Dietary Factors and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Men and Women

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 03/2005; 14(2):512-20. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0451
Source: PubMed


The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased worldwide in recent decades. Diet could influence NHL risk by modulating the immune system, although evidence is limited. We did a population-based case-control study to determine whether differences in diet were associated with NHL risk.
A total of 597 NHL cases and 467 population controls in Sweden completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire evaluating their dietary habits 2 years before the interview. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between food intake and risk of NHL.
High consumption of dairy products and fried red meat was associated with increased risk of NHL. The OR of NHL for individuals in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of dairy intake was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1-2.2; P(trend) = 0.003). The OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of fried red meat intake was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P(trend) = 0.02). In contrast, high consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with reduced risk of NHL, particularly follicular lymphoma, among women but not men. Compared with the lowest quartile of vegetable intake, the OR of follicular lymphoma among women in the highest quartile of vegetable intake was 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7; P(trend) = 0.002).
The positive associations of NHL risk with dairy products and fried red meat and the inverse association with fruits and vegetables suggest that diet affects NHL risk and could explain the increase of some histopathogic subtypes.

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Available from: Alicja Wolk
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    • "Usual dietary intake over the past year was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ with 106 items, including foods, beverages and alcohol, and with three additional questions on dietary fat, including a question on regular use of olive oil for cooking and/or in dressings (yes/no)( 13 , 14 , 17 , 18 ). The intake of several food items assessed with a shorter version of the FFQ has been validated against four 7 d weighed food records in 111 randomly sampled Swedish women, giving Spearman correlation coefficients in the range 0·16–0·82 (e.g. "
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    • "Et al [15] in their study mention that higher intake of vegetable, lutein zeaxanthin, and zinc are associated with a lower NHL risk. Several other studies including Han, X et al [26], Talamini R. et al [27], Cross, AJ et al [28], Zheng, TZ et al [29], Thompson, C. A. et al [30] Chang, E. al [31] found that high consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with the reduced risk of NHL. Chiu BC et al [32] did not find an association between vegetables and lymphoma. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of dietary factors in the epidemiology of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains largely undefined. Dietary habits may play a role in the etiology of NHL by influencing the immune system. Dietary patterns and the risk of NHL were analyzed in a case control study; including 170 NHL cases and 190 controls. All subjects completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The dietary pattern was investigated separately and in nine nutritional groups. Crosstab tables were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR), and P(trend). Consumption of highest versus lowest quartile of proteins (OR, 8.088 P(trend)=0.000), fats (OR, 6.17 P(trend)=0.000) and sweets (OR, 8.806 P(trend)=0.000) were associated with a significantly increased NHL risk. The inverse association was found for fresh fruits (OR, 0.117 P(trend)=0.000) and vegetables (OR, 0.461 P(trend)=0.010). An association between dietary intake and the risk of NHL is biologically plausible due to immunosuppressive effects of fat and animal proteins, and antioxidant properties of vegetables and fruits.
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