normalcy during the pandemic (Amos, Hu & Herrick, 2005). ...
... Remote and hybrid employees can suffer from the lack of social connections and team building that on-site employees' experience through their day-to-day (Amos, Hu & Herrick, 2005). Many organizations struggled to maintain normalcy during the pandemic (Amos, Hu & Herrick, 2005). Infrastructure, collaboration, policies, and job security all shifted during the pandemic, impacting job satisfaction, employee performance, and organizational performance (Kaushik & Guleria, 2020). ...
... It was also found that healthcare workers are more satisfied with their work. A study found nurses who make successful team-building efforts are more confident, satisfied, and comfortable with their work [15]. ...
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Interdisciplinary nursing teamwork enhances an important model for patient health-care delivery. Patient care and effective safety depend on a multidisciplinary team of professionals in healthcare. Unfortunately, the field currently lacks an evidence-based framework for effective teamwork that can be integrated into medical education and practice across health professions. This article aims to describe the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork as a nursing competence in coronary and critical care. It discusses identifying common challenges to teamwork in healthcare and evidence-based strategies for quality improvement initiatives. As physicians and nurses provide parts of patient care, coordinating the various treatments and interventions is critical to preventing errors and fragmenting care. Tensions, misunderstandings, and conflicts arising from differing opinions and interests can interfere with effective communication and inter-disciplinary collaboration. It is appropriate to conduct new studies to approach agent management and also, to develop and implement collaboration and cooperation as a potential integrating tool between agents and their knowledge in the context of holistic care, as well as qualification and vocational training to working in the coronary care unit.
... Nonetheless, an existing need for action on WHP in care remains an issue of no dispute according to Krupp, Hielscher and Kirchen-Peters [50]. A team-building intervention on inpatient nurses also showed in a pre/post comparison that support from supervisors can promote work engagement [117]. A higher degree of work engagement by providing supervisor support is also shown among Malaysian nurses [118]. ...
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Due to ongoing demographic changes, the need for care is increasing in Germany. The number of outpatient care services is also rising, and with it, the number of employees in outpatient care, who are also continuously becoming older. Workplace health promotion (WHP) becomes relevant in this context, as it can reduce negative strain reactions and promote employees’ health. The aim of this study was (1) to reveal implemented WHP interventions in German outpatient care services; (2) to examine the potential challenges regarding a successful implementation of WHP measures; and (3) to illuminate further requests and needs experienced by outpatient careworkers. In qualitative field research, 30 semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with German caregivers, using the problem-centered interview method. The collected data were deductively and inductively evaluated and interpreted, using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Outpatient caregivers reported various WHP measures known from their workplaces, such as the provision of fruit baskets, programmes to increase physical activity, or a subsidy for a personal gym. They further reported WHP, such as back training, known from other care services. However, the respondents spoke of the challenges regarding the implementation or the use of WHP interventions in general. The most frequently named barriers were a lack of time after work and interventions that were only offered in their leisure time. In the same course, the participants still needed offers to increase physical activity, joint activities, or relaxation techniques. However, respondents highlighted that they preferred the interventions to take place during working hours. This way, they would also be more likely to take advantage of the interventions. The results of this study provide an insight into various WHP measures that already exist, or that are desirable for implementation with regard to caregivers’ needs. Subjectively perceived challenges for a successful implementation of WHP measures represent the importance of adjustments in the work organization of caregivers. It becomes clear that WHP is not yet established in the ambulant care sector, although it appears to be imperative for keeping caregivers healthy. Considering the different needs of employees, the results can provide a basis for the development of needs-based health promotion measures for caregivers.
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Aujourd’hui, il est plus que nécessaire de mettre la qualité de vie au travail (QVT) au centre des préoccupations de tous les acteurs en santé. La Société française de médecine d’urgence, au travers de sa commission évaluation qualité (RIS2 Q), propose ce guide de réflexions. Il trouve ses sources dans une revue de la littérature transversale, dans des recherches autant quantitatives que qualitatives, ainsi que dans l’expérience de terrain des professionnels de santé. En cela, il ne peut être considéré comme un référentiel de bonnes pratiques ou de recommandations qui nécessitent une méthodologie particulière. Il apporte une réflexion pour permettre un ‘à venir’, et renforcer le sens de notre vocation à soigner en confiance. La QVT ne peut pas être sacrifiée au nom d’un présent contraint. Vivre son quotidien de soignant de façon apaisée autant privée que professionnelle, permet de se transcender d’autant plus dans la crise.
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Background Leadership skills on the part of nursing managers are expected to improve care for patients under the care of registered nurses. To do so also requires all Saudi hospital nursing leaders to attract and retain qualified nursing staff during a time of global shortages. Aim The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the staff nurse perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of effective nurse leadership for a major Saudi hospital and make recommendations for change. Methods An interpretative methodology guided by John Kotter’s change theory. Qualitative data were collected from 14 participants using semi-structured interviews in 2016 and analysed using content analysis. Results Two main categories have been identified through the data analysis process. The first category was barriers to effective leadership , comprising an inadequate leadership education and skills development; a limited authority and clinical empowerment; an unawareness of the need for change; and poor communication. The second category was facilitators of effective leadership, encapsulated engaging and listening to staff and seeking their ideas; recognizing staff performance, and motivational strategies. Conclusion Even though the staff nurses who participated in this study were dissatisfied with the quality of leadership shown by their nurse managers, nevertheless they proffered an abundance of data during the study which accentuated the variety of organizational obstacles encountered by their nursing managers. They also voiced opinions on the workplace factors which might serve to assist nurse managers to improve the efficacy of their guidance. These were included in the study recommendations which were forwarded to all nursing managers employed at the hospital.
Background: The importance of appropriate communication skills within a health care setting rests upon the need for effective information sharing. When successful, this provides a supportive working environment for staff and has a positive impact on patient care and outcomes. Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore how knowledge/evidence is acquired, shared, and applied in the Critical Care (CC) environment for staff and patients/family members. Study design: A qualitative approach was used, consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data analysis was conducted using an iterative thematic approach. Results: Data collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic from United Kingdom (UK) critical care workers (N = 46), patients, and family members (N = 21) identified four communication roles performed by the nursing staff: team member; diplomat; translator and friend. Conclusions: It was evident that without suitable training and support, the stresses and demands placed upon the nurses could lead to disenfranchisement and burnout. Relevance to clinical practice: These findings are relevant and timely given the impact of the pandemic, highlighting the need for accessible and alternate communication strategies to support nurses by reducing stress, moral distress and increasing psychological safety. Improved communication can provide tailored information for staff and patients/family improving the CC experience for all.
Pre-acceleration programs are a recent addition to the entrepreneurship support system. These structured programs focus on aspiring entrepreneurs at the pre-venture stage. This paper investigates which educational design features and cohort compositions contribute to high entrepreneurial entry by examining the case of a pre-acceleration program with worldwide events, using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). We find two recipes for events with high venture creation and two recipes for events with low venture creation. Altogether, at this very early stage, gaining skills and tools, and having a diverse cohort, especially in what concerns gender diversity, appear to be more important than having feedback from mentors on nascent ideas and having many entrepreneurial talks. We discuss the implications of the different recipes for practitioners and researchers, and offer new research avenues.
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Part I Understanding Nursing Management And Organizations Chapter 1 Introducing Nursing Management Chapter 2 Designing Organizations Chapter 3 Delivering Nursing Care Chapter 4 Leading, Managing, Following Chapter 5 Initiating and Implementing Change Chapter 6 Managing and Improving Quality Chapter 7 Understanding Power And Politics Part II Learning Key Skills In Nursing Management Chapter 8 Thinking Critically, Making Decisions, Solving Problems Chapter 9 Communicating Effectively Chapter 10 Delegating Successfully Chapter 11 Building And Managing Teams Chapter 12 Handling Conflict Chapter 13 Managing Time Part III Managing Resources Chapter 14 Budgeting And Managing Fiscal Resources Chapter 15 Recruiting And Selecting Staff Chapter 16 Staffing and Scheduling Chapter 17 Motivating And Developing Staff Chapter 18 Evaluating Staff Performance Chapter 19 Coaching, Disciplining, and Terminating Staff Chapter 20 Reducing Turnover, Retaining Staff Chapter 21 Managing Absenteeism and Other Staff Problems Chapter 22 Preventing Workplace Violence Chapter 23 Handling Collective-Bargaining Issues Part IV Taking Care Of Yourself Chapter 24 Managing Stress Chapter 25 Advancing Your Career
George C. Homans's classic volume The Human Group was among the first to study the small group as a microcosm of society. It introduced a method of analysis and a set of influential theories that cut across areas of specialization on the personality, community, and industry. The study of even the smallest groups is extremely complex, with the simplest associations involving an abundance of actions, relationships, emotions, motives, ideas, and beliefs. Homans concentrates on certain activities and processes he observes in five carefully selected and differentiated case studies and from them draws common patterns and ideas that serve as the bases of testable propositions. He divides his cases into static and dynamic groups. In all five cases, Homans selects comparable phenomena for analysis with a contextually different emphasis and elaboration each time. His results demonstrate that, different as these groups are, their behavior reveals fundamental similarities and social uniformities. A ground-breaking and authoritative work when it was first published in 1950, The Human Group continues to Inform and invigorate the study of small groups in sociology, psychology, management, and organizations.
The creation of innovative retention strategies will be a major focus for nursing administration as a shortage of nurses recurs and turnover of staff becomes a problem. A recent study provides information on which to formulate retention strategies. The findings suggest that retention strategies, to be effective, need to be targeted specifically to particular conditions of the nursing staff, e.g., educational preparation and the clinical service on which staff are functioning. The authors outline their research findings and the innovative strategies that have been constructed.
The creation of innovative retention strategies will be a major focus for nursing administration as a shortage of nurses recurs and turnover of staff becomes a problem. A recent study provides information on which to formulate retention strategies. The findings suggest that retention strategies, to be effective, need to be targeted specifically to particular conditions of the nursing staff, e.g., educational preparation and the clinical service on which staff are functioning. The authors outline their research findings and the innovative strategies that have been constructed.
This field study of 327 professional nurses at an east coast teaching hospital investigated the effects of nurses' satisfaction with different facets of organizational communication on their job satisfaction and job performance. The author found that certain aspects of communication (e.g., communication with supervisor, communication climate, personal feedback, and communication with top-level executives) are influential contributors to nurses' job satisfaction and, to a lesser extent, to nurses' job performance. The author suggests a number of ways nurse executives can increase the communication effectiveness of their nursing staffs.
The purpose of this review was to examine published research on small-group development done in the last ten years that would constitute an empirical test of Tuckman's (1965) hypothesis that groups go through the stages of "forming," "storming," "norming," and "performing." Of the twenty-two studies reviewed, only one set out to directly test this hypothesis, although many of the others could be related to it. Following a review of these studies, a fifth stage, "adjourning," was added to the hypothesis, and more empirical work was recommended.
The relative impact of various nursing care delivery models and management interventions on nurse satisfaction was assessed in 37 New Jersey hospitals. Nurses ranked pay as the most important factor, followed by autonomy and professional status. Changes in scores between pilot and comparison units were significantly different for satisfaction with interactions and task requirements. Change in satisfaction with interaction was significant for all initiatives in aggregate, as well as for each of the five types of initiatives separately. The change in satisfaction with task requirements was significant for all initiatives taken as a group and for those units that implemented reorganization, computer, and education initiatives. Even among nurses who eventually liked the new environment there was a period of initial dissatisfaction. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1994. All Rights Reserved.