Brain regions showing increased activation by threat-related words in panic disorder

ArticleinNeuroreport 14(3):325-8 · April 2003with11 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000059776.23521.25 · Source: PubMed
Threat-related stimuli consistently activate the posterior cingulate cortex in normal subjects and have exaggerated effects on memory in patients with panic disorder. We hypothesized that panic patients would show increased response to threat-related stimuli in the posterior cingulate cortex. While undergoing fMRI, six panic patients and eight healthy volunteers made valence judgements of threat-related and neutral words. Both groups showed threat-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and left middle frontal cortices, but the activation was significantly greater in panic patients. Panic patients also had more right>left asymmetry of activation in the mid-parahippocampal region. The increased responsivity observed in the posterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices is consistent with the hypothesis that panic disorder patients engage in more extensive memory processing of threat-related stimuli.
    • "Usually, in functional MRI (fMRI) studies, presentation of words with threatening contents or photographs displaying fearful or angry faces represents a common paradigm to elicit fear reaction and activation of certain brain regions, especially the amygdala, which is thought to be of relevance for fear reactions (Phelps & LeDoux 2005 ). After presentation of words with potentially threatening content, PDA patients showed increased activation in the left posterior cingulum and the left medial frontal cortex compared with controls (Maddock et al. 2003) or activation of the right amygdala and right hippocampus (van den Heuvel et al. 2005). Fear provocation with anxiety-related images was associated with increased activity in the inferior frontal cortex, the hippocampus, the anterior and posterior cingulate and the OFC (Bystritsky et al. 2001). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results: The present article (Part I) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neuroimaging studies, including structural brain morphology, functional magnetic resonance imaging and techniques for measuring metabolic changes, including positron emission tomography and others. Furthermore, this review reports on the clinical and molecular genetic findings of family, twin, linkage, association and genome-wide association studies. Part II of the review focuses on neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition. Conclusions: Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high-quality research has accumulated that will improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
    • "Dorsolateral PFC has generally been associated with top-down attentional control [Blasi et al., 2007; Comte et al., 2014] and suppression of emotion-expressive behav- ior [Phillips et al., 2008]. In line with that, PD patients revealed heightened right dorsolateral PFC activation when panic-related words were presented in an emotional Stroop [Van den Heuvel et al., 2005] or valence judgement task [Maddock et al., 2003]. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is suggested to play a major role in regulatory processes which might indicate that PD patients recruited additional executive resources to avoid the expression of fear [Frank et al., 2014; Grecucci et al., 2013]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Panic disorder (PD) patients show aberrant neural responses to threatening stimuli in an extended fear network, but results are only partially comparable, and studies implementing disorder-related visual scenes are lacking as stimuli. The neural responses and functional connectivity to a newly developed set of disorder-related, ecologically valid scenes as compared with matched neutral visual scenes, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 26 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) were investigated. PD patients versus HC showed hyperactivation in an extended fear network comprising brainstem, insula, thalamus, anterior, and mid-cingulate cortex and (dorso-)medial prefrontal cortex for disorder-related versus neutral scenes. Amygdala differences between groups failed significance. Subjective levels of anxiety significantly correlated with brainstem activation in PD patients. Analysis of functional connectivity by means of beta series correlation revealed no emotion-specific alterations in connectivity in PD patients versus HC. The results suggest that subjective anxiety evoked by external stimuli is directly related to altered activation in the homeostatic alarm system in PD. With novel disorder-related stimuli, the study sheds new light on the neural underpinnings of pathological threat processing in PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Article · Jul 2016
    • "Some studies have shown a processing advantage for pleasant words, in support of a positivity offset account (e.g., Herbert et al., 2008; Palazova, Mantwill, Sommer, & Schacht, 2011). Furthermore, neuroimaging studies have shown that, compared to neutral words, emotional words elicit increased activation in the amygdala (e.g., Kensinger & Schacter, 2006; Lewis et al., 2007), in the left orbitofrontal gyrus and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (Kuchinke et al., 2005), or in the left subgenual cingulate cortex (Maddock, Buonocore, Kile, & Garrett, 2003 ). Other studies have demonstrated that discrete emotion information (e.g., sadness) affects the processing of single words earlier than do broader affective dimensions (e.g., negativity). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During social communication, words and sentences play a critical role in the expression of emotional meaning. The Minho Affective Sentences (MAS) were developed to respond to the lack of a standardized sentence battery with normative affective ratings: 192 neutral, positive, and negative declarative sentences were strictly controlled for psycholinguistic variables such as numbers of words and letters and per-million word frequency. The sentences were designed to represent examples of each of the five basic emotions (anger, sadness, disgust, fear, and happiness) and of neutral situations. These sentences were presented to 536 participants who rated the stimuli using both dimensional and categorical measures of emotions. Sex differences were also explored. Additionally, we probed how personality, empathy, and mood from a subset of 40 participants modulated the affective ratings. Our results confirmed that the MAS affective norms are valid measures to guide the selection of stimuli for experimental studies of emotion. The combination of dimensional and categorical ratings provided a more fine-grained characterization of the affective properties of the sentences. Moreover, the affective ratings of positive and negative sentences were not only modulated by participants' sex, but also by individual differences in empathy and mood state. Together, our results indicate that, in their quest to reveal the neurofunctional underpinnings of verbal emotional processing, researchers should consider not only the role of sex, but also of interindividual differences in empathy and mood states, in responses to the emotional meaning of sentences.
    Article · Mar 2016
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