Article

Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: Results of a meta-analysis

Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Clinical Oncology, Marshfield Clinic Cancer Center, Marshfield, WI, USA.
Public Health Reports (Impact Factor: 1.55). 01/2005; 120(1):31-8.
Source: PubMed
ABSTRACT
This study examined the methodology of observational studies that explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of bladder cancer.
Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explain any observed statistical heterogeneity and to explore the influence of specific study characteristics of the summary estimate of effect.
Initially combining homogenous data from six case-control and one cohort study yielded a non-significant RR of 1.01 (0.92, 1.11), suggesting no association between hair dye use and bladder cancer development. Sensitivity analyses examining the influence of hair dye type, color, and study design on this suspected association showed that uncontrolled confounding and design limitations contributed to a spurious non-significant summary RR. The sensitivity analyses yielded statistically significant RRs ranging from 1.22 (1.11, 1.51) to 1.50 (1.30, 1.98), indicating that personal use of hair dye products increases bladder cancer risk by 22% to 50% vs. non-use.
The available epidemiological data suggest an association between personal use of hair dye products and increased risk of bladder cancer.

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Research Articles
Public Health Reports / January–February 2005 /Volume 120 31
Personal Use of Hair Dyes and
the Risk of Bladder Cancer:
Results of a Meta-Analysis
Michael Huncharek MD,
MPH
a
Bruce Kupelnick, BA
b
a
Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Clinical Oncology, Marshfield Clinic Cancer Center, Marshfield, WI; Meta-Analysis
Research Group, Stevens Point, WI
b
Meta-Analysis Research Group, Stevens Point, WI
Address correspondence to: Michael Huncharek MD, MPH, Meta-Analysis Research Group, 2740 Sunset Blvd., Stevens Point, WI 54481;
tel. 715-343-3035; fax 715-343-3080; e-mail <Huncharek.Michael@Marshfieldclinic.org>.
©2005 Association of Schools of Public Health
SYNOPSIS
Objective. This study examined the methodology of observational studies that
explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of
bladder cancer.
Methods. Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-
based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of
interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer
development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity
analyses were performed to explain any observed statistical heterogeneity and to
explore the influence of specific study characteristics of the summary estimate of
effect.
Results. Initially combining homogenous data from six case-control and one cohort
study yielded a non-significant RR of 1.01 (0.92, 1.11), suggesting no association
between hair dye use and bladder cancer development. Sensitivity analyses
examining the influence of hair dye type, color, and study design on this suspected
association showed that uncontrolled confounding and design limitations contrib-
uted to a spurious non-significant summary RR. The sensitivity analyses yielded
statistically significant RRs ranging from 1.22 (1.11, 1.51) to 1.50 (1.30, 1.98),
indicating that personal use of hair dye products increases bladder cancer risk by
22% to 50% vs. non-use.
Conclusion. The available epidemiological data suggest an association between
personal use of hair dye products and increased risk of bladder cancer.
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    • "It is an oxidative hair dye, acts as coupler and reacts with precursors such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), para-toluenediamine (PTD) for final color. Hair dyes are currently recognized as fashion trend among women and approximately 10% of men of different age groups globally (Huncharek and Kupelnick, 2005 ).The concentration of A132 in hair dyes varies from 0.1 to 1.2% (Belsito et al., 2014) in which 0.25% is absorbed through scalp and enters into the blood stream (Goetz et al., 1988). Moreover, exposure of UV for 20 min is sufficient to irradiate the entire blood volume of an adult human being, which flow through the skin (Kornhauser et al., 1996). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The popularity of hair dyes use has been increasing regularly throughout the world as per the demand of hair coloring fashion trends and other cosmetic products. 2-Amino-3-hydroxypyridine (A132) is widely used as a hair dye ingredient around the world. We are reporting first time the phototoxicity mechanism of A132 under ambient environmental UV-B radiation. It showed maximum absorption in UV-B region (317 nm) and forms a photoproduct within an hour exposure of UV-B irradiation. Photocytotoxicity of A132 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) was measured by mitochondrial (MTT), lysosomal (NRU) and LDH assays which illustrated the significant reduction in cell viability. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation for A132 phototoxicity was established photo- chemically as well as intracellularly. Noteworthy, formation of tail DNA (comet assay), micronuclei and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) (immunocytochemistry) formation confirmed the photogenotoxic potential of dye. Cell cycle study (sub-G1peak) and staining with EB/AO revealed the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Further, mitochondrial mediated apoptosis was corroborated by reduced MMP, release of cytochrome c and upregulation of caspase-3. Release of mitochondrial Smac/DIABLO in cytoplasm demonstrated the caspase dependent apoptotic cell death by photolabile A132 dye. In-addition increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio again proved the apoptosis. Thus, study suggests that A132 induce photogenotoxicity, phototoxicity and apoptotic cell death through the involvement of Smac/DIABLO in mitochondrial apoptosis via caspase dependent manner. Therefore, the long term use of A132 dye and sunlight exposure jointly increased the oxidative stress in skin which causes premature hair loss, damage to progenitor cells of hair follicles.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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    • "However, this hypothesis is not validated yet and to our knowledge, no formal study has been designed and carried out to clarify the role of parabens. By contrast, it has been found that permanent hair-dyes, containing aromatic amines may increase the relative risk of bladder cancer by 3.3-fold among regular users relative to non-users (Gago-Dominguez et al., 2001), but by 1.22–1.50 in a more recent meta-analysis, indicating that personal use of hair-dyes increases bladder cancer risk only by 22–50% (Huncharek and Kupelnick, 2005). In addition, it has been shown that permanent hair-dyes increase the relative risk of adult acute leukaemia by 2.4 in women for a use of up to six times per year for more than 15 years (Rauscher et al., 2004). "
    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2016
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    • "It is odd that no recognition of NOC formation from the secondary amines present in hair dye formulations is made, despite the secondary amine limits in other environmental and consumer regulations being specifically designed because of the potential NOC formation. It is estimated that more than one third of women over age 18 and 10% of men over 40 use some type of hair dye [18]. With the use of oxidative hair dyeing becoming increasingly widespread, it is necessary that the safety issues should be examined in ever more increasing detail. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.
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