Article

Effects of Fragrance on Emotions: Moods and Physiology

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Abstract

Smelling a delightful aroma can be a very pleasurable experience, but can it be measured scientifically? Over the past 20 years International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. (IFF) has been working to refine its methods of measuring both the subjective and physiological effects of aromas and fragrances on emotions. We have developed a selfreport method called Mood Mapping™ that reliably measures the mood associations of aromas, whether simple ingredients or finished fragrances in consumer products (Warrenburg, 2002). Mood Mapping provides a choice of eight mood categories to panelists, who are asked to smell the aroma of a sample and ‘pick the mood category that best matches the aroma of the sample’. We found that this straightforward voting technique results in clearer and more reliable differentiation among aromas than do techniques that require respondents to rate each mood for each sample being evaluated. The resulting mood profiles of each aroma can be mapped by multidimensional scaling or principal component analysis. Figure 1 displays the voting results for clementine, a citrus aroma, versus vanilla. Both are equally pleasant, but the former is more stimulating and the latter more relaxing. The Mood Map reflects these differences by their positions in the Arousal (Y) dimension, yet also shows their hedonic similarity on the Positive/Negative (X) dimension. The other points are other aromas that evoke different patterns of the eight moods. Measurement of moods in this way can be conducted in combination with consumer research of fragranced (or flavored) products. When these results are mapped we have found that the four positive moods identify the major dimensions of the map. Thus, positive consumer reactions tend to reflect the major mood dimensions of happiness, stimulation, relaxation and sensuality that underlie a wide variety of specific attributes identified as applying to such products. Furthermore, we have found that this is true in populations tested around the world. We have built a database for our creative staff, called the Consumer Fragrance Thesaurus, that catalogs the moods, attributes, colors and other qualities of fragrances tested in different areas of the world (Warrenburg, 1999). One of our principal interests has been to discover whether fragrance can be used as a stress-relief agent in a consumer product. Stress is a global affliction, a fact that is not only acknowledged anec

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... Our results show an increased SoA when participants were exposed to the pleasant scent compared to the unpleasant and neutral scents. These findings support that smell produces not only physiological responses [90] and modifies emotions [86,91] but also show for the first time that smell affects the feeling of agency. ...
... Odors not only evoke strong experiences of pleasure or displeasure [35], but also modulate mood [91], attention [53,89], stress [3,69] and memories [47]. Different scents have been shown to elicit specific physiological responses or emotional states. ...
... The fragrances we used are 100% pure essential oils not diluted. For positive emotion, we chose lavender scent (available in Plush Folly [76]) as it has been widely employed to produce pleasant emotions [90,91]. For negative emotion, we chose civet scent (available in Holland & Barret [10]) which is often used for perfumes base, and in its pure state, is considered unpleasant since it is the perineal gland secretion produced by the civet cat [50,82]. ...
Conference Paper
The Sense of Agency (SoA) is crucial in interaction with technology, it refers to the feeling of 'I did that' as opposed to 'the system did that' supporting a feeling of being in control. Research in human-computer interaction has recently studied agency in visual, auditory and haptic interfaces, however the role of smell on agency remains unknown. Our sense of smell is quite powerful to elicit emotions, memories and awareness of the environment, which has been exploited to enhance user experiences (e.g., in VR and driving scenarios). In light of increased interest in designing multimodal interfaces including smell and its close link with emotions, we investigated, for the first time, the effect of smell-induced emotions on the SoA. We conducted a study using the Intentional Binding (IB) paradigm used to measure SoA while participants were exposed to three scents with different valence (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral). Our results show that participants? SoA increased with a pleasant scent compared to neutral and unpleasant scents. We discuss how our results can inform the design of multimodal and future olfactory interfaces.
... 21.3 Development of a methodology for measuring feelings in response to odors via verbal reports: a crosscultural approach 21.3.1 Methods from the literature and rationale of the approach Different emotional scales and emotional lexicons have been developed because emotional responses can highly depend on the product of interest, and more important, on the context of use. These tools are available in the literature and are related to food-specific domains (e.g., EsSense Profile Ô from Bhumiratana, Adhikari, & Chambers, 2014;Chaya et al., 2015;Ferrarini et al., 2010;King & Meiselman, 2010;Laros & Steenkamp, 2005;Ng et al., 2013aNg et al., , 2013bPineau, Rytz, Hudry, Maier, & Alexander, 2010;Rousset et al., 2005;Spinelli, Masi, Dinnella, Zoboli, & Monteleone, 2014;Thomson & Crocker, 2013) or to odors and fragrances (e.g., Berezina, 2014;Churchill & Behan, 2010;Desmet & Schifferstein, 2008;Rétiveau et al., 2004;Warrenburg, 2005; Geneva Emotion and Odor Scale from; Chrea et al., 2009;UniEOS from;ScentMoveÒ scale from;Porcherot et al., 2010). A more systematic comparison between existing food-and odor-related emotional lexicons was recently made by Gmuer, Guth, Runte, and Siegrist (2015). ...
... Results showed that the CATA method could be applied by using the terms provided by UniGEOS with more discrimination, especially when the within-subject randomization of terms was applied (by product and by subject randomization). The CATA approach has been applied by other authors (Jaeger, Cardello, & Schutz, 2013;Jiang, King, & Prinyawiwatkul, 2014;King, Meiselman, & Carr, 2013;Ng et al., 2013a;Warrenburg, 2005). King et al. (2013) found that this approach provided more differentiation at the higher levels of emotional frequency for a few select emotions, and the rating scale provided differentiation for more attributes at the lower levels of emotional response. ...
... King et al. (2013) found that this approach provided more differentiation at the higher levels of emotional frequency for a few select emotions, and the rating scale provided differentiation for more attributes at the lower levels of emotional response. Warrenburg (2005) suggested another approach consisting of picking only one of the emotional categories that best matches the feelings related to the fragrance and found more discrimination than by asking the consumers to rate each of the eight categories. This approach might, however, be too restrictive, as products may elicit multiple (mixed) emotions simultaneously rather than eliciting one single emotion (Desmet, 2003;Porcherot et al., 2010). ...
Chapter
Personal and home care products are nowadays similar in terms of hedonic value and performance. In this context, the consideration of their emotional value, in harmony with consumer expectations, can be a differentiating factor for fragrance development. This chapter aims at providing examples that show how emotional responses to odors, personal products, and home care products can be measured. After describing the strong influence of olfaction on emotional processing and the role of associative learning, we propose a definition of emotion and feelings. We focus on the verbal report of feelings, or the verbalization of the subjective experience of emotions, by mainly referring to the conscious part of the emotional response elicited by odors and fragranced products. Although the unconscious part of the emotional response related to physiological and behavioral responses should not be underestimated, this topic is covered in part 1 of the book, which is dedicated to the basic studies of emotions. The current chapter provides a review of a methodology developed to measure food-elicited feelings or fragrance- elicited feelings, with consideration of cross-cultural differences. Fundamental ques- tions and critical choices that arise when such an approach is undertaken are also highlighted. A series of results is presented to illustrate the use of this methodology in sensory settings for product development. In this context, we propose that in- vestigations should be undertaken into the effects of changing the product label, packaging, and color of fragranced products on consumer emotional expectations and on the overall emotional response when the product is experienced in real-life situa- tions. Finally, we present measures other than verbal reports that examine the existence of automatic associations between odors and subtle emotions, with the caveat that we should continue asking about feelings in any fundamental or applied research.
... The most common motivation for designing with smell is to create more immersive experiences, mainly referring to concepts such as the sense of presence, immersion, and realism [3,50,64,105]. In addition, we see attempts to study the effect of scent stimuli on emotions (e.g. to reduce stress [2,127]) and behaviour (e.g. reduce distraction, help multi-tasking [52,58,82]). ...
... Emotional scent classification frameworks proposed in psychology and neuroscience studied this emotional effect further, for example by linking the arousing and relaxing effect with the neural system (e.g. [122,127]), or by describing the effect of scents for inducing happy or sad emotions (e.g. [26,122]). ...
... For this specific application case we wanted a relaxing scent that reduces the stress of the user and helps improve the user's performance. Rose, rosemary, and lavender are suggested in the literature as being relaxing [122,127], and hence provide the designer with different options to consider in the implementation of a smell-based application. ...
Article
The human sense of smell is powerful. However, the way we use smell as an interaction modality in human–computer interaction (HCI) is limited. We lack a common reference point to guide designers’ choices when using smell. Here, we map out an olfactory design space to provide designers with such guidance. We identified four key design features: (i) chemical, (ii) emotional, (iii) spatial, and (iv) temporal. Each feature defines a building block for smell-based interaction design and is grounded in a review of the relevant scientific literature. We then demonstrate the design opportunities in three application cases. Each application (i.e., one desktop, two virtual reality implementations) highlights the design choices alongside the implementation and evaluation possibilities in using smell. We conclude by discussing how identifying those design features facilitates a healthy growth of this research domain and contributes to an intermediate-level knowledge space. Finally, we discuss further challenges the HCI community needs to tackle.
... While smell is often considered a secondary sense [48], emerging research suggests that we use it more than we think. For example, previous work has shown that humans have scent-tracking abilities similar to dogs [42] and can detect emotions through the olfactory channel [59] (e.g., fear [14]). Moreover, prior studies show that scents not only regulate behavior [54] and evoke pleasant or unpleasant experiences [20], but also modulate mood [59], attention [29], stress [37], and memories [25]. ...
... For example, previous work has shown that humans have scent-tracking abilities similar to dogs [42] and can detect emotions through the olfactory channel [59] (e.g., fear [14]). Moreover, prior studies show that scents not only regulate behavior [54] and evoke pleasant or unpleasant experiences [20], but also modulate mood [59], attention [29], stress [37], and memories [25]. Supported by this evidence, the sense of smell is gaining increasing attention in several design contexts. ...
... It has long been known that the optimal design of products, systems, and experiences benefits from the broad consideration of all the senses [59]. Building on CC research allows us to think beyond single sensory stimulation and promotes the use of crosssensory associations in design. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has long been known that our sense of smell is a powerful one that affects emotions and behaviors. Recently, interest in the sense of smell has been growing exponentially in HCI. However, the potential of smell to inspire design is still underexplored. In this paper, we first investigated crossmodal correspondences between scents and selected features relevant for design (clustered in sensory, bodily, and qualitative features). Then, we created a set of cards (EssCards) to visually summarize the key findings to inspire designers. We carried out two preliminary design exploration sessions using the EssCards. Based on our findings, we discuss how to inspire and challenge design opportunities around the sense of smell and reflect upon applications for smell as inspirational material for designing future interactions and experiences.
... In the second part of the questionnaire participants were asked to rate the valence of emoji, which provided the raw data for exploring emoji interpretation in regards to sentiment. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM: Bradley & Lang, 1994) (1) and happy, content and joyful feelings (9), respectively. ...
... Angry/Annoyed Anger, annoyed, irate, agitated angry 1,2,3,4 , annoyed 1,6,8 , irritated 2,3,5,6,9 , irate 4 , agitation 11,12,13 Bored Boredom, boring, dull bored 1,7,8,10 Confused Pain/Grief Suffering, painful, sorrow, agony, anguish grief 2 , misery 2 , pain 2 , sorrow 2 , anguish 11,12,13 Happy Happy mood, joy, cheerful, glad happy 1,2,3,4,7,9 , happy memory 8 , joyful 1,2,3 , glad 1,2 , merry 8 Table 3. Distribution of valence and arousal scores (1-9) among consumers from the USA expressed as percentages for 33 facial emoji obtained by Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). The emoji are listed according to average scores for valence and groupings following hierarchical cluster analysis are indicated by horizontal lines ("positive sentiment", "neutral/dispersed sentiment" and "negative sentiment", respectively). ...
Article
Emoji are increasingly used for emotional expression in computer-mediated communications and represent a relevant source of information for consumer companies about consumer’ food-related attitudes and behaviours. However, given that emoji convey a wide range of meanings an in-depth understanding of how consumers interpret them is necessary to enable their use in food-related consumer research. The purpose of this research was to explore consumers' interpretations of facial emoji. In an online survey with 1084 adults from the USA, an open-ended question was used to uncover meanings associated to 33 common facial emoji (in Apple platform rendition iOS 6.0). Participants also evaluated the emotional valence and arousal of the emoji using Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM). The latter confirmed that facial emoji can span broad ranges of emotional valence and arousal and convey a corresponding range of different emotions. Although emoji conveyed their unique and intended meaning, semantic meanings were multiple and bestowed by associations of varying strength depending on the specific emoji being considered. This emphasised that emoji interpretation and use can be flexible, as also seen in internet resources dedicated to emoji meaning. Implications for food-related consumer research are discussed, as well as in social media research.
... It has been long known that the sense of smell influences how we experience the world around us and ourselves [41,80]. For instance, scents not only regulate approach and avoidance behavior [18] and evoke pleasant or unpleasant experiences [27], but also modulate mood [80], attention [45], stress [57], memories [39], and, as recently demonstrated, body image [12]. ...
... It has been long known that the sense of smell influences how we experience the world around us and ourselves [41,80]. For instance, scents not only regulate approach and avoidance behavior [18] and evoke pleasant or unpleasant experiences [27], but also modulate mood [80], attention [45], stress [57], memories [39], and, as recently demonstrated, body image [12]. The latter has been defined as the way we perceive our own body is not fixed, it changes continuously in response to sensory signals in the environment [76]. ...
Article
Previous research has shown the influence of smell on emotions, memories, and body image. However, most of this work has taken place in laboratory settings and little is known about the influence of smell in real-world environments. In this paper, we present novel insights gained from a field study investigating the emotional effect of smell on memories and body image. Taking inspiration from the cultural design probes approach, we designed QuintEssence, a probe package that includes three scents and materials to complete three tasks over a period of four weeks. Here, we describe the design of QuintEssence and the main findings based on the outcomes of the three tasks and a final individual interview. The findings show similar results between participants based on the scent. For example, with cinnamon, participants experienced feelings of warmth, coziness, happiness, and relaxation; they recalled blurred memories of past moments about themselves and reported a general feeling of being calm and peaceful towards their bodies. Our findings open up new design spaces for multisensory experiences and inspire future qualitative explorations beyond laboratory boundaries.
... Beyond the aforementioned methodological and measurement issues, discrepancies may also emerge because activation properties of odors have been considered within different theoretical frameworks (e.g., Herz, 2009;Kaeppler & Mueller, 2013;Sowndhararajan & Kim, 2016). The circumplex model of affect (Feldman Barrett & Russell, 1998;Russell, 1980), is an influential model of emotion broadly used within the olfactory domain (Anderson et al., 2003;Bensafi et al., 2002;Chebat & Michon, 2003;Herz, Schankler, & Beland, 2004;Heuberger, Hongratanaworakit, Böhm, Weber, & Buchbauer, 2001;Jönsson, Olsson, & Olsson, 2005;Pössel, Ahrens, & Hautzinger, 2005;Schifferstein & Tanudjaja, 2004;Warrenburg, 2005). In this model, valence and arousal are thought of as two independent dimensions of emotions. ...
... The description of "Soothing-Peacefulness" and "Energizing-Cooling" as separate emotional dimensions leads to the possibility that Russell's arousal dimension might be thought of as a mixture of two independent dimensions rather than reflecting a single continuum ranging from relaxing to stimulating properties. So far however, only a few studies were designed to assess relaxing and stimulating properties of odors at the same time on two independent scales (e.g., strawberry, Porcherot et al., 2010; lily of the valley and hyacinth, Warren & Warrenburg, 1993;Warrenburg, 2002Warrenburg, , 2005. Interestingly, a strong positive correlation (r = 0.83) has been reported between soothing and energizing ratings for a large set of odors (Chrea et al., 2009), whereas a negative relationship would have been expected according to the unidimensional conception of relaxing/stimulating odor properties. ...
Article
It is generally assumed that intensity can be used as a proxy of the arousing properties of odors: the more concentrated an odorant, the more intense an odor and the more stimulating and the less relaxing the odor. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the relationship between relaxing and stimulating properties of odors when judged on two independent scales, for different levels of stimulus concentration. Thirty-three volunteers judged relaxing, stimulating, pleasantness, familiarity and intensity properties of four odors, namely strawberry, lavender, coffee, and lemon, at five concentrations. Our findings show that for all odors, higher stimulus concentration is associated with higher perceived intensity and higher stimulating judgments whereas it was not associated with lower relaxing judgments. On the contrary, lavender and strawberry were also judged more relaxing when stimulus concentration increased whereas coffee and lemon relaxing properties remained the same overall whatever the concentration. Odor familiarity increased with stimuli concentration as well as pleasantness (with the exception of coffee odor). Our results underline the need to use two separate unipolar scales when assessing the relaxing and stimulating properties of odors in self-report questionnaires. They also question the suitability of the commonly used bidimensional framework (valence vs. arousal) to describe olfactory emotions.
... Relaxing effect of lavender was shown in some other studies (Diego et al., 1998;Moss, Cook, Wesnes and Duckett, 2003;Ludwigson and Rottman, 1989). It is known that various moods (relaxed, calm, enthusiastic, sad ...) are influenced by different odors (vanilla, lavender, orange ...) in addition to these studies (Warrenburg, 2005). While lily of the valley can be comforting, mint flavor could be a more stimulating effect (Warm, Dember and Parasuraman, 1991). ...
... Hatta fareler üzerinde yapılan bir çalışmada lavanta kokusunun farelerde yatıştırıcı bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur (Buchbauer, Jirovetz, Jager, Dietrich ve Plank, 1991). Bunlar dışında da pek çok farklı duygudurum (rahat, sakin, coşkun, üzgün...) üzerinde farklı kokuların (vanilya, lavanta, portakal...) etkileri olduğu bilinmektedir (Warrenburg, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
The sense of smell is used less than other senses in human life. Even though visual, auditory and tactile stimuli are largely examined in psychology literature, few studies, unfortunately, examine the influence of odor. The aim of this review was to examine studies related to the effects of aromatic odors on some behaviors. Studies have demonstrated that aromatic odors enhance retrieval of information, positive mood, and attention, and produce relieving effects. Amygdala and prefrontal cortex are related brain areas to aromatic odors. This study highlights some horizons for future studies.
... Facial expressions can be motioned by EMG, as they are caused by the contraction of facial muscles. Negative emotions make people frown, which can be reflected by the activities of the corrugator muscle, while positive emotions make people smile, which can be reflected by the activities of zygomatic muscles (Cacioppo et al., 1986;Dimberg, 1990;Lang et al., 1993;Laparra-Hern andez et al., 2009;Warrenburg, 2005). Facial EMG is particularly useful in studies of emotions that are so weak that it is difficult to visually detect changes in facial expressions so that facial action coding is insensitive (Cacioppo et al., 1986). ...
... EMG of the zygomatic muscles is neither sensitive (cannot distinguish emotions evoked by the five flavors) nor reliable (the Cronbach's a: .63). Previous researchers found that positive emotions make people smile and increase the activities of the zygomatic and levator muscles (Cacioppo et al., 1986;Dimberg, 1990;Lang et al., 1993;Warrenburg, 2005). However, in the present study, the EMG level at the zygomatic muscles does not correlate with emotion valence. ...
Article
The flavor of foods or oral care products can affect consumers' emotions and experience. We compared different methods for measuring emotion evoked by flavors, including self-report measures (Self-Assessment Manikin, or SAM and EsSense), electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and cardiovascular measures (HR and HRV). The results indicate that the difference of α/β power spectral density (PSD) ratios at AF4 and AF3 EEG channels can reflect emotion valence and produce the most consistent result for the 3 repetitions of the same stimulus. P8 β PSD and HR are reliable and valid for measuring emotion arousal. The two self-report measures, Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) and selected items in EsSense Profile, can distinguish emotion evoked by five flavors. The divergent validity of self-reporting measures, however, is inadequate, which may be attributed to the halo effect, i.e., the strong perception of one emotional property influences people's perception of other emotional properties.
... 2000;Porcherot vd. 2010;Warrenburg 2005). Kullanılan mandalina kokusunu hazırlamak için 20 gram ağırlığındaki mandalina kabukları, 100 mililitre sıvı azot içerisinde dondurulmuş ve ardından ezilmiştir. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
İnsan hayatını daha kolay hale getiren birçok yeni programın, teknolojinin ve materyalin üretilmesinin ardında insanlar tarafından üretilen düşünceler yatmaktadır. Düşünce üretimini artırmayı amaçlayan bir teknik olan beyin fırtınası, teorik ve uygulamalı olmak üzere yaygın olarak çalışılan bir konudur. Beyin fırtınasında düşünce üretimini artırmak için bugüne kadar birçok yöntem ve kolaylaştırıcı etmen uygulanmış olsa da koku sunumunun etkisi neredeyse hiç incelenmemiştir. Bu amaçla gerçekleştirilen ilk deneyde koku ve bilişsel uyarımın beyin fırtınasında yaratıcılığa etkisi incelenmiştir. Katılımcılar bireysel beyin fırtınası gerçekleştirerek, bir satış temsilcisinin işindeki verimliliğinin artırılması için düşünceler üretmişlerdir. Bilişsel uyarım koşulunda olan katılımcılar, beyin fırtınasından önce problem ile ilişkili ipucu kelimeler almıştır. Koku sunumu ise bu bilişsel uyarılma esnasında gerçekleştirilirken, ikinci olarak da beyin fırtınası oturumunun ortasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Koku ile birlikte eşleştirilen bilişsel uyarılma, oturumun yarısından itibaren ikinci koku sunumu ile tetiklenmiş ve düşünce üretiminde artış gözlenmiştir. Aynı zamanda koku sunumu alan katılımcıların toplam özgün düşünce sayıları ve esnek düşünme becerileri koku almayan katılımcılardan yüksektir. Bu bulgular kokuların bellekten geri getirme özelliği ve çağrışımsal bellekte sağladığı uyarımla açıklanmıştır. Benzer bir işlem ile gerçekleştirilen ikinci deneyde bütün koşullarda ipucu kelime bulunmaktadır. İlk deneyden farklı olarak oturum öncesinde ve oturum ortasında olmak üzere koku sunum zamanları değişimlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak oturum öncesinde koku sunumu alan katılımcıların toplam esneklik puanları, diğer koşuldaki katılımcılardan yüksek bulunmuştur. Ayrıca iki farklı zamanda koku sunumu alan katılımcıların özgün düşünce sayıları ikinci yarıdan itibaren daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Bu bulgular, ilk deneydeki sonuçları doğrulaması ve koku sunumunun esneklik üzerindeki etkisi bağlamında açıklanmıştır.
... For example, peppermint has an awakening effect that enhances memory and alertness [24]. Citrus aroma and lavender are both pleasant, but the former one is more stimulating and have a high arousal effect, and the latter has a more active, fresher, relaxed effect [28,24]. Rosemary, on the other hand, is a spicy scent that rates high on confusion and bewilderment and create more tension [4]. ...
Conference Paper
Scentery proposes a novel approach to create calming multisensory environments by displaying visualizations, reproducing audios and activating olfactory sensations. By the use of recent literature, we introduce an initial Emotive Design Taxonomy that intersects emotions, and colors, sounds and scents. Scentery's users switch between different multisensory scenarios that promote calm sensation. The first VR scenario immerses the user into the scenery of lavender field, which bursts into a carnival of purple, a lavender scent and ambient instrumental sound. The other scenario is the scenery of raining forest, a ylang-ylang scent and nature sound. Scentery was developed with Unity 3D for creating the 3D scenarios, Unity Remote for the camera control and viewer's perspectives, and a microcontroller for triggering the scents in the vaporizer.
... New brands/attractions may want to use the background scent strategies as to create pleasurable experience which do not distract. Although research of the scents in experience creation has been rather fragmented, there are studies which consider them mostly in relation to different aspects of marketing (Chebat & Michon, 2003;Bone & Jantrania, 1992;Mitchell, Kahn & Knasko, 1995;Morrin & Ratneshwar, 2000;Spangenberg, Crowley & Henderson, 1996;Michon, Chebat and Turley, 2005) but also those in relation to their effect on emotions (Warrenburg, 2005;Sellaro, van Dijk, Rossi Paccani, Hommel & Colzato, 2014). The latter type of studies detects different impacts of individual scents (cinnamon, lavender, peppermint, mint, lemon, rosemary, etc.) on emotions and moods which is a useful resource for experience creation. ...
... A good aroma can also be a mood enhancer [20]. For example vanilla aroma and flavour from an ice cream or citrus aroma from a beverage may induce pleasant feelings and thereby enhance mood. ...
... The ability of scents to elicit specific emotional reactions has been long recognized in many disciplines including HCI (e.g., (Ghinea and Ademoye, 2012;Willander and Larsson, 2007;Kaye, 2004;Murray et al., 2016)). Our sense of smell is often defined as an emotional system due to the shared brain areas (i.e., amygdala) involved in the processing of both smell and emotions (Warrenburg, 2005;Vernet-Maury et al., 1999). Smell has been shown to be particularly effective in priming emotional changes because the pleasantness (valence) of the scent is the primary dimension which impacts our initial emotional reaction (Delplanque et al., 2017). ...
Article
Interactive technologies are transforming the ways in which people experience, interact and share information. Advances in technology have made it possible to generate real and virtual environments with breath-taking graphics and high-fidelity audio. However, without stimulating the other senses such as touch and smell, and even taste in some cases, such experiences feel hollow and fictitious; they lack realism. One of the main stumbling blocks for progress towards creating truly compelling multisensory experiences is the lack of appropriate tools and guidance for designing beyond audio-visual applications. Here we focus particularly on the sense of smell and how smell-based design can be enabled to create novel user experiences. We present a design toolkit for smell (i.e., OWidgets). The toolkit consists of a graphical user interface and the underlying software framework. The framework uses two main components: a Mapper and Scheduler facilitating the device-independent replication of olfactory experiences. We discuss how our toolkit reduces the complexity of designing with smell and enables a creative exploration based on specific design features. We conclude by reflecting on future directions to extend the toolkit and integrate it into the wider audio-visual ecosystem.
... Before each trial, the room was circulated by opening windows and allowed to keep fresh air. The reason for using mandarin odor was that citrus scents were common odors and rated as pleasant for people (Lehrner, Eckersberger, Walla, Potsch, & Deecke, 2000;Porcherot et al., 2010;Warrenburg, 2005). The mandarin odor was obtained from a local market and its emotions were assessed before these experiments. ...
Article
Brainstorming is a widely used method for generating creative ideas. There is an interest in various techniques contributing to it; nevertheless, research examining the influence of an aromatic odor as a facilitator has been scarce. Two experiments were conducted for this purpose. In Experiment I, a mandarin odor was presented with either stimulating (relevant) or non-stimulating (irrelevant) words prior to the brainstorming session, then re-presented during it. The findings showed that re-presenting the odor during brainstorming increased flexible and unique ideas through retrieval of stimulating words from memory. Flexibility also played a mediator role between mandarin odor and unique ideas. In Experiment II, odor presentation times were changed. It was presented prior to brainstorming, during it or both. The first odor presentation enhanced idea generation only when there was a second odor presentation. The findings suggested that it was the combination of the odors, presented before (and alongside a list of stimulating words) and during brainstorming, that contributed to the use of stimulating words during brainstorming. These two experiments revealed the role of mandarin odor on flexible thinking and idea generation via memory retrieval. Moreover, the odor increased recalling performance, even when the stimuli were given implicitly and recently learned.
... Self-report questionnaires may ask directly about participants' evaluation of a stimulus, or may use indirect, or implicit, measures to evaluate participants' emotional responses without directly asking them (He, de Wijk, de Graaf, & Boesveldt, 2016). Physiological data can also be a valuable tool in examining emotional reactions, as changes in skin response, breathing, and heart rate may all reflect affective state (Herz, 2009;Marchand & Arsenault, 2002;Warrenburg, 2005). For the purposes of this study, two self-report measures were chosen: the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (Interventions, 1988), and the Mood Signature Questionnaire (Jin, Haviland-Jones, Simon, & Tepper, 2018). ...
Article
qPODs (Portable Olfactive Devices, Curion) are novel olfactory delivery systems which allow for sampling of a wide variety of stimulus types. Participants evaluate odors by opening a port at the top of the qPOD and sampling a controlled air stream. Though they are often used in marketing studies, their potential use in empirical research has yet to be investigated. We asked participants to smell citral, citronellol, geraniol, PEA, nonalactone, and vanillin delivered via qPODs and by traditional sniff jars, and compared both hedonic and emotional responses. Across four sessions, 31 participants evaluated the pleasantness and intensity of each odor in qPODs and sniff jars. Their emotional reactions to the odors were captured with the PANAS (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule) at the beginning of each testing session, and then again after exposure to each odor. They also completed the newly developed Mood Signature Questionnaire, which asks participants to assign a mood to each odor, rather than reporting how it makes them feel. Though odors presented in the sniff jars were rated significantly more intense (p < 0.001), there were no differences between presentation types for perceived pleasantness, changes in positive or negative mood following odor exposure, or which emotional descriptors (Mood Signatures) participants assigned to the odors. Our results suggest that responses to odor stimuli presented using qPODs are comparable to traditional sniff jars, thus establishing the qPOD as a potential new tool for studies employing a range of olfactory stimuli.
... Sensory experiences beyond those inherent to the activity have also been shown to have a substantial impact on consumer experiences and purchasing behavior (e.g., Morrison, Gan, Dubelaar, & Oppewal, 2011;Warrenburg, 2005). Some retail stores, for example, add pleasant aromas to enhance shoppers' experiences. ...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated 4 “experience industry” strategies for enhancing the quality of immediate experiences for 4-H youth: theming, adding multisensory experiences, personalizing interactions, and providing memorabilia. These strategies are commonly used by theme parks, restaurants, resorts, attractions, and other experience industry organizations, but their application to youth services is sporadic. 4-H youth (n = 30) participated in a series of 8 outdoor recreation activity sessions. Each activity session, 1 per week for 8 consecutive weeks, was structured using a unique combination of the 4 strategies. Participants completed questionnaires measuring 5 dimensions of experience quality after each activity session. Theme and personalization of experiences were found to significantly increase experience quality.
... One fragrance evoked more nostalgic -amusement-mouth [144] watering while the other evoked more romanticdesire-in love. In a similar line, Warrenburg (2005) demonstrated that although vanilla and clementine can be evaluated as equally pleasant, clementine was perceived as more stimulating whereas vanilla was more relaxing. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The area of study of this thesis is sensory and consumer science, with a strong influence of the field of cognitive and social psychology. The thesis focus is on the study of the experience of drinking (consumption experience or product experience). With the objective to contribute to the understanding of food choice processes and consumption of food and beverages. As well as to develop a tool (methodology) capable of measuring the experience of drinking threw a set of human systems (affects, senses and cognition). The case study used in this thesis to measure the experience of drinking is beer, comparing through different studies the similarities and differences between craft and industrial beer. Product experience refers to all the effects the product has on consumers, they can be emotional, sensory or cognitive. Although this concept is not new in the field of consumer psychology, it has been less explored in the food and beverage domain. In the past years, the concept of consumer experience and product experience has been used in services (e.g. tourism), material objects (e.g. cell phones). Today we do not know the differences that may exist in the use of the concept of product for material products compared to food and beverages. The thesis throughout five chapters raises a study of the experience of drinking, more specifically the experience of drinking beer. The first chapter has for objective to understand the beer consumer in Mexico in respect to the habits of consumption, attitudes, brands usage more often, and to find a typology of industrial and craft consumers. Additionally, the results of a qualitative study are exposed (consumer ethnographies) to have a deep dive in the motivations towards the consumption of craft beer in the Mexican consumer. The second chapter explores the variables associated to the experience of drinking beer, also via a qualitative study (contextual focus groups) and put in evidence the differences between the experience of using a material object and the experience of drinking a beverage (or a food). The results of this study show that the experience of drinking beer is related to: habits of consumption, attitudes, sensory experience, affective experience (emotional), cognitive experience, shopping, individual vs social consumption and the specific benefits searched by consumption. The third and fourth chapter deepen in the mental and social representation of beer. In first place, the mental representation of beer is perceived differently according to the gender and type of consumption (industrial or craft beer). To access to the mental representation, a sorting task was used. The results show that women categorize the beers based on their attitudes while men make the categories based on their [10] previous experience or information of the beer. On the other hand, by studying the social representation of beer, using the methodology of the social representation from social psychology, it was evidenced the cultural differences existing between the consumers of two countries: Mexico and France. The results manifest that the way in which the representation of the craft beer is made is different between the two countries, having as an axe the description of the beer in France, and hedonics in Mexico. In the case of the French consumers, the representation of the craft beer is shared across industrial and craft consumers, while in Mexico both types of consumers do not share the same representation. Finally, in chapter five the information from the previous chapters is condensed into one methodology to measure the drinking experience of beer that can take into consideration the three humans systems: affects, senses and cognition. The study performed in this chapter was done in two basic steps: visual evaluation and product test. The results put forth that it is possible to measure the experience of drinking beer and identify which is the salient system or dimension used during the consumption. In the study it was found that the craft beers evoke a more cognitive experience, while industrial beers evoke a more emotional or sensory experience. The thesis concludes with the results of the experience measurement, exhibiting the different paths to follow for a better understanding and research on the experience concept, which can be in beverages or foods.
... Özellikle duygusal olarak pozitif anıları geri getirmede kokular görsel bir uyarandan bile daha işlevsel olabilir (Rubin, Groth ve Goldsmith, 1984 (Wang, LaBar ve McCarthy, 2006). Örneğin; la-vanta, portakal, vanilya, müge gibi bazı kokuların duygudurumu pozitif yönde etkilediğine dair pek çok çalışma bulunmaktadır (Diego ve ark., 1998;Field ve ark., 2005;Lehrner ve ark., 2000Lehrner ve ark., , 2005Ludvigson ve Rottman, 1989;Moss ve ark., 2003, Warrenburg, 2005. Hatta kokuların etkisi sadece duygudurum bağlamında sınırlı kalmaz. ...
Article
Full-text available
Koku duyusu, sahip olduğumuz beş temel duyu içerisinde en geri planda tuttuğumuz ve diğerleri kadar kullanmadığımız bir duyudur. Belki de bir tanesini kaybetmek durumunda kalsak ve seçim bizim elimizde olsa neredeyse herkesin feda edeceği duyudur koku. Bu geri planda tutmanın bir kefareti olarak zaman zaman koku duyusuna çok ilginç atıflarda da bulunabiliyoruz. Ten kokusunun ne kadar önemli olduğu, bazı kokuların nasıl da anıları canlandırdığı ve hatta bir duygu seline neden olduğu gibi söylemler de günlük hayatın içerisinde karşılaştığımız manzaralar olabiliyor. Şöyle bir düşünürseniz, koku duyusu ile ilgili bir sohbet ortamı meydana geldiğinde büyük ihtimalle ortamdaki insanlar bu duyunun farklı farklı pozitif özelliklerini sıralayacaklardır. Peki bu duyu ile ilgili ne kadar bilgiye sahibiz? Neden diğer duyularımız kadar net bir duyudan söz edemiyoruz ve neden hakkında konuştuğumuz “bilgi”lerin çoğu aslında muğlak bilgiler. Bu yazının amacı biraz bu duruma değinmektir. Kokular ile ilgili “gerçek” ve “efsane” arasındaki çizgiyi biraz daha görünür hâle getirmektir. Bunun için de iyi bir yol önerisi olarak kokularla ilgili duymaya aşina olduğumuz söylemlerimiz üzerinden gidebiliriz. Yani bilimsel bulgulardan tek tek yola çıkarak bir tümevarım yapmaktansa hâli hazırda var olan olguları bilimsel bulgularla destekleyerek tümdengelim yapabiliriz.
... Two additional target words were used in this experiment: "vanilla" and "mint". Vanilla and mint labels were selected based on their odors' ratings of respectively high relaxing and energizing evoked feelings in previous studies (e.g., Ilmberger et al., 2012;Porcherot et al., 2012;Warrenburg, 2005). ...
Article
The extent to which automatic associations exist between relaxing and energizing feelings and odors is unclear. To investigate this question, we used a modified version of the Implicit Association Test. In this task, participants had to make speeded discrimination responses between stimuli and words related to energizing vs. relaxing feelings. These stimuli were either visual stimuli (i.e., vanilla vs. mint labels in Experiment 1) or olfactory (vanillin vs. menthol in Experiment 2, and two fine fragrances in Experiment 3). In compatible blocks, purportedly related items (e.g., vanillin and a label related to relaxing feelings) shared the same response key, while in incompatible blocks they did not (e.g., vanillin and a word related to energizing feelings). In the three experiments, the participants responded significantly faster in the compatible blocks than in the incompatible ones. The stronger the association between purportedly related items, the faster the participant responds in compatible blocks and the slower in incompatible blocks. Consequently, this differential speed of response supports the existence of associations between the stimuli that were considered to be compatible. This argues for the existence of automatic associations between relaxing/energizing feelings and odors, associations that can influence behavior.
... ( Toda & Morimoto, 2008;Lehrner et al., 2005) increased relaxation ( Diego et al., 1998) improved mood ( Lehrner et al., 2005;Diego et al., 1998) Moss et al., 2008;Barker et al., 2003) increased eustress and reduced distress ( Toda & Morimoto, 2001) Rosemary Enhanced alertness and quality of memory ( Diego et al., 1998;Moss et al., 2003;Moss & Oliver, 2012) Reduced anxiety ( Diego et al., 1998) Stimulated and improved mood ( Sayorwan et al., 2012) Citrus improved scholastic performance( Akpinar, 2005) Reduced stress and anxiety ( Matsumoto et al., 2013;Lehrner et al., 2005;Goes et al., 2012) Stimulated and improved mood ( Warrendburg, 2005;Lehrner et al., 2005) Cypress Reduced blood pressure ( Chen et al., 2015) Relaxed and improved mood (lkei, Song, & Miyazaki, 2015;Chen et al., 2015) Vannilla Relaxed and improved mood ( Warrenburg, 2005) ...
Chapter
An increasing number of epidemiological studies demonstrate correlation and even causal relation between access to nature and improved health. However, before we can define the strength of evidence for this relation we need a better understanding of the biomechanistic explanations and what physiological reactions account for positive health effects of nature. Given the dynamics and complexity of natural environments such research is complicated, as randomized control studies are rarely plausible to pursue. Most experimental studies in the field have concerned visual input and often in very general terms from, for example photos, films, or window views. Nevertheless, some attempts have been done to study more specifically defined elements of the visual input and to monitor physiological responses to also other sensory input from nature, including smell and sound. This chapter will outline the current understanding of human physiological responses to specific visual stimuli, sounds, and smells of nature, including mechanistic theories and biological explanations. The chapter also includes reports on recent studies using advanced neurophysiological monitoring for determining the impact of nature sensory input.
... 72 Given the specific anatomical overlaps between olfactory and emotion-related neural 73 structures ( Anderson et al., 2003;Carmichael, Clugnet, & Price, 1994;Dalton, 2002;74 Grabenhorst, Rolls, Margot, da Silva, & Velazco, 2007;Zelano, Montag, Johnson, Khan, & 75 Sobel, 2007), olfaction stands out in the sensory landscape for its particular and close relation 76 with the world of emotions. Odors affect behavior ( Bensafi et al., 2002aBensafi et al., , 2002b), mood, and 77 well-being ( Alaoui-Ismaïli, Vernet-Maury, Dittmar, Delhomme, & Chanel, 1997;Rétiveau & 78 Milliken, 2004;Warrenburg, 2005), as well as cognitive processes such as memory and 79 preference acquisition ( Herz, Eliassen, Beland, & Souza, 2004;Leppänen & Hietanen, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Luxury conveys values of quality and rarity and holds a particular emotional meaning. Yet, studies conducted on the impact of contextual information of luxury on emotional responses to products remain scarce. In this study, we tested whether contextual information, in particular evoking luxury, could influence emotional responses to perfumes, which are known to be powerful elicitors of emotion. More specifically, we measured the subjective, physiological, and expressive components of participants’ emotional responses. We conducted an experiment in which participants had to smell and assess perfumed pens as well as blank pens (i.e., without perfume) presented either in a luxurious context (i.e., name, brand and bottle), a non-luxurious one, or no information. Results indicated that participants tended to rate perfumes as more pleasant and rated them as more familiar when presented in a luxurious context than in a non-luxurious one or without context, and the blank pen as more irritating in a non-luxurious context than in a luxurious one. However, we did not find evidence of a significant contextual information effect on expressive or physiological indicators. Our findings suggest that contextual information of luxury can moderately influence the subjective component of participants’ emotional responses, while no evidence for such effect was found with respect to the physiological and expressive components.
... Hatta fareler üzerinde yapılan bir çalışmada, lavanta kokusunun farelerde yatıştırıcı bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur (Buchbauer ve ark., 1991). Bunlar dışında da pek çok farklı duygu durum (rahat, sakin, coşkun, üzgün) üzerinde farklı kokuların (vanilya, lavanta, portakal) etkileri olduğu bilinmektedir (Warrenburg, 2005). ...
... Fragrances are not added to improve the cleaning properties but to enhance the sales of the product (Milotic, 2003). They may result in both physiological and psychological effects (Warrenburg, 2005). Nowadays there is a concern that some ingredients may threaten human health and/or the environment (Klaschka and Kolossa-Gehring, 2007;Lignell et al., 2008;Potera, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Six green (certified with EU Ecolabel), six nongreen household detergents, and two products for professional cleaning were examined for fragrance compounds by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The examined detergents are products from multinational companies and best sellers in the Greek market. Only one fragrance ingredient was found in the products for professional applications compared with the 35 in the nongreen products and the 23 ingredients found in green products. Seven ingredients were the same between green and nongreen products. Fragrances are important for marketing purposes but may threaten human health and the environment.
... Each approach captures a different type of signal, and each brings a number of various advantages and disadvantages depending on the used measurement technique. There are many studies around the world that used neuroimaging and biometric methods to demonstrate the effect of odors on brain activity, which analyzed human response using the EEG signal [28] or the effect on emotions from a mood and physiology perspective [29][30][31]. In general, consumer neuroscience has helped gain new insights into consumer research by examining the effects of different aromas on affective and cognitive processes [20,21,32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current era of a strongly competitive business environment, it is more difficult for companies to attract customers. Consumer neuroscience has growing potential here, as it reveals internal consumer preferences by using innovative methods and tools, which can effectively examine consumer behavior and attract new customers. In particular, smell has a great ability to subconsciously influence customers and, thus, support profitability. This paper examines the importance of consumer neuroscience and its modern technologies used for exploring human perceptions to influence customers and benefit from the aromatization of business spaces. We focused our analysis on various service sectors. Despite the potential of the examined issue, there are a limited number of studies in the field of service providers that use neuroscience tools to examine the effect of aromas on human emotions. Most studies took place in laboratory conditions, and the used methodological procedures varied widely. Our analysis showed that, in spite of the positive impact of aromatization in the majority of aromatized spaces, service companies still do not use the potential of consumer neuroscience and aroma marketing to a sufficient degree. Innovative methods and tools, in particular, are still very underused.
... Odors affect behavior (Bensafi et al. 2002a(Bensafi et al. , 2002b, mood, and well-being (Alaoui-Ismaïli et al. 1997;Rétiveau and Milliken 2004;Warrenburg 2005) as well as cognitive processes, such as memory and preference acquisition (Leppänen and Hietanen 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to advance the theory and contribute to the practice of luxury perfumes' shelf management by decoding the relationship between attention on the shelf, purchase decision-making, and brand recall. It employs an eye-tracking experiment to analyze attention spans and fixations, which is combined with a questionnaire to uncover recall and purchase intent. The research identifies attention patterns and the influence of attention on recall and purchase intention. It further reveals the main factors that influence attention on the shelf in the luxury perfume industry. This is a milestone for further elaboration on the benefits of the fashion mainstream for luxury perfumes and the debate regarding whether luxury perfumes should be treated similar to mainstream fashion or similar to any other product in basic shelf management rules. This study enables shelf managers and marketers to place the perfumes both on the shelf and in consumer minds to maintain a top-of-the-mind brand position. Managerial implications are significant and address perfume industry packaging as well as shelf positioning.
... Scientific research has revealed that a pleasant smell has an enormous effect on creating good moods and positive mental function (Leffingwell and Leffingwell 2011). Moreover, some of the smell used to make human beings feel better and relaxed the stress level of the brain and rejuvenate the body action (Warrenburg 2005). The pleasant fragrance has an importance in the living room, car, office, bedroom, washroom etc. Different synthetic essential oil (lavender, jasmine etc.) based fragrance packets are available in the market (Sowndhararajan and Kim 2016). ...
Article
A cellulosic fibre based well-being fragrance packet has been developed by Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT). Inside the packet, three layers of cotton nonwoven (gram per square meter 100) have been used as core material. Fragrance based natural essential oil (citronella oil) has been incorporated in the middle non-woven layer of the cotton. Volatile active species of the essential oil infused in the cotton non-woven slowly has been diffused through the upper and lower non-woven layers in the surrounding atmosphere through the pores of the paper based sheath material. As per feedback report, a fragrance released from the packet is satisfactory up to seven days in the 25-30 square feet area. Mosquito repellency of the well-being packet also has been examined by following the standard cone test method. It has been observed that the smell release from the pack is capable to repel mosquitoes (100%) up to five days after opening the pack. The intensity of the active ingredients of fragrance released from the packet with time has been measured by gas chromatography analysis. The engineered pack has lightweight, is biodegradable, delivers well-being fragrance and repels mosquitoes up to one week. 123 Cellulose https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-021-03974-9(0123456789().,-volV) (01234567 89().,-volV) Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Scientific research has revealed that a pleasant smell has an enormous effect on creating good moods and positive mental function (Leffingwell and Leffingwell 2011). Moreover, some of the smell used to make human beings feel better and relaxed the stress level of the brain and rejuvenate the body action (Warrenburg 2005). The pleasant fragrance has an importance in the living room, car, office, bedroom, washroom etc. Different synthetic essential oil (lavender, jasmine etc.) based fragrance packets are available in the market (Sowndhararajan and Kim 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
A cellulosic fibre based well-being fragrance packet has been developed by Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT). Inside the packet, three layers of cotton nonwoven (gram per square meter 100) have been used as core material. Fragrance based natural essential oil (citronella oil) has been incorporated in the middle non-woven layer of the cotton. Volatile active species of the essential oil infused in the cotton non-woven slowly has been diffused through the upper and lower non-woven layers in the surrounding atmosphere through the pores of the paper based sheath material. As per feedback report, a fragrance released from the packet is satisfactory up to seven days in the 25–30 square feet area. Mosquito repellency of the well-being packet also has been examined by following the standard cone test method. It has been observed that the smell release from the pack is capable to repel mosquitoes (100%) up to five days after opening the pack. The intensity of the active ingredients of fragrance released from the packet with time has been measured by gas chromatography analysis. The engineered pack has lightweight, is biodegradable, delivers well-being fragrance and repels mosquitoes up to one week. Graphic abstract
... Hatta fareler üzerinde yapılan bir çalışmada, lavanta kokusunun farelerde yatıştırıcı bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur (Buchbauer ve ark., 1991). Bunlar dışında da pek çok farklı duygu durum (rahat, sakin, coşkun, üzgün) üzerinde farklı kokuların (vanilya, lavanta, portakal) etkileri olduğu bilinmektedir (Warrenburg, 2005). ...
... Hatta fareler üzerinde yapılan bir çalışmada, lavanta kokusunun farelerde yatıştırıcı bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur (Buchbauer ve ark., 1991). Bunlar dışında da pek çok farklı duygu durum (rahat, sakin, coşkun, üzgün) üzerinde farklı kokuların (vanilya, lavanta, portakal) etkileri olduğu bilinmektedir (Warrenburg, 2005). ...
... Hatta fareler üzerinde yapılan bir çalışmada, lavanta kokusunun farelerde yatıştırıcı bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur (Buchbauer ve ark., 1991). Bunlar dışında da pek çok farklı duygu durum (rahat, sakin, coşkun, üzgün) üzerinde farklı kokuların (vanilya, lavanta, portakal) etkileri olduğu bilinmektedir (Warrenburg, 2005). ...
... Multiple-choice formats, in which a list of emotion terms are presented and respondents have to choose only one (or X) from a list of Y terms have also been used to obtain emotion data. For example, Warrenburg (2005) presented 8 emotion/mood words (happy, relaxed, sensuous, stimulated, irritated, stressed, depressed, apathetic) that spanned a two-dimensional space from negative to positive and low to high arousal to consumers. Aroma stimuli (fragrance ingredients) were used as test products (clementine and vanilla bean) and the participants were instructed to "pick the mood (sic) category that best matches the aroma of the sample." ...
Chapter
Product emotion research is a burgeoning area of research within academia and industry. The explosion in the number of methods for measuring emotions and the rapidly growing range of applications for emotion research has created a situation filled with both important measurement and methodological issues. In this chapter we describe the measurement techniques that are currently available to capture emotional responses to products using self-report questionnaires. In addition, we address the fundamental issues related to the application of these measurement techniques, including scale issues, reliability of methods, temporal capture of self-reports and issues related to stimulus formats, presenting the most relevant research that addresses these issues. In this way, it is our hope to provide actionable guidance and direction to new investigators coming into this area of research, as well as to stimulate thought and ideas for new avenues of research related to the self-report of emotions using questionnaires.
... Vanillin is a flavor molecule found in vanilla beans, contributing to their characteristic aroma. The smell of vanillin has been found to elicit feelings of relaxation [38], offering potential uses for interface design. The effect of pH on vanillin stability was first characterized by food scientists in the early 1970s [42]. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present Organic Primitives, an enabling toolbox that expands upon the library of input-output devices in HCI and facilitates the design of interactions with organic, fluid-based systems. We formulated color, odor and shape changing material primitives which act as sensor-actuators that convert pH signals into human-readable outputs. Food-grade organic molecules anthocyanin, vanillin, and chitosan were employed as dopants to synthesize materials which output a spectrum of colors, degrees of shape deformation, and switch between odorous and non-odorous states. We evaluated the individual output properties of our sensor-actuators to assess the rate, range, and reversibility of the changes as a function of pH 2-10. We present a design space with techniques for enhancing the functionality of the material primitives, and offer passive and computational methods for controlling the material interfaces. Finally, we explore applications enabled by Organic Primitives under four contexts: environmental, cosmetic, edible, and interspecies.
... According to Cash (1988) the use of cosmetic products affects not only social impressions but also self-image (for example, body image, self-perceptions, and mood states). Some approaches to the research problem considered the emotional dimension of consumer behavior in particular industry segments such as luxury cosmetics (Kang et al, 2020;Anderlova & Pšurny, 2020.) or the perfume industry (Chebat & Michon, 2003;Warrenburg, 2005). However, other authors have examined the emotions in the cosmetic industry regarding the context of impulse purchasing (Yang & Lee, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Regarding the importance of psychological processes in the consumer behavior, the article examines the influence of emotional motivators on purchase decisions in cosmetics industry. The empirical research was conducted from February to March 2020, on the sample of 125 respondents in Serbia. The participants answered the questions about the positive and negative emotions that occurred during the purchasing process. When defining the questionnaire, we started from the fact that emotions, which influence consumer behavior can be integral or incidental emotions. The aim of the study was to identify the emotions that have the strongest effect on consumers when purchasing cosmetic products. During the statistical data processing, the following techniques and methods were implemented: the descriptive statistical measures (frequencies and percentage, arithmetical midranges), the measures of variability, the correlation method. The survey indicated that the most dominant emotions that affect consumer purchasing decisions related to cosmetics products in the Republic of Serbia are positive emotions. The majority of respondents recognized hope as the most important emotion in their buying behavior.
... According to Cash (1988) the use of cosmetic products affects not only social impressions but also self-image (for example, body image, self-perceptions, and mood states). Some approaches to the research problem considered the emotional dimension of consumer behavior in particular industry segments such as luxury cosmetics (Kang et al, 2020;Anderlova & Pšurny, 2020.) or the perfume industry (Chebat & Michon, 2003;Warrenburg, 2005). However, other authors have examined the emotions in the cosmetic industry regarding the context of impulse purchasing (Yang & Lee, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Regarding the importance of psychological processes in the consumer behavior, the article examines the influence of emotional motivators on purchase decisions in cosmetics industry. The empirical research was conducted from February to March 2020, on the sample of 125 respondents in Serbia. The participants answered the questions about the positive and negative emotions that occurred during the purchasing process. When defining the questionnaire, we started from the fact that emotions, which influence consumer behavior can be integral or incidental emotions. The aim of the study was to identify the emotions that have the strongest effect on consumers when purchasing cosmetic products. During the statistical data processing, the following techniques and methods were implemented: the descriptive statistical measures (frequencies and percentage, arithmetical midranges), the measures of variability, the correlation method. The survey indicated that the most dominant emotions that affect consumer purchasing decisions related to cosmetics products in the Republic of Serbia are positive emotions. The majority of respondents recognized hope as the most important emotion in their buying behavior.
... Pleasant fragrances tend to evoke positive moods, while unpleasant odors enhance negative moods [17][18][19]. Fragrances have reported stress-relief effects, as revealed using psychophysiological methods such as electromyography [20] and EEG [21]. Among all senses, olfaction closely interacts with emotion processing [22][23][24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
During mid-life, women experienced not only physical but also neurological transition. Because of this, many women suffer from physiological and/or psychological menopausal symptoms. Although hormone therapy (HT) was broadly used to alleviate menopausal symptoms, HT showed inconsistent effects in case of psychological symptoms. Moreover, mid-life women's brains have distinct characteristics than in other periods of life, it is needed to study psychological symptoms in shifted brain network of mid-life women. As an alternative, inhalation of fragrances may alleviate psychological menopausal symptoms. To characterize the alleviation mechanism by fragrances, we tested the effect of fragrances on menopausal symptoms using electroencephalographic (EEG) methods. We hypothesized that fragrance could restore mid-life women's brain response to stressful situations. We tested six fragrance conditions, including no-odor condition (solvent only) in twenty-eight mid-life women (49.75 years±3.49). Our results showed that fragrances increased alpha power and decreased β/α ratio depending on the severity of menopausal symptoms in a stressful situation. Our study would be helpful in psychological menopausal symptom alleviation as well as fragrance screening for well-being in mid-life.
Article
Creativity is an important element in today’s consumption environment. Recently, the field has observed an increasing interest in examining how sensory experiences that people have while interacting with the external environment might affect creativity. While this line of research offers significant theoretical and practical implications, it is in its early stage, and the findings are rather fragmented. Thus, this article aims to provide a systematic review of the extant literature that bears closest relevance to consumer research, focusing on when and why sensory experiences can affect consumer creativity. In addition, based on such a review, we offer testable hypotheses with the intention of motivating more research in this fascinating domain.
Article
Full-text available
Product experience is shaped by the interaction between the human systems and the product. Human systems include a sensory system to perceive the surrounding world, an affective system that evokes emotional responses to certain stimuli, and a cognitive system that makes meaning and processes information. We hypothesize that experience is a combination between these three systems rather than a linear continuum of hedonic reactions. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted a study measuring the experience of drinking craft and industrial beers. A total of 400 consumers were invited to drink beer, rate their liking and select a set of phrases that better described their drinking experience. Results showed no significant difference in expected liking and purchase intention between the eight beers evaluated. However, a difference between beers was observed for the CATA phrases. Cognitive phrases were more frequently checked for craft beers, while sensory, and affective phrases were more frequently checked for industrial beers. A Multiple Factor Analysis for Contingency Tables showed that the sensory and cognitive systems were more related to liking than the affective system.
Chapter
This chapter advocates for adopting a theoretical and experimental approach that goes beyond the use of valence as the most interesting dimension in emotional reaction to odors. Although valence is a dominant dimension of odor perception, limiting the description of emotional response to positive versus negative (valence) and activating versus calming (arousal ) feelings is perhaps oversimplified and not well suited for a comprehensive view of odor-related effects. Just as inappropriate are basic emotions , usually defined as six states (fear, anger, sadness, surprise, joy or happiness, and disgust) putatively characterized by specific neural, physiological, expressive, and feeling components. Here, we present an appraisal approach of emotions as a plausible alternative. This kind of approach reconciles a priori incompatible characteristics observed in odor perception like the immutability and the flexibility of chemosensory preferences. After having exemplified this aspect with several studies from the recent literature, we will particularly emphasize feelings. We provide an empirical demonstration that feelings are broader than valence and both stable and variable across cultures. We argue that this approach provides an ecological model of the emotion process where olfactory emotions are understood considering their functional role, which is to adjust or to solve olfactory-linked survival-relevant problems.
Article
Encapsulation of fragrances into porous materials is a technique to preserve or mask the odor of aroma compounds as well as to enhance their thermal and oxidative stability. There is great interest in studying the potential of essential oil-derived fragrance carriers using low-cost materials such as zeolitic structures for healthcare, food, textiles or agricultural applications. Two zeolite structures, faujasite (FAU) and mordonite (MOR) were used as carriers for encapsulation of different fragrances present in essential oils, in order to prepare stable fragrance carriers. To this purpose, commercial vanillin (Van) was encapsulated in NaMOR, commercial D-limonene (Lim) and cinnamaldehyde (Cinn), extracted from cinnamon stick, were encapsulated into NaY and NaX, respectively, and methyl anthranilate (MA), a synthetized fragrance with a fruity grape scent, was encapsulated in NaY. The retention of fragrances in zeolite structures increased in the order NaX < NaY < MOR for cinnamaldehyde, limonene, methyl anthranilate or vanillin. The most promising fragrance carriers prepared, [email protected] and [email protected], were monitored for 24 months, and fragrances release was determined by TGA analysis, being 64.5 % for [email protected] and 63.2 % for [email protected] A zero-order desorption kinetic model was determined for both fragrance carriers.
Chapter
Emotions can be expressed by the five major external senses of human beings (i.e. vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) via metaphors. Previous studies have mainly explored the relation between the five senses and emotions from the perspectives of physiology and cognition, and research on the five senses focuses on their semantic meanings. This paper attempts to investigate their relation based on corpus linguistics, centering on sensory verbs and emotional words. It is found that in Mandarin Chinese, five basic emotions (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and surprise) can be expressed via olfactory, tactile, visual, and auditory modalities while among these five basic emotions, surprise cannot be expressed through taste.
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Fragrance allergy is a lifelong condition, and the probability of being affected increases with frequent exposure to fragrance. Currently, fragrance-free laundry detergents are not common in supermarkets. We used a contingent valuation among Austrian consumers in a within-respondent treatment to estimate how willingness to pay is influenced by health information. We found that higher income groups have a higher willingness to pay for fragrance-free detergents. Informing consumers about health impacts substantially increases this difference. Our simulation shows that lower-income groups benefit from health information only if low-priced fragrance-free detergents are available on the market.
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The affective appraisal of odors is known to depend on their intensity (I), familiarity (F), detection threshold (T), and on the baseline affective state of the observer. However, the exact nature of these relations is still largely unknown. We therefore performed an observer experiment in which participants (N = 52) smelled 40 different odors (varying widely in hedonic valence) and reported the intensity, familiarity and their affective appraisal (valence and arousal: V and A) for each odor. Also, we measured the baseline affective state (valence and arousal: BV and BA) and odor detection threshold of the participants. Analyzing the results for pleasant and unpleasant odors separately, we obtained two models through network analysis. Several relations that have previously been reported in the literature also emerge in both models (the relations between F and I, F and V, I and A; I and V, BV and T). However, there are also relations that do not emerge (between BA and V, BV and I, and T and I) or that appear with a different polarity (the relation between F and A for pleasant odors). Intensity (I) has the largest impact on the affective appraisal of unpleasant odors, while F significantly contributes to the appraisal of pleasant odors. T is only affected by BV and has no effect on other variables. This study is a first step towards an integral study of the affective appraisal of odors through network analysis. Future studies should also include other factors that are known to influence odor appraisal, such as age, gender, personality, and culture.
Chapter
Personal and home care products are nowadays similar in terms of hedonic value and performance. In this context, the consideration of their emotional value, in harmony with consumer expectations, can be a differentiating factor for fragrance development. This chapter aims at providing examples that show how emotional responses to odors, personal products, and home care products can be measured. After describing the strong influence of olfaction on emotional processing and the role of associative learning, we propose a definition of emotion and feelings. We focus on the verbal report of feelings, or the verbalization of the subjective experience of emotions, by mainly referring to the conscious part of the emotional response elicited by odors and fragranced products. Although the unconscious part of the emotional response related to physiological and behavioral responses should not be underestimated, this topic is covered in part 1 of the book, which is dedicated to the basic studies of emotions. The current chapter provides a review of a methodology developed to measure food-elicited feelings or fragrance-elicited feelings, with consideration of cross-cultural differences. Fundamental questions and critical choices that arise when such an approach is undertaken are also highlighted. A series of results is presented to illustrate the use of this methodology in sensory settings for product development. In this context, we propose that investigations should be undertaken into the effects of changing the product label, packaging, and color of fragranced products on consumer emotional expectations and on the overall emotional response when the product is experienced in real-life situations. Finally, we present measures other than verbal reports that examine the existence of automatic associations between odors and subtle emotions, with the caveat that we should continue asking about feelings in any fundamental or applied research.
Chapter
Nowadays, the evaluation of fragrances is a key parameter to build or confirm the good performance of a product, especially when the product is dedicated to beauty. The fragrance sector covers a wide range of products: fine fragrance, personal care, home care, and oral care. Depending on the research objectives, odor quantification or characterization are needed to validate a change in the formula (perceptible or not), to characterize the fragrance, or to establish links between sensory and consumer data. Two approaches can be followed to support and validate the creation process of a scent: (1) sensory, such as descriptive analyses (with classic and alternative protocols) and discrimination testing, and (2) consumer, such as hedonic tests.
Chapter
Emotions have a major role in social interactions (Russell et al., 2003; Sander et al., 2005) and in determining the consumption behavior. Emotion measurement often provides important information beyond the subject’s preferences, such as physiological and psychological characteristics and affective consumer’s state. The present chapter is focused on the most commonly used methods to investigate the emotions of nonfood products and concerns mainly advertising and marketing fields, design, cosmetics, fragrances, and odors. Medical and clinical applications were not approached.
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Olfaction is the most ancient sense and is directly connected with emotional areas in the brain. It gives rise to perception linked to emotion both in everyday life and in memory-recall activities. Despite its emotional primacy in perception and its role in sampling the real physical world, olfaction is rarely used in clinical psychological settings because it relies on stimuli that are difficult to deliver. However, recent developments in virtual-reality tools are creating novel possibilities for the engagement of the sense of smell in this field. In this article, we present the relevant features of olfaction for relaxation purposes and then discuss possible future applications of involving olfaction in virtual-reality interventions for relaxation. We also discuss clinical applications, the potential of new tools, and current obstacles and limitations.
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When organic molecules are dissolved in ionic liquids (which have no effective vapour pressure), the vapour-liquid equilibria (as measured by infrared spectroscopy of the gas phase) revealed significant deviation from Raoult’s law for a wide range of perfume raw materials. Previously, we had demonstrated a positive deviation from Raoult’s law, enhancing the vapour pressure of the organic components. Here we developed a designed strategy for the ionic liquids which induces a negative deviation from Raoult’s law, hence depressing the vapour pressure of the organic solutes.
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