Article

Psychological Predictors of Problem Mobile Phone Use

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Abstract

Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

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... Some researcher proposed that smartphone addiction could be better labeled as problematic smartphone use, because these problematic consequences don't meet the severity caused by addiction (Delfabbro et al., 2020;Panova & Carbonell, 2018). "Problematic mobile phone use", "Internet addiction/problematic Internet use", and "substance addiction" share many similarities, although they are different in terms of the addictive object, platform and interface (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015;Hong et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2016). Specifically, the diagnostic criteria of "problematic mobile phone use" and "Internet addiction/problematic Internet use" both reflect the conceptualizations of behavioral addiction and technological addiction, such as craving, tolerance, dependence and withdrawal (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015). ...
... "Problematic mobile phone use", "Internet addiction/problematic Internet use", and "substance addiction" share many similarities, although they are different in terms of the addictive object, platform and interface (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015;Hong et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2016). Specifically, the diagnostic criteria of "problematic mobile phone use" and "Internet addiction/problematic Internet use" both reflect the conceptualizations of behavioral addiction and technological addiction, such as craving, tolerance, dependence and withdrawal (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015). That is, individuals who are addicted to mobile phone, substance or internet consistently show symptoms of desire, tolerance, dependence and withdrawal (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015). ...
... Specifically, the diagnostic criteria of "problematic mobile phone use" and "Internet addiction/problematic Internet use" both reflect the conceptualizations of behavioral addiction and technological addiction, such as craving, tolerance, dependence and withdrawal (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015). That is, individuals who are addicted to mobile phone, substance or internet consistently show symptoms of desire, tolerance, dependence and withdrawal (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Foerster et al., 2015). Additionally, the brain activation patterns of substance addiction and behavioral addiction (i.e., PMPU) are very similar because they are driven by the same basic needs of humans (Alter, 2018). ...
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Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that addictive behaviors are associated with life stress; however, limited research has explored the longitudinal associations between problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) and academic stress from a developmental perspective. According to relevant theory (e.g., the stress hypothesis, compensatory Internet use theory, and self-determination theory), depression is thought to potentially mediate this association and interpersonal relationships might further play a moderating role. To examine the mediating roles of depression and the moderating role of interpersonal relationships between academic stress and PMPU, the method of longitudinal structural equation modeling was adopted. A total of 642 Chinese adolescents were recruited to complete four psychological tests at three 6-month intervals over 1.5 years. The results indicated that depression partially mediated the association between academic stress and PMPU (β = 0.232, p < 0.001; β = 0.220, p < 0.001; 95% CI = [0.154, 0.286]), and higher quality interpersonal relationships could attenuate the potential harmful effects of academic stress on PMPU through depression (β = -0.080, p < 0.01, 95% CI = [-0.137, -0.022]). Overall, our findings address the issue of how and when academic stress predicts time-lagged PMPU, which could enhance theoretical understanding and practical intervention over time.
... Internal consistency is considered high with a Cronbach's alpha > 0.8 [63]. The MPPUS was originally developed by Bianchi and Phillips (2005) [64] and contains 27 items. The MPPUS-10 consists of 10 questions answered on a 10-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 10 = strongly agree and describes various areas that are affected by smartphone use, such as escape from negative emotions or problems, cravings, development of tolerance, duration of use, negative effects on everyday life and the social and professional environment. ...
... Internal consistency is considered high with a Cronbach's alpha > 0.8 [63]. The MPPUS was originally developed by Bianchi and Phillips (2005) [64] and contains 27 items. The MPPUS-10 consists of 10 questions answered on a 10-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 10 = strongly agree and describes various areas that are affected by smartphone use, such as escape from negative emotions or problems, cravings, development of tolerance, duration of use, negative effects on everyday life and the social and professional environment. ...
... A sum score is calculated from all items, this ranges from min = 10 to max = 100. There is no predetermined cutoff point at which smartphone use behavior is considered problematic; the scale is considered a continuum on which higher scores indicate a higher likelihood of problematic use [61,64]. ...
Article
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Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is defined as the inability to control the time spent on smartphones, which has long-term negative impacts on daily life. The use-and-gratifications approach is applied to smartphones and describes the extent to which users devote themselves to smartphones to obtain gratifications. These gratifications can be represented in the types of use (process, social, and habitual). This study examines the associations between PSU and the different types of use and their effects on perceived stress and self-perceived PSU. N = 108 subjects participated (65 women, 41 men, 2 diverse, mean age = 31.8; range 17–70). They completed the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS-19), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), a questionnaire on types of use, and a self-created scale for self-perceived PSU. Multiple linear regressions and correlations were calculated and show a relationship between PSU and perceived stress. All three types of use were shown to be predictors of PSU. For stress perception, only process use is a predictor. Both PSU and stress perception are predictors of the self-perceived PSU. Both stress and PSU interact with each other, and the different types of use determine how stressful smartphone use is perceived to be.
... According to Flores (2001), insecure attachment style is the most crucial predictor of addiction. Most research findings indicate the often inverse relationship between secure attachment and smartphone addiction (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Billieux, 2012;Monacis et al., 2017). However, in the case of avoidant attachment and smartphone addiction, the findings are conflicting (Kim et al., 2017;Kim & Koh, 2018). ...
... Other participants indicated that they used their smartphones to contact others or had no preferences. B) Smartphone addiction: In this study, we used a 13item questionnaire (Sevari, 2014), which is based on the research of Bianchi and Phillips (2005). The Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was 0.83. ...
Article
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Background: Although the role of attachment styles, self-esteem, and sensitivity to rejection in smartphone addiction has been confirmed, there are still many ambiguities in how these factors affect smartphone addiction; In some cases, research results are even contradictory, perhaps because they have often been examined independently. Aims: This study investigates the mediating role of self-esteem and sensitivity to rejection in the relationship between attachment styles and smartphone addiction Methods: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the indirect relationship between attachment styles and smartphone addiction through self-esteem and sensitivity to rejection. The statistical population of this study included all smartphone users aged 20 to 34 years old. The participants included 452 individuals aged 20 to 34 years (49.1% women and 50.9% men). The following questionnaires were administered to the participants: Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (Besharat, 2011), smartphone Addiction (Sevari, 2014), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem (1965), and the adult version of Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (Branson et al.,2009). The path analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: The results of the bootstrap method showed that self-esteem and sensitivity to rejection partially mediated the relationship between secure and avoidant attachment styles and smartphone addiction. The results also indicated their full mediating role in the relationship between anxious attachment style and smartphone addiction. Furthermore, results showed gender's moderating role on the direct path between avoidant attachment style and smartphone addiction, And the indirect path between anxious attachment style and smartphone addiction. Conclusion: This study's findings suggest that to solve the smartphone addiction issue, especially in women, paying attention to the components of self-esteem and sensitivity to rejection can be helpful.
... This is another great example of how Clark's (2000) borderland can be accessed via technology to be available to the demands of multiple domains at one time, within one mobile device but multiple platforms. She went on to say how splitting conversations in this way gives her a sense of control over how people talk to her which challenges the literature mentioned previously that suggests that extensive users of technology and the web tend to have addictive tendencies (Bianchi and Phillips, 2005;Griffiths, 1995;1999;Guedes et al., 2016) and therefore no control over their use of technology and that technology is only a hindrance in their life (Monideepa et al., 2007). She nods to the affordances of the search function that some of the Maria has identified and is trying to overcome through the notion of obtaining a second mobile phone so she can be logged in to an additional five Instagram accounts. ...
... This then allows them to make the appropriate changes in their boundary management system, if needed, in order to best maintain an ideal WLB. Below is a (Bianchi and Phillips, 2005;Griffiths, 1995;1999;Guedes et al., 2016) and therefore no control over their use of technology and that technology is only a hindrance in their life (Monideepa et al., 2007). My research challenges that idea by presenting strategies that my participants created with technology to manage their DVBs and control the flow of information and demands they receive and output. ...
Thesis
Technology has been criticised for blurring boundaries and making them more permeable, which has been previously portrayed as having a negative impact on work-life balance (WLB) and a cause for burnout among employees. With burnout a growing concern for organisations and governments, this thesis uses a boundary theory lens to explore the effects of technology on WLB. To improve understanding in this area, social media practitioners (SMPs) were selected as the sample to study because it could be said they are extensive users of technology and social media. Studying this group as an “extreme case” produces learnings and practices that could be applied to the rest of the social media industry and the digital workforce. Informed by a constructivist grounded theory (CGT) approach, this thesis draws from in-depth interviews with thirty-one UK SMPs and observation of an additional five SMPs, in their place of work, to investigate the role technology plays in managing boundaries between work and non-work and maintaining perceived WLB. Presented in this document are four contributions. Firstly, this thesis turns its attention to the boundaries in the digital landscape. I introduce the new term digital virtual boundary (DVB) and acknowledge how these differ from their analogue counterpart and what this means for how we manage our boundaries. This research also recognises how Clark’s (2000) “borderland” can assist role demand management and WLB when a user is within a digital virtual space. Secondly, this thesis presents a typology of new digital boundary preference groups that recognise the impact technology has on SMPs boundary preference and management. For each group, characteristics are defined so that one can identify and align themselves with the most suitable group to assist them in their boundary management style. Thirdly, technological strategies and tactics shared by my participants are listed in this thesis as a means of practices that can be adopted by others to aid them in their boundary management and technology use, to avoid burnout and maintain their ideal WLB. Lastly, the unique data collection method for this area of work, although growing in use for boundary theory, is the first time to my knowledge it has been applied to the WLB literature. Unlike its earlier counterpart grounded theory (GT), CGT places priority on the studied phenomenon over the methods of studying it and acknowledges the researcher's role in interpreting data and creating categories. This research contributes to the WLB literature and boundary theory by providing a better understanding of how employees in digital facing roles manage their boundaries and avoid burnout whilst extensively using technology. It must be noted that the data presented in this research was collected and analysed in 2019 prior to the outbreak of COVID-19. This had a significant impact not only on the way in which people work and interact with technology, but the national lockdowns have meant the majority of those employed were forced to work from home. This means now more than ever workers have undoubtedly thought about their WLB and how they manage their boundaries. This work could be of significant benefit to individuals learning to align appropriate strategies to their boundary preference.<br/
... Multiple risk factors have been associated with excessive smartphone use including lower levels of self-control and higher levels of a need for belonging and the need to continuously engage on social media sites (Panek et al. 2018), high sensationseeking , fear of missing out , shyness (Bian and Leung 2015), and extraversion (Bianchi and Phillips 2005). Other factors influencing maladaptive use include the individual's age (adolescents being particularly vulnerable given the importance of the peer group (Hussain et al. 2017)), social factors (Ihm 2018), and personality issues (Cocorada et al. 2018). ...
... The vast majority of instruments for assessing potential smartphone addiction have been developed for use with adults, with fewer assessment instruments for use with children and adolescents. Bianchi and Phillips' (2005) Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) is among the most widely used adult screens and has been adapted for use with adolescents (MPPUSA) (Lopez-Fernandez et al. 2014). Also used for adolescents is the Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) (Leung 2008). ...
Chapter
While the inclusion of behavioral addictions in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 is relatively new, excessive gambling, gaming, and Internet and smartphone use by young people have been explored for well over a decade. Behavioral addictions, similar to substance abuse addictions, are marked by salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptomatology, conflict, and relapse. Youth have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to behavioral addictions. The commonalities exploring these behaviors are discussed in terms of their prevalence, risk factors, prevention approaches, and treatment for children and adolescents. The authors call for renewed attention and research on the prevention and treatment of these behaviors.
... Although previous researchers have developed various versions of mobile phone addiction scales [14,[18][19][20][21][22], they all focused on the symptomatic manifestations of mobile phone addiction and lack standardized scales that can reflect the levels of different types of such addiction in individuals. In the present study, the MPATS was developed to have good reliability and validity through a combination of qualitative and quantitative studies, which can properly distinguish between different types of mobile phone addiction and has an important role in promoting research in the field of mobile phone addiction. ...
Article
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Researchers have developed various versions of scales to measure mobile phone addiction. Existing scales, however, focus primarily on the overall level of mobile phone addiction but do not distinguish the potential differences between different types of mobile phone addiction. There is a lack of established scales that can measure different types of mobile phone addiction. The present study aimed to uncover the specific types of mobile phone addiction and develop a Mobile Phone Addiction Type Scale (MPATS) for adolescents and young adults. Adolescents and young adults from two high schools and two universities in Central and South China participated in our study. A total of 108 mobile phone addicts (Mage = 17.60 years, SD = 3.568 years; 60.185% males) were interviewed to uncover the specific types of mobile phone addiction. Data from 876 adolescents and young adults (Mage = 16.750 years, SD = 3.159 years; 49.087% males) were tested for item discrimination and exploratory factor analysis. Data from 854 adolescents and young adults (Mage = 16.750 years, SD = 3.098 years; 50.820% males) were analyzed for construct validity, convergent validity, criterion-related validity, and internal consistency reliability. The 26-item Mobile Phone Addiction Type Scale (MPATS) was developed with four factors named mobile social networking addiction, mobile game addiction, mobile information acquisition addiction, and mobile short-form video addiction. The four-factor, 26-item MPATS revealed good construct validity, convergent validity, criterion-related validity, and internal consistency reliability. The new scale is suitable for measuring different types of mobile phone addiction in adolescents and young adults. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... Addiction to drugs, risky behaviors, or danger are what is typically thought of when someone speaks of addictive tendencies. However, researchers, public health officials, and others are acknowledging the possibility that the use of technology, including gaming, social media, and other forms of technology use, may approximate addictive characteristics similar to psychological disorders such as substance abuse (e.g., Andreassen et al., 2016;Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Gervasi et al., 2017;Kuss, 2013). Additionally, such concerns of technology-based addictions are more pronounced among the younger generation (Andreassen et al., 2016;Gervasi et al., 2017;Kandell, 1998) who have grown up with more accessibility to and reliance on mobile devices. ...
Article
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Today’s learners rely heavily on learning management systems (LMS) to access and submit coursework, receive feedback, interact with others, and track progress. The current study moves past the question of whether to use LMS, to uncover how LMS use affects learners. We drew on motivational theories of goal orientation to predict how frequently learners check their LMS, and to examine whether the use of LMS, including addictive cognitive and behavioral tendencies, would affect learning and stress outcomes. Using a longitudinal survey design administered to university students (N = 172), path analysis results demonstrated non-significant relationships of goal orientation on LMS checking frequency, and of LMS checking frequency on academic performance and overall stress. The cognitive component of addictive LMS use did significantly predict students’ future stress levels, although behavioral addictive tendencies did not. Therefore, instructors should consider potential benefits as well as costs of LMS use, as cognitive preoccupations with LMS may exacerbate learners’ stress.
... One explanation for this finding is inferred that gender is not a predictor, that's why attractiveness of mobile phones did not alter with gender. In other words, both men and women have accepted mobile phone technology equally (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005). ...
Article
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When a person is not able to stop using any substance and or engaging in a behaviour is addiction, and overuse of smartphone can lead to smartphone addiction. When people use connected personal devices (such as smartphones) unproductively and harmfully, the addictive combination of their ongoing availability and popular apps may become dependency on a smartphone. The study examined the relationship between personality traits and smartphone addiction among college students and their adverse influence. The short version of the big five personality scale by Lang et al. (2011) and Kwon et al. (2013) smartphone addiction scale were used. Based on the results, commerce students used far more than students of arts and science streams in using smartphone. In addition, they did not find smartphone addiction based on gender, birth order and family type. Neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness personality traits didn't seem significantly related and were not influenced by smartphone addiction.
... The Mobile Phone Problem Usage Scale (MPPUS) is a 27-item instrument to assess motivation for use, addiction symptoms, and negative consequences of using a cell phone (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005). Questions are answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 ("Totally false") to 10 ("Totally true"). ...
Article
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Text messaging is the primary form of technology-mediated interpersonal contact and the most carried out activity on cell phones. Despite its advantages, text messaging is not exempt from risks. The present paper aimed to validate and expand the psychometric properties of the Self-perception of Text-message Dependency Scale (STDS) in a Brazilian sample of adult internet users. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited a convenience sample of Brazilian internet users aged 18 and over. A total of 1,642 (M age = 38.6, SD = 13.5; 73% female) participants completed the STDS, the Mobile Phone Problem Usage Scale-27 (MPPUS), and the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire - Short form - 9 questionnaires (PIUQ-SF-9). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed measurement invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was high when accessed by both McDonalds' Omega and Cronbach's alpha. Network Analysis provided insights into the core symptoms of problematic text messaging. Convergent validity of the STDS was demonstrated by the subscale's correlation with MPPUS and PIUQ-SF-9. Due to its expanded psychometric properties and brevity, the STDS can be used in more comprehensive investigations about other excessive technology-related behaviors, such as problematic smartphone and internet use, allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in problematic technology use. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02957-8.
... 59,85 Poorer mental health has also been shown among children and adolescents using screens for more than 2-3 hours/day, 86 with severe depressive symptoms being positively associated with higher levels of screen time. 87 Research has also linked problematic smart phone use (ie, use associated with at least some element of dysfunctional use; examples include anxiety when a phone is not available, or neglect of other activities 88,89 ) to selfreported anxiety, insomnia, increased perceived stress, poor educational attainment, 90 and decreased overall quality of life. 91 Excessive screen time has also been found to exacerbate ADHD-related behavior. ...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented move to emergency remote learning around the world, leading to increased digital screen time for children and adolescents. This review highlights the potential risk of increased screen time to the eye and general health and makes recommendations to mitigate the risks posed. Methods: A narrative review of evidence of increased digital time during the COVID-19 pandemic, the risks linked to increased screen time and offer possible steps to mitigate these in students. Results: Digital screen time was found to have increased for children and adolescents in all the studies examined during the pandemic and data suggests that this has an impact on eye and general health. We discuss the associated risk factors and adverse outcomes associated with increased digital screen time. Conclusions: This review offers evidence of increased digital time, highlights some of the well-known and not so well-known risks linked to increased screen time, and offers possible steps to mitigate these in children and adolescents during the pandemic, as well as offering schools and parents strategies to support the eye health of children and adolescents post-pandemic. We discuss a number of interventions to reduce the risk of eye strain, myopia, obesity, and related diseases that have been shown to be linked to increased digital screen time.
... Problematic mobile phone use. Measurements of problematic mobile phone use were based on the previous literature on problematic use of the internet (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Kim, 2017;Kim & Haridakis, 2009;Kwon et al., 2013;Young, 1996). Participants were asked to rate how often they found themselves in the positions described by eight statements about behaviors and thoughts revealing problematic mobile phone use (e.g., I constantly check my mobile phone so as not to miss any message), by using a Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (always). ...
Article
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Due to separation from their families and friends in their home countries and constrained living conditions in the host countries, migrant workers usually are found to experience loneliness. Compared with male migrant workers, female migrant workers are more vulnerable and likely to experience higher levels of psychological problems. The ubiquity of mobile phones enables migrant workers to access resources and social support to help to alleviate loneliness. However, research also suggests that mobile phone use may lead to a higher level of loneliness because problematic or excessive use displaces meaningful social interactions. This study investigates this mobile phone paradox among Filipino domestic workers (FDWs) in Hong Kong. Specifically, it explores the relationships between mobile phone use and two types of loneliness, namely social and emotional loneliness. Further, informed by the augmentation hypothesis and the displacement hypothesis, this research advances a two-path model to illustrate how mobile phone use connects with loneliness through social support and problematic mobile phone use. Findings from a survey of 492 FDWs reveal disjunctive effects. There is no direct correlation between mobile phone use and the two types of loneliness. Both problematic mobile phone use and social support are found to mediate the negative association between mobile phone use and social loneliness, while only problematic mobile phone use mediates the positive association between mobile phone use and emotional loneliness. Implications of the research on migrant workers’ mobile phone use and practical implications for social work and government efforts in helping FDWs dealing with loneliness are discussed.
... Younger individuals lack self-control and prudence for appropriate utilization of cellphones [24][25][26][27]. It is known that younger individuals are more tech savvy and comfortable using cell phones compared to older individuals. ...
Article
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Background Cell phones are an integral part of modern day life and have become companions for individuals irrespective of age, gender and socio-economic status. In this study, we assessed the factors affecting risk of cell phone addiction among teachers attending Life Skills Training and Counselling Services (LSTCS) program in Karnataka. Methods This cross sectional secondary data analysis utilised data from baseline assessment of trainees attending a Life Skills Training and Counselling Services program (LSTCP). Various factors hypothesised to be affecting risk of cell phone addiction (outcome) was analysed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. All the analysis was done using STATA 12.0 software. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted with risk of cell phone addiction as outcome. A conceptual framework of hypothesized exposure variables was developed based on expert consultation and literature review. Overall, data of 1981 participants was utilized. Gender (AOR=1.91; 95% CI=1.27-2.77), number of peers (AOR=1.01; 95 CI=1-1.008) and social quality of life (AOR=1.01; 95% CI=1.00-1.03) were associated with increased risk of cell phone addiction. Age (AOR=0.98; 95%CI=0.96-1.00), empathy (AOR=0.96;95%;CI=0.93-0.99), communication skills(AOR=0.92, 95%;CI=0.88-0.96) and physical quality of life (AOR=0.96; 95% CI=0.95-0.98) were associated with reduced risk of cell phone addiction. Conclusions This study on precursors of risk of cell phone addiction, conducted mostly among apparently healthy individuals, provide important insights into interventions to reduce risk of cell phone addiction. The complexity of associations between peers, gender, quality of life and risk of cell phone addiction needs further exploration.
... Also, Kara et al. (2020) demonstrate a statistically significant positive correlation between loneliness and smartphone addiction levels. Furthermore, this addiction brings perilous usage of smartphones during driving (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;White et al., 2004) and walking in traffic (Chen & Pai, 2018), inappropriate usage in cinema or class (Walsh et al., 2007), and prohibited usage in forbidden areas (Nickerson et al., 2008). ...
Article
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With the fantastic features of smartphones, smartphone addiction is a prevalent phenomenon. However, there is a lack of theory-based understanding of how smartphone addiction affects employees' personal and work lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of smartphone addiction in reinforcing techno exhaustion and life invasion and the final effects of these factors on job performance, and this study applied stress-strain- outcome (SSO) as the foundation of the model. 475 responses were obtained from office and service workers in Iran by a survey. Our findings show that smartphone addiction leads to enhancement in job performance, whereas it significantly strengthens life invasion and techno exhaustion, and thereby life invasion and techno exhaustion dramatically reduce job performance. Our findings indicate the two-sided role of direct and indirect effects of smartphone addiction. Implications for both organizations and employees are discussed.
... This finding is particularly concerning because early adolescents at this life stage may be especially vulnerable to the negative impact of prolonged smartphone and computer use, as they are undergoing physiological, psychological, and social changes, and their lifestyle patterns and personality are developing [11,43,44]. These life changes and the induction of stress may be accompanied by social and play behaviors that are associated with risk-taking, novelty, exploration, and sensation-seeking and that may contribute to computer and smartphone addiction [45], which is associated with physical and psychosocial issues that cause significant harm to various aspects of an addict's life, well-being, and quality of life [24,43,[46][47][48]. Prolonged/extensive computer and smartphone use is also positively associated with suicide-related outcomes, such as self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts [23,24,49,50]. ...
Article
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This study explored the daily amount of time that early adolescents spent using smartphones and computers, and their influences on health-related quality of life of early adolescents. A total of 650 early adolescents were recruited. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used to measure their health-related quality of life. The early adolescents reported their average daily time spent using smartphones and computers over the course of the previous week; the majority of early adolescents (71%) spent approximately 1 h a day or less using computers on average or reported no computer use, and 98.8% indicated that they used smartphones for less than 1 h to more than 4 h per day on average. The results showed that the average daily time spent using smartphones was significantly negatively associated with two scales in the physical domain and four scales in the mental domain of health-related quality of life of early adolescents, whereas the average daily time spent using computers was significantly negatively associated with two scales in the mental domain (p < 0.05). Therefore, early adolescents who spent more time using smartphones and computers have significantly poorer outcomes in the physical and mental domains of their health-related quality of life.
... Ba mllk denilince ilk akla alkol tütün ya da madde ba mll  gibi örnekler gelse de birçok ara trmac kontrol edilemeyen al kanlklar da ba mllk çerçevesinde ele alm lardr. Bunlarda bazlar; çevrimiçi ba mllk (Tüzer, 2011), internet ba mll  (Young, 2004), sosyal a ba mll  (Griffiths, 2012; Andreassen ve di ., 2012; Said ve di ., 2014), oyun ba mll  (Griffiths ve Hunt, 1998), cep telefonu ba mll  (Bianchi ve Phillips, 2005), sosyal medya bozuklu u (van den Eijnden ve di ., 2016) olarak sralanabilir. Sosyal medya ba mll  literatürde açklanrken, internet ba mll  çerçevesinden ele alnmaktadr. ...
... For example, not only are heavy Internet user likely to be heavy smartphone users, 7,8 they share common psychological characteristics, including higher levels of neuroticism, loneliness, and depression and lower levels of extraversion, self-esteem, and self-regulation. [9][10][11][12][13][14] Previous research suggests that those using wearable devices to habitually monitor their behavior develop a reinforcing cue-routine-reward loop that keeps them more engaged and even addicted to the feedback (cues) provided by the devices. 4 Therefore, users' psychological needs are enhanced by getting continuously updated data to keep self-motivated, stay physically active and healthy, set/accomplish goals that make them feel capable of meeting challenges, and receive social support from family and friends. ...
Article
Fitbit wearable devices provide users with objective data on their physical activity and sleep habits. However, little is known about how users develop their usage patterns and the key mechanisms underlying the development of such patterns. In this article, we report results from a longitudinal analysis of Fitbit usage behavior among a sample of college students. Survey and Fitbit data were collected from 692 undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame across two waves. We use a structural equation modeling strategy to examine the relationships among three dimensions of Fitbit usage behavior corresponding to three elements of the habit loop model: trust in the accuracy of Fitbit physical activity and sleep data (cue), intensity of Fitbit device use (routine), and adjustment of physical activity and sleep behaviors based on Fitbit data (reward). More than 75 percent of participants trusted the accuracy of Fitbit data and nearly half of the participants reported they adjusted their physical activities based on the data reported by their devices. Participants who trusted the Fitbit physical activity data also tended to trust the sleep data, and those who intensively used Fitbit devices tended to adjust both their physical activities and then sleep habits. Psychological states and traits such as depression, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism help predict multiple dimensions of Fitbit usage behaviors. However, we find little evidence that trust, Fitbit usage, or perceived adjustment of activity or sleep were associated with actual changes in levels of sleep and activity. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding when and how this new monitoring technology results in changes in people's behavior.
... Developed by Bianchi and Phillips (2005), contains 27 items (e.g., "I feel lost without my mobile phone", "I have used my mobile phone to make myself feel better when I was feeling down") scored on 10-point Likert scales, from 1 (not true at all) to 10 (extremely true). A high PMPU score is associated with excessive use of mobile phone. ...
Article
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Literature shows that people who have experienced adverse experiences in childhood (ACE) have a low level of well-being and may be involved in risky behaviors, such as problematic use of technology. Also, those with a lower level of life satisfaction is associated with excessive use of the Internet and mobile phone. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ACE, life satisfaction and excessive use of technology (internet and smartphone). The study was conducted on Romanian population (n = 357), aged between 18 and 59 years (M = 22.42), university students (n = 286) and non-students (n = 71). PROCESS Macro model 4, was used to analyze the mediating role of satisfaction with life in the relationship between ACE and technology addiction. The results revealed an indirect effect of life satisfaction on problematic Internet (95% CI = .437–1.240), and mobile phone use (95% CI = .483–2.145). These indicate that at least some of this effect occurs through life satisfaction as mediating variable due to the significant indirect effect. Thus, people who experiences a high level of ACE will report a low level of satisfaction with life. Also, those with a low level of life satisfaction will report an excessive use of Internet and mobile phone. The results of this study bring extra knowledge and shed new light on the psychological aspects of the early traumatic events and contribute to the understanding of the way people relate to this experiences.
... Previous studies have reported that females use the MP more than males for communication and social purposes (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Karaaslan & Budak, 2012;van Deursen et al., 2015). Similar to their findings, considering the most common dimensions in the current study (not being able to access information and not being able to communicate), the current findings also support the idea that females may be more likely to exhibit nomophobic behaviors due to their fear of not being able to communicate through the MP and access information through social media (Gezgin, Cakir et al., 2018). ...
Book
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In the modern world, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of modern life. On the one hand, the mobile phone allows maintaining interpersonal contacts and fulfilling work or school duties regardless of time and location. It enables individuals to plan their daily routines and their free times. On the other hand, a mobile phone is a tool that can cause several psychological and physical problems. Nomophobia, which is considered the phobia of the modern era, is only one of these problems. In the simplest terms, nomophobia is the fear of being without a mobile phone and the intense anxiety and distress experienced in the absence of a mobile phone. Although technological addictions such as smartphone addiction and internet addiction have been studied extensively in the psychology literature, it is striking that nomophobia is a neglected psychological problem. However, nomophobia is emerging as a common phenomenon among young adults, as most young adults use the mobile phone for about 5 hours a day. Some users define the mobile phone as a friend and the meaning of life. More importantly, prevalence studies have revealed that about half of young adults suffer from nomophobia. Since nomophobia causes many serious consequences such as physical pain, social problems and a decrease in academic achievement, nomophobia studies are important and beneficial especially for the younger generation. This book has been written to emphasize the importance of nomophobia and to provide detailed information about the diagnosis, treatment, prevalence, predictors and symptoms of nomophobia. In addition, this book aimed to conceptualize nomophobia theoretically. Also, based on the theoretical conceptualization, psychological structures that can cause nomophobia have been identified. The theoretical conceptualization has been tested and validated using scientific methods. This book, which contains a comprehensive literature review and scientific research, can shed light on researchers for future nomophobia studies. I also believe that this book will make valuable contributions to the clinical field by providing a better understanding of the factors that should be considered in prevention programs and treatment interventions developed for nomophobia. I hope that scholars, clinicians, and students from a variety of disciplines will find my efforts helpful.
... Previous studies have shown that certain individuals are more prone to having FoMO than others (Stead & Bibby, 2017), and studies have also identified the TIPI (a 10-item measure of the Big Five personality dimensions) personality traits to be predictors of social media addiction . Specifically, a person's propensity toward mobile phone addiction as well as excessive social media use has been shown by several studies to be predicted by levels of certain personality traits such as extraversion (Ehrenberg et al., 2008;Zamani et al., 2011;Andreassen et al., 2013;Zhou et al., 2016), agreeableness (Butt & Phillips, 2008;Ehrenberg et al., 2008;Zhou et al., 2016), conscientiousness (Kayiş et al., 2016;Zhou et al., 2016), emotional stability (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Zamani et al., 2011), and openness to experience (Zamani et al., 2011;Andreassen et al., 2013;Zhou et al., 2016). Subsequent studies have also identified the personality traits that serve as protective and risk factors for problematic social media and smartphone use (Kuss et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Pathological phubbing behavior has become an increasingly prevalent issue in recent years yet research surrounding these technological concerns remains scarce. The current study seeks to contribute to this limited body of research by providing insight into the antecedents of excessive and severe phubbing behavior and potential risk factors of pathological technology use as a whole. 938 undergraduate students participated in a cross-sectional study to determine whether demographic variables, personality traits, and degrees of social media addiction and fear of missing out could explain phubbing behavior. Participants responded to a survey that included the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMO), Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), and Phubbing Scale (Phubbing). Bivariate correlations identified that BSMAS and FoMO were significantly positively correlated with phubbing while TIPI displayed a significantly negative correlation with phubbing. Further, hierarchical multiple regression analyses established that BSMAS holds the most predictive power for phubbing while FoMO displayed a significantly less robust predictive power. TIPI was shown to be significant but served less to explain the variance in phubbing behaviors.
... The research literature [47][48][49][50], [10] also indicates that behavioural addiction for mobile phones or mobile phone dependence may arise as students spend longer time online and interfere with learning. Nikolopoulou and Gialamas [51] summarize symptoms of dependence found within the literature as preoccupation with the device, excessive use with loss of control, unintended use, use in socially inappropriate situations, adverse effects on relationships, symptoms of withdrawal (e.g., feelings of anger, tension, ringer anxiety, depression when the phone/network becomes inaccessible, signs of craving), symptoms of tolerance (e.g., need for new better phone, more hours of use), and behavioural impairments (e.g., arguments, poor academic achievement, social isolation, communifaking i.e. engaging in fake conversations on mobile phone for purpose of avoiding others). ...
Article
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Based on a conceptualization of WhatsApp as a boundary object that permits educational institutions to cross over from in-school teaching to out-of-school teaching, this study investigated the viability of WhatsApp as a mobile learning (m-Learning) technology tool for the continuity of teaching and learning in Botswana during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing a narrative review of the literature, we found that WhatsApp's viability is supported by Botswana's high mobile phone penetration rate, the extensive coverage of the country's mobile broadband network, reduced domestic internet prices and research findings of WhatsApp's technological, educational and academic advantages elsewhere. However, teachers require training to develop relevant technological and pedagogical competences. WhatsApp's viability also requires inclusive access for all children including those from rural poor families and living with disabilities, and the protection of children learning online from mobile phone dependency and exposure to potentially harmful content and abuse.
... Smartphone addiction is characterized by uncontrolled smartphone use that leads to adverse consequences on an individual's physical health, mental health, and social functioning (Billieux et al., 2015). Currently, internationallyused mainstream measuring tools include the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) developed by Bianchi and Phillips (2005), the Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) developed by Leung (2007), and the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) developed by Kwon et al. (2013). In addition to these, Xiong et al. (2012) compiled the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale (MPATS) using an indigenist research methodology to address and overcome cultural and language issues to measure smartphone addiction in a Chinese context. ...
Article
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With the quickly rising popularity of smartphone among adolescents over the past decade, studies have begun to investigate the relationship between smartphone addiction and Eysenck's personality traits. Despite numerous studies on this topic, however, findings have been mixed and there is a lack of consensus regarding this relationship. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to explore the relationship between smartphone addiction and Eysenck's personality traits in Chinese adolescents, as well as its possible moderators. Through literature search and screening, 33 studies were included, comprising 79 independent effect sizes with a total of 17, 737 subjects. A random effects model was selected, and it was found that smartphone addiction was positively associated with psychoticism (r = 0.16, p < 0.001) and neuroticism (r = 0.32, p < 0.001), but not significantly associated with extroversion (r = -0.06, p = 0.079). The moderating effect test showed that sex and year of study publication had significant influences on the relationship between smartphone addiction and psychoticism, and the year of study publication had a significant influence on the relationship between smartphone addiction and neuroticism. This study is the first meta-analysis on the relationship between smartphone addiction and Eysenck's personality traits among adolescents in China, and the results have helped to clarify the controversy of previous studies regarding this relationship.
... Such individuals use online socialization as self-treatment in an attempt to tackle the bothersome anxious feelings of not being accepted within the real-life social circle. Bianchi and Phillips (2005) called such problematic gadget use as a response to dealing with external stressors. ...
Thesis
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The current research work aimed to understand whether smartphone use as a variable is correlated with another variable represented by the anxiety level in a sample of the Hong Kong adult population during the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak, Summer 2021. A statistically significant relationship was established between smartphone usage and levels of anxiety. Keywords: #Smartphone #anxiety #correlation #mental #Hong Kong
... Therefore, a smartphone addiction scale for university students needs to be developed. In China, some researchers have used mobile phone addiction measurement tools for smartphone addiction, for example, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005), the Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) (Leung, 2008), the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ) (Billieux et al., 2008), and the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPU-Q) (Yen et al., 2009). Such instruments ignore specific characteristics of smartphones that are similar to those of computers, overlooking that smartphones are not merely used for calling and sending messages by mobile phone. ...
Article
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The Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) is one of commonly used measurement tools to assess smartphone addiction. However, studies concerning the psychometric properties, invariance, and network structure of the SAS as well as profiles of smartphone addiction are rare in China. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the SAS, its invariance and network structure, and a latent profile analysis were investigated among Chinese university students in the present study. A sample of 2531 participants from Chinese universities (1003 males [39.6%], mean age = 20.4 years [SD = 1.3 years]) completed the Smart-phone Addiction Scale (SAS), the Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire (IADQ), and the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPU-Q). A total of 17 items were selected from the original SAS using item analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Psy-chometric properties and measurement invariance showed good validity and reliability for the revised Chinese Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-RC). In item-level and facet-level networks, "withdrawal" and "daily-life disturbance" had the stronger edge intensity. There were no significant differences in either network structure or global strength between males and females through the item-level and facet-level network comparison tests (NCTs). Three profiles of smartphone use (normal smartphone use, high-risk smartphone use, and smart-phone addiction) were identified among Chinese university students. The SAS-RC demonstrates good psychometric properties and invariance and is suitable to use among Chinese university students. "Withdrawal" (i.e., psychological dependence) and "daily-life distur-bance" appear to play contributory roles as core symptom of smartphone addiction. The three profiles also provide new insight into smartphone use and addiction among Chinese university students.
... Respondents whose academic performances were negatively affected by emerging technologies were in the minority. The finding that students' addiction to new technologies may gradually develop into an automatic habitual pattern difficult to control is constituent with findings of Bianchi and Phillips (2005). Therefore, emerging technologies also serve as a threat to achieving academic excellence when not checked. ...
Article
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The paper sought to find out whether gender influences the use of emerging technologies among higher education students at the University of Cape Coast. A data set of 357 respondents was used. It was found that more than half of the respondents were accustomed to the use of emerging technologies which translated in the improvement of their understanding of unclear concepts in their learning. However, the study showed no statistically significant difference in students' academic performance and their use of emerging technologies. The respondents indicated that they learn best when emerging technologies are available during the learning period (p = 0.017). Further, there was improvement in performance when respondents use emerging technologies to enhance learning. This study concludes that one should be circumspect when using emerging technologies in learning as they can contribute positively and negatively depending on the nature of usage.
... Shotton (1989) and Griffiths (1998) believed that excessive use of technology should be characterized as problematic use rather than addiction. Later, researchers also argued whether mobile phone addiction should be fully considered as an addictive behavior (Bianchi and Phillips, 2005;Tossell et al., 2015). Recently, problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) was widely used in studies (Hao and Jin, 2020;Li et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The great number of mobile phone users in the world has increased in recent years. More time spent on a phone, more negative effects such as problematic mobile phone use. Many researchers have devoted themselves to revise tools to measure problematic mobile phone use better and more precisely. Previous studies have shown that these tools have good reliability and validity, but that most of them have some shortcomings because they were traditional paper-and-pencil tests based on Classical Test Theory (CTT). This study, based on Item Response Theory (IRT) in order to solve these shortcomings, developed Computerized Adaptive Test for problematic mobile phone use (CAT-PMPU) and discussed the performance of CAT-PMPU. Then, we used real data to simulate CAT, and the measurement accuracy and reliability between a paper-and-pencil test and CAT-PMPU were compared under the same test length. The results showed that CAT-PMPU was better than the paper-and-pencil test in all aspects, and that it can reduce the number of items and improve measurement efficiency effectively. In conclusion, the CAT-PMPU was developed in this study has good reliability, and it provided novel technical support for the measurement of problematic mobile phone use. It had a good application prospect.
... Em todo o caso, seja sob uma ou outra perspectiva, parece ser consensual o reconhecimento de uma alteração dos comportamentos, das atitudes e dos valores em função da utilização frequente dos smartphones, sobretudo no caso dos adolescentes (Fischer-Grote et al., 2019, Toh et al., 2019, dos utilizadores do sexo feminino (Sohn et al., 2019) ou até dos jovens adultos (Lopez-Fernandez et al., 2017) ou dos idosos (Ten Bruggencate et al., 2019). Neste sentido, foram construídos instrumentos para avaliação destas alterações (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005, Kuss et al., 2018, Petry et al., 2018, Pontes et al., 2016. ...
Article
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Nos últimos anos, o acesso aos smartphone generalizou- se e em consequência produziram-se alterações importantes no comportamento dos seus utilizadores, as quais são classificadas por diferentes autores como adições ou como usos excessivos. Este artigo apresenta alguns estudos de validade sobre uma versão portuguesa da escala de envolvimento com o smartphone de Walsh et al. (2010) e explora a associação entre esta medida e os tempos de utilização desta tecnologia de comunicação. As conclusões vão no sentido de evidenciar as qualidades psicométricas da escala e a análise dos dados converge com as conclusões de outros estudos, onde o envolvimento com o smartphone varia em função da idade e do sexo.
... This syndrome occurs with visible symptoms such as sadness, crisis, nervousness, irritability, etc. [66]. Treating the smartphone inappropriately may show symptoms and problems that underlie an impulse control deficit or depression [67]. Gowda's research revealed that the smartphone addiction group is experiencing stress when not using a cellphone, feeling annoyed or screaming if someone asks to reduce cellphone use, feeling tired, and not sleeping because of excessive use of smartphones. ...
Article
Background Addiction is always harmful to the human body. Smartphone addiction also affects students' mental and physical health. Aim This study aims to determine the research volume conducted on students who are affected by smartphone addiction and design a database. We intended to highlight critical problems for future research. In addition, this paper enterprises a comprehensive and opinion-based image of the smartphone-addicted students. Methodology We used two types of systematic literature review and research questions and Scopus database to complete this study. We found 27 research articles and 11885 subjects (mean ±SD: 440.185 ±513.580) using the PRISMA technique in this study. Additionally, we have deeply investigated evidence to retrieve the current understanding of smartphone addiction from physical changes, mental changes, behavioral changes, impact on performance, and significant concepts. Furthermore, the effect of this addiction has been linked to cancers, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative disorders. Results This work has also revealed the future direction and research gap on smartphone addiction among students and has also tried to provide goals for upcoming research to be accomplished more significantly and scientifically. Conclusion This study suggests future analysis towards identifying novel molecules and pathways for the treatment and decreasing the severity of mobile addiction.
... Material and physical well-being, relationships with other people, social, community and civic activities, personal development and fulfillment, and recreation My Life as a Student questionnaire [34] Adolescents (no age range specified) 26 School experience, opportunities to make autonomous decisions, relationships with classmates, current living conditions, family relationships, praise received when due, and availability of assistance Subjective QOL questionnaire [35] Adolescents (no age range specified) 47 Anxiety experience, depression experience, peer interaction, school life, family, somatosensory, and self-awareness [36], Chen Internet addiction scale (CIAS) [37], and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use (GPIUS) [38]. For PSU, the most widely used scales were the smartphone addiction short version (SAS-SV) [39], the mobile phone problem use scale (MPPUS) [40], and the mobile phone addiction index (MPAI) [41]. These scales have been found to present with good psychometric properties [42,43]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Previous studies have explored the links between problematic Internet use (PIU) or problematic smartphone use (PSU) and quality of life (QOL). In this systematic review, we (i) describe the instruments used to assess QOL or health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in these studies, (ii) critically examine the content validity of the instruments used, and (iii) examine the relationships between PIU, PSU, QOL, and HRQOL. Recent Findings We identified 17 PIU and 11 PSU studies in a systematic search. Evidence suggests that PIU and PSU negatively correlate with either QOL or HQOL and most of their domains (especially mental and physical health). Multiple instruments were used to assess QOL or HRQOL in these studies. Our analysis showed an important heterogeneity in the domains covered by these instruments. Summary Because of the widespread prevalence of PIU and PSU, which tend to be linked with lower QOL or HRQOL, in particular poor mental and physical health, a more systematic public health campaign is required to target the healthy use of these communication devices. Prevention programs should also target vulnerable individuals, focusing on the most affected domains of QOL and HRQOL (i.e., physical and psychological health). Among the existing instruments, the World Health Organization Quality of Life for adults and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for adolescents (aged 13–18 years) proved to be the most relevant, although new measurement instruments are needed to target domains that are specifically relevant in the context of PIU and PSU (e.g., physical and psychological health domains such as sleep, loneliness, and quality of familial relations).
Article
Both smartphone addiction and phubbing are emerging behavioral problems. The present study investigates potential risk and protective factors of smartphone addiction and phubbing behavior, including demographic factors, personal factors, and interpersonal factors among Chinese college students. A total of 866 college students (M age = 21.01, SD = 1.60) completed self-reported questionnaires in classroom settings. Collected data were analyzed by using Pearson’s correlation and hierarchical linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were phubbing behavior, depression, and social anxiety, while the protective factors were self-control and sense of security. In addition, the risk factors for phubbing behavior included female sex and smartphone addiction, while the protective factors included sense of security and interpersonal adaptability. Our findings help to enhance understanding of the general and specific risks and protective factors for smartphone addiction and phubbing behavior, which can benefit intervention development for related behavior prevention and reduction.
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Purpose Social media has shown a substantial influence on the daily lives of students, mainly due to the overuse of smartphones. Students use social media both for academic and non-academic purposes. Due to an increase in the usage of social media, academicians are now confronting pedagogical issues, and the question arises as to whether the use of social media affects students’ performance or not. Considering this, this study aims to examine the role of social media usage on students’ academic performance in the light of cognitive load theory. Design/methodology/approach Using a quantitative research approach, 220 valid responses were received through an e-survey administered to university students. The proposed claims were tested through structural equation modeling using AMOS version 24. Findings Findings revealed that social media usage for non-academic purposes harmed students’ academic performance. Additionally, social media usage for academic purposes and social media multitasking did not affect students’ academic performance. Most importantly, social media self-control failure moderates the relationship between “social media usage for non-academic purposes” and students’ academic performance. Practical implications The findings of the study can be used by the academic policymakers of institutions and regulatory bodies. Originality/value The study suggests that teachers not only rely on using social media as a learning tool but also concentrate on improving student self-control over the use of social media through various traditional and non-traditional activities, such as online readings, group discussions, roleplays and classroom presentations.
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Öz: Araştırmanın amacı mobil telefon bağımlılığının ergenlerin sosyal kaygı düzeyleri üzerindeki işleyişlerini incelemektir. Sosyal kaygı düzeyleri incelenirken gittikçe artan ve hayatımızın her anını saran telefon kullanımlarının ergenler üzerindeki sosyal kaygı derecesini ve bunların yaş, cinsiyet, eğitim gibi faktörlere bağlı olarak nasıl değişkenlik gösterdiği araştırılmıştır.Araştırma da öncelikle sosyal kaygı kavramının gelişimine ve aşamalarına bakılmış ardından ergenlik dönemlerinin özellikle mobil telefon bağımlılığına bağlı olabileceği düşünülen belirli temel özelliklerine değinilmiştir. Ardından mobil telefon bağımlılığının aşamaları araştırıldıktan sonra 14–18 yaş grubu ergenlerde algılanan mobil telefon bağımlılık düzeyleri ile sosyal kaygı düzeyleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki var olduğunu araştırmak üzere "ilişkisel tarama modeli" kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada, bireylerin bazı kişisel özelliklerini belirleyebilmek için araştırmacı tarafından hazırlanan Kişisel Bilgi Formu ile Problemli Mobil Telefon Kullanım Ölçeği ve Sosyal Kaygı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Mobil telefon; sosyal kaygı; bağımlılık
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The aim of this study is to determine the dimensions of digital parenting awareness, to develop a scale related to digital parenting awareness level of parents, and to investigate the level of digital parenting awareness in terms of gender, education level, family roles, age, smartphone usage time and perceived internet addiction in children. Exploratory sequential design, which is accepted as a mixed method, was used in the research. Initially, qualitative interviews and content analysis were conducted; and dimensions of digital parenting awareness were determined. Accordingly, a scale was developed. Then, digital parenting awareness level was examined according to various variables. The study was conducted as three different studies carried out with four different groups. In Study 1, individual interviews were conducted with twelve parents with children who attended primary school to collect data. For study 1, pre-coding method, which is a qualitative method, was found appropriate. Interviews were conducted through a semistructured interview form prepared by the researcher. Parents' consent was obtained; so, interviews were recorded. According to the obtained results; it is concluded that digital parenting awareness has five dimensions. In order to carry out study 2, “Digital Parenting Awareness Scale, whose reliability and validity analyses were performed over the item pool prepared by taking individual interviews and literature into consideration, was developed. In the scale development stage, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on 461 and 291 parents with primary school children, respectively. Internal consistency coefficients, test-half analysis, item analysis and criterion validity findings were obtained in order to certify the reliability of the scale. The data in Study 2 were collected online. According to the results obtained, a valid and reliable four-dimensional and 16-item “Digital Parenting Awareness Scale” was achieved. Finally, within the scope of Study 3, whether digital parenting awareness differs according to gender, level of education and domestic roles by adopting a screening type model; and whether there was relationship between age, smartphone usage time and perceived internet addiction in children by adopting digital parenting awareness and relational screening model were investigated. In order to perform the Study 3, 409 parents with children attending primary school were reached online. To perform screening type model, T-test and one-way ANOVA analysis and to perform the relational screening model, correlation analyses were used. According to the findings of Study 3, it was determined that gender, education level and domestic roles differ significantly according to some sub-dimensions of digital parenting awareness; on the other hand, there is a significant relationship between digital parenting awareness and age, smartphone usage time and perceived internet addiction in children. In line with the findings obtained, a discussion was made by taking the literature and suggestions into account; and suggestions were made to parents, guidance teachers and researchers. Keywords: digital parenting, digital parenting awareness, digital, parent, exploratory sequential design.
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The usefulness of a web site is based on the prospect of a satisfactory website user. In improving the usefulness of a university’s website, it is essential to present precise data and disseminate prompt information to students. This paper was conducted to analyse and recommend a better process for the information display (content and work processes) of university websites development. Questionnaires were distributed and feedbacks were received from 350 respondents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the process of (content and processes) of the university websites based on five main aspects: i) Content and Organization Structure, ii) Linkages and Navigation, iii) Language, iv) Education Content and v) Option and Performance. Analysis showed that the percentage of question items has a positive tendency in perception regarding improvements need to enhance the intensity of the university website portal, especially in terms of links, content organization and live help desk requirements that can directly provide an easier means of that can providing information and accelerating up the operation of receiving data. In summary, this study also outlines the proposal for academic websites display to increase the serviceability of the site to users.
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In recent years, the problem of mobile phone addiction (MPA) has become increasingly serious among mainland Chinese adolescents. Studies have found that self-esteem may be related to MPA, but the conclusions are inconsistent. Consequently, this meta-analysis aims to explore the real relationship between self-esteem and MPA, and analyze the moderator variables. The relevant studies used in meta-analysis were obtained by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Data, Chongqing VIP Information Co., Ltd. (VIP), PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase. Then articles were screened and coded, and statistical analysis was carried out by Stata 16.0 software. A total of 45,765 participants from 64 articles were included in the research. Meta-analysis showed that there was a moderate negative correlation between self-esteem and MPA( r = −.25, 95% CI = −.29, −.21). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis showed that the age and publication time can significantly moderate the relationship between self-esteem and MPA, but MPA measurement instrument, gender, region and publication type have no significant moderating effect. The current meta-analysis provided solid evidence that self-esteem was negatively correlated with MPA. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the causality between them, so as to make more specific practice and policy recommendations.
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Smartphone abuse interferes with all activities in daily life. Young people who tend to have a smartphone addiction (SA) also have social, familiar and academic problems. Furthermore, smartphone provides immediate access to communication as well as avoids experiencing social anxiety. This research aims to evaluate the factorial structure of Smartphone Addiction Risk Children Questionnaire (SARCQ), a specific questionnaire created to assess the risk of SA in primary school children (8-11 years). An exploratory factor analysis before and a confirmatory factor analysis after were performed in order to establish the factorial structure of the questionnaire. Results showed a two-factor structure explaining 49.30% of total variance. The outstanding dimensions are: “I’m not afraid with you” (INAWY) and “Linus blanket” (LB). SARCQ will be useful to assess the risk of SA in childhood in order to operate early effective therapeutic interventions.
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The mass adoption of digital technology continues to generate debate on how they impact people and society. Associations are regularly observed between media use and a variety of negative outcomes including depression and anxiety. However, pre-registered studies have failed to replicate these findings. Regardless of direction, many designs rely on self-reported ‘usage’ scales that aim to define and quantify a construct associated with technology engagement. This includes clinical notions of usage including disorders and addictions. Given their importance for research integrity, we consider what these scales are measuring. Across three studies, we observe that many scales align with a single, identical construct despite claims they capture something unique. We conclude that many technology measures appear to measure a similar, poorly defined construct that often overlaps with pre-existing measures of well-being. Social scientists should critically consider how they proceed both methodologically and conceptually when developing psychometric scales in this domain if research findings are to be drawn together into a coherent body of knowledge.
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Mahasiswa perantau rentan mengalami kesepian, salah satu cara untuk mengalihkan perasaan kesepian dengan penggunaan smartphone sehingga smartphone akan menjadi penting dan menyebabkan timbulnya perasaan takut yang berlebihan apabila tidak dapat menggunakan smartphone yang disebut dengan nomophobia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kesepian dengan nomophobia pada mahasiswa perantau Universitas Negeri Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini menggunakan teknik accidental sampling. Subjek pada penelitian ini berjumlah 202. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan uji Spearman rho. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kesepian dannomophobia pada mahasiswa perantau Universitas Negeri Makasssar (p = 0,001 < 0,05). Koefisien korelasi variabel kesepian dengan nomophobia sebesar 0,377 dan tergolong lemah. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan tingkat kesepian dan nomophobia berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Implikasi penelitian ini dapat menjadi evaluasi bagi mahasiswa perantau pada penggunaan smartphone guna meminimalisir munculnya perilaku nomophobia.
Thesis
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This thesis is about the impact of media misuse on parent child relationship and the forms of parenting style that influence good parenting.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the impact of excessive smartphone use on students’ academic performance. In today’s digitalized world, smartphones have become a vital device in human lives and have taken control over every aspect of day-to-day activities. Design/methodology/approach After a thorough literature review, the factors associated with smartphone use that impact student performance were identified, and a conceptual framework was developed. Further, a survey was conducted by contacting 264 students pursuing higher education in India to test the model. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the hypotheses. Findings Results indicate that there is no direct impact of excessive mobile phone use on student performance. However, it can be observed that excessive mobile phone use impacts student performance indirectly mediated by technoference. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted among students pursuing higher education in cosmopolitan cities with representation from India. Future studies can test the model among students in tier two cities and rural areas and primary and high school students for more insights. Practical implications This study has suggestions for college management to promote a hybrid learning model and prohibit using smartphones in classrooms and academic areas. Originality/value This study is among the earliest to explore the impact of technoference in an academic environment.
Research
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The purpose of the present study was to identify smartphone usage patterns in daily lives , associated with gender of users among adolescents and young adult Indians.Using cross-sectional ex-post facto design to analyze data obtained from a nationwide survey on smartphone addiction conducted in December 2020 till August 2021 on 2000 participants (1000 boys and 1000 girls) of age range 16-30 yrs. from various educational institutes of the urban and rural areas of eight cities of Uttar Pradesh, India following ethical standards.The findings indicate differential pattern and preferences amongusers. Thirteen percent of the sample met the criteria for smartphone overuse. The odds of smartphone overuse significantly increased with frequent smartphone use and multipurpose preferences for the device. Male were found to overuse their smartphones, Girls perceived their Smartphone as fun and useful tool whereas boys considered it as distraction and can't live without it. Finding also divulge suggestions for other activities as possible alternatives to smartphone use, and strategies to strengthen self-regulation and engagement strategies with regards to smartphone use. Keywords-Smartphones, smartphone overuse, Social networking, Pattern of use.
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W ponowoczesnym świecie niezmiernie istotne znaczenie dla rozwoju tożsamości młodych osób ma otoczenie społeczne, w jakim one dorastają i w jakim będą chciały realizować swoje plany. Składa się na nie środowisko osób zaliczanych do kręgu rodzinno-przyjacielskiego, sąsiedzkiego i towarzyskiego oraz środowisko edukacyjne, a w przypadku osób podejmujących pracę zarobkową także środowisko pracy (Brzezińska 2017). Znaczącym środowiskiem socjalizacyjnym w zglobalizowanym i ponowoczesnym świecie jest także środowisko mediów cyfrowych (Pyżalski 2012, 2019a; Boyd 2014). Młodzi ludzie będąc zanurzeni w kulturze partycypacji (Stunża 2017; Baranowski 2019) stają się aktywnymi aktorami, którzy poprzez działania podejmowane w świecie online z jednej strony go kreują, a z drugiej strony są jego odbiorcami. Świat mediów cyfrowych jest przestrzenią, w której następuje zarówno kontynuacja, aktualizacja oraz konstruowanie przeżyć, doświadczeń, czy fantazji jego uczestników (Czerepaniak-Walczak 2011). Wirtualny świat oferuje młodym osobom wiele możliwości poszerzania przestrzeni poznawczej i rozwijania wyobraźni poprzez uczestnictwo w nowych sytuacjach. Z tego powodu środowisko mediów cyfrowych, jako kolejna agenda socjalizacji nie pozostaje bez wpływu na kształtowanie się ich tożsamości. Media cyfrowe zaspokajają wiele indywidualnych potrzeb młodych ludzi, przez co stymulować mogą ich rozwój, ale również stanowić mogą dla niego zagrożenie. Szansa na aktywne zaistnienie w przestrzeni wirtualnej, jaką mają młode osoby, a jakiej do niedawna nie miały wcześniejsze pokolenia, może być również dla nich nowym sposobem kreowania własnej ścieżki rozwoju, własnej tożsamości. Prezentowana monografia składa się z dwóch części i pięciu rozdziałów. Część pierwsza, zatytułowana: Tożsamość młodzieży i media cyfrowe – teoretyczne i empiryczne podstawy badań własnych obejmuje trzy rozdziały i podejmuje rozważania teoretyczne dotyczące tożsamości człowieka oraz znaczenia i funkcji mediów cyfrowych w życiu młodzieży, zwłaszcza w kontekście publikowania za ich pomocą danych tożsamościowych, a zatem kreowania przez nią swojej tożsamości. Część druga publikacji, zatytułowana: Badania własne nad tożsamością młodzieży i funkcjami oraz znaczeniem mediów cyfrowych w procesie kreowania jej tożsamości obejmuje dwa rozdziały. W pierwszym zostały zaprezentowane przyjęte założenia metodologiczne badań własnych, które prowadzone były w latach 2017-2018 na reprezentatywnej dla miasta Bydgoszczy losowo wybranej próbie uczniów publicznych szkół ponadgimnazjalnych zlokalizowanych na terenie miasta Bydgoszczy. W drugim przedstawiono wyniki badań nad tożsamością młodzieży, jej statusami i stylami, czyli strategiami radzenia sobie z trudnościami związanymi z kryzysem tożsamości oraz używaniem przez nią mediów cyfrowych. Uwagę zwrócono na kwestię problematycznego korzystania przez młodzież z portali społecznościowych, poszukując związków między stylami tożsamości młodzieży, a takim sposobem zaangażowania się w ich użytkowanie. Opisowi poddano także aspekt kreowania przez młodzież tożsamości wirtualnej, analizując dane tożsamościowe upubliczniane przez nią w cyberprzestrzeni, zwłaszcza na portalach społecznościowych oraz wzory publikowanych informacji online na swój temat. Przedstawiono także wyniki badań zgromadzonych na drodze badań jakościowych – wywiadów indywidualnych z młodzieżą, które pozwoliły odczytać funkcje i znaczenie mediów cyfrowych w narracjach badanych osób oraz poznać sposoby kreowania przez nie własnego wizerunku online, postrzegania siebie w tej przestrzeni oraz ustalić pragnienia młodych osób i potrzeby, jakie pragną oni zaspokoić, użytkując media cyfrowe. Pracę kończy dyskusja poświęcona omówieniu uzyskanych wyników badań. Na jej końcu zamieszczono wnioski z badań oraz sformułowano rekomendacje pod adresem praktyki edukacyjnej, dotyczące wychowawczych, profilaktycznych, interwencyjnych oraz terapeutycznych działań.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the reciprocal longitudinal effects between mobile phone dependence and school adaptation among Korean adolescents, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. An autoregressive cross-lagged model was applied to a data set from a sample of 1659 adolescents from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute. We found that the positive autoregressive effects of mobile phone dependence and school adaptation were statistically significant over the study period. Results from the cross-lagged analyses demonstrated a unidirectional relationship between two variables: Superior school adaptation decreased mobile phone dependence, but mobile phone dependence did not affect school adaptation. Thus, we identified the causal direction and reciprocal relationship between mobile phone dependence and school adaptation. Girls were found to have a higher level of mobile phone dependence than boys did. Furthermore, the higher the household income, the better adolescents adapted to school. Child abuse and neglect played a role in increasing mobile phone dependence and negatively affected school adaptation.
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Due to their ubiquity, compulsive mobile phone use (CMPU) should include cognitive, psychological, and behavioral dimensions. This study has two main objectives-(a) explicate a multidimensional measure of CMPU and examine individual differences in the various dimensions and (b) conceptualize mobile phone self-efficacy and examine its relationship with CMPU. A survey with 446 U.S. adults was conducted in which respondents completed assessments related to CMPU, mobile phone self-efficacy, and mobile phone use frequency. Results showed the presence of a three-dimensional factor structure for CMPU. While gender, age, and mobile phone activity were associated with CMPU, mobile phone self-efficacy was not. The relevance of the findings is discussed along with implications for future research.
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Thesis
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Use of smart phones creates some opportunities to increase their social skills. On the other hand, this can be a dangerous weapon for adolescents to deteriorate in their communication skills and social life. The research study covers in Tenkasi District of Tamil Nadu. The study focuses on influence of smart phone on health issues of adolescent. Understanding the vigor of smart phone addiction would assist in creating awareness about this behavioral addiction among the adolescents and it helps put forward measures to control and manage this form of addiction. The study revealed that many adolescents use social media and that they spent an increasing amount of quality time on these networks. This research suggested that social media could negatively impact the adolescents ‘social behavior, academic progress and that timed-off software should be installed to control its use by everyone.
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Addictive behaviors have traditionally been associated with low self-esteem, and Problematic Smartphone Use (PSU) has recently received increasing scientific attention as a potential behavioral addiction. The present meta-analysis aims to examine the strength of the relationship between PSU symptoms and global self-esteem. A keyword-based systematic literature search was performed to identify studies in which PSU symptoms and global self-esteem were assessed. Thirty-one independent studies with a total of 27.004 participants (F % = 54.21%; mean age = 17.37 ± 4.97; range: 12.10–34.39 years old) were included. Meta-analytic results of the random effects model applied to a total of 31 independent samples show a negative correlation between self-esteem and PSU (Fisher's Z = −0.25; CI -0.28, −0.21; Z = −14.63; p < 0.001). Age, gender and geographical area did not moderate the association. The magnitude of the effect size can be considered small according to Cohen's criteria (1992), and medium according to Hemphill's criteria (2003). The sensitivity analysis and analyses of publication bias confirm that these results are robust. The findings show that low self-esteem is an important hallmark of PSU. Overall, our findings emphasize the importance of addressing self-esteem and corresponding core beliefs in the prevention and treatment of PSU.
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Provides an account of core knowledge in the field of addictions for students, academics, professionals and trainees in psychology, psychiatry, social work and related health disciplines. Topics include the origins and processes of addiction to the ways in which people overcome addictions, the implications for interventions, accounts of the different forms of addiction, including alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, gambling, eating and sex, and a psychological model of addictions which challenges former models. A comprehensive review of the research literature with a large reference base is also included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The question of whether behaviours can be addictive in the same sense as psychoactive substances has been debated in psychology for some time. Increased understanding of the brain reward system tends to support this notion. The way in which behaviours may modulate that system, coupled with self-report and behavioural analysis, suggests three characteristics of substances or behaviours that may lead to addictions. The reward system must register a relatively rapid and substantial improvement in hedonic state, the user unable to find alternative ways of obtaining this improvement, and the performance of the addictive behaviour leads to maladaptive functioning and a state of chronic dysphoria. Cognitive and social factors may also influence the development and maintenance of addiction.
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This study surveyed 277 undergraduate Internet users, a population considered to be high risk for pathological Internet use (PIU), to assess incidence of PIU as well as characteristics of the Internet and of users associated with PIU. Pathological use was determined by responses to 13 questions which assessed evidence that Internet use was causing academic, work or interpersonal problems, distress, tolerance symptoms, and mood-altering use of the Internet. Approximately one-quarter of students (27.2%) reported no symptoms (NO) while 64.7% reported one to three symptoms (Limited Symptoms) and 8.1% reported four or more symptoms (PIU). Based on popular stereotypes as well as previous research, it was predicted that pathological Internet users would more likely be males, technologically sophisticated, use real-time interactive activities such as online games and chat lines, and feel comfortable and competent online. Further, it was hypothesized that pathological users would be more likely to be lonely and to be socially disinhibited online. Partial confirmation of this model was obtained. Pathological users were more likely to be males and to use online games as well as technologically sophisticated sites, but there was no difference in Internet Relay Chat use. Although reported comfort and competence with the Internet was in the expected direction, differences were not significant. Pathological users scored significantly higher on the UCLA Loneliness Scale, and were socially disinhibited online.
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Despite its uses, the Internet is liable to be abused. “Internet Addiction” is a newly proposed construct, derived form DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse. As a very recent phenomenon, excess internet use probably arises through pre-existing mechanisms. The addictive element may be the search for stimulation through interactive services, or the Internet may serve the purpose of an escape from real-life difficulties. We therefore considered the extent to which sensation seeking or poor self-esteem predicts heavier Internet use. Fifty participants, recruited through the Internet or the Internet Addiction Support Group, completed an Internet Related Problem Scale, the MMPI-2 Addiction Potential Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Sensation Seeking Scale. The Internet Related Problem Scale showed a moderate level of internal consistency and demonstrated construct validity, predicting hours of Internet use and having a relationship with the Addiction Potential Scale. While poorer self-esteem predicted greater scores on the Internet Related Problem Scale, impulsivity did not. Researchers need to re-assess previous conceptualizations of the typical “computer addict” as a highly educated, male introvert with a constant need for intellectual stimulation (Shotton, 1991).
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The present study examined excessive Internet use of Taiwanese adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents. Seven hundred and fifty three Taiwanese high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users. Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line than non-dependents. While Internet dependents perceived significantly more negative Internet influences on daily routines, school performance, and parental relation than non-dependents, both Internet dependents and non-dependents viewed Internet use as enhancing peer relations. Making friends through the Internet has become a popular activity among adolescents, potentially leading to its excessive use. Internet dependents scored significantly higher on overall sensation seeking and disinhibition than Internet non-dependents. However, both groups did not differ in the life experience seeking subscale and thrill and adventure seeking subscale. This finding contradicts that of Lavin, Marvin, McLarney, Nola, and Scott [CyberPsychol. Behav. 2 (2000) 425]. Possible reasons for this discrepancy and for the relation between Internet dependence and disinhibition in Taiwanese adolescents are also discussed.
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We introduce two new scales for assessing substance abuse problems with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): the Addiction Potential Scale (APS), a 39-item empirically derived scale, developed by contrasting the responses of a large residential substance abuse sample with responses from both normative and psychiatric control groups; and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS), a 13-item face-valid scale, constructed rationally and with attention to internal consistency. Both new scales are shown to discriminate well between groups and substantially better than other selected substance abuse scales. Covariation between the scales and joint effectiveness are examined. Finally, limitations for their practical utility are expressed, and considerations for future research are identified.
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Several previous studies have reported personality differences between addicts and normal subjects. In the present investigation, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was administered to 221 addicts at three London treatment centres, and to 310 normal subjects. An item analysis showed that a large number of items discriminated between the two groups. An ‘Addiction Scale’ was constructed from the 32 items on which the groups differed most, (all at p<0.001). Most of the A-Scale items were drawn from the Neuroticism Scale and identified feelings of anxiety and depression. It is suggested that this neurotic component may be artificially inflated. Addicts may have learned to present neurotic problems through such symptoms being rewarded in therapeutic institutions. The neurotic component seems to play a lesser role in distinguishing female addicts from controls. These and other findings are discussed.
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In this study, 150 subjects observed a 25-minute video driving sequence containing 45 highway traffic situations to which they were expected to respond by manipulation of simulated vehicle controls. Each situation occurred under five conditions of distraction: placing a cellular phone call, carrying on a causal cellular phone conversation, carrying on an intense cellular phone conversation, tuning a radio, and no distraction. All of the distractions led to significant increases in the proportion of situations to which subjects failed to respond. However, significant age differences of nonresponse appeared. Among subjects over age 50, nonresponses increased by about one-third under all of the telephone distractions. The response rate of younger subjects increased by a lesser degree except under intense conversation. Results were not influenced by gender or prior experience with cellular phones. The authors conclude that older drivers might reduce their accident risk during attention-demanding traffic conditions by avoiding use of cellular phones and that other drivers might do so by refraining from calls involving intense conversation.
Article
The effects of a mobile telephone task on young and elderly drivers' choice reaction time, headway, lateral position, and workload were studied when the subjects were driving in a car-following situation, in the VTI driving simulator. It was found that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect upon the drivers' choice reaction time, and that the effect was more pronounced for the elderly drivers. Furthermore, the subjects did not compensate for their increased reaction time by increasing their headway during the phone task. The subjects' mental workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX, increased as a function of the mobile telephone task. No effect on the subjects' lateral position could be detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the accident risk can increase when a driver is using the mobile telephone in a car following situation. The reasons for the increased risk, and possible ways to eliminate it, are also discussed.
Article
Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: (1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents within the past 2 years, and (2) a control group of 100 randomly selected licensed drivers not involved in accidents within the past 10 years. Groups were matched on geographic residence. Approximately 13% (N = 7) of the accident and 9% (N = 7) of the non-accident group reported use of cellular phones while driving. Data was obtained from Department of Motor Vehicles accident reports and survey information from study subjects. We hypothesized that increased use of cellular phones while driving was associated with increased odds of a traffic accident. Results indicated that talking more than 50 minutes per month on cellular phones in a vehicle was associated with a 5.59-fold increased risk in a traffic accident. The combined use of cellular phones and motor and cognitive activities while driving were also associated with increased traffic accident risk. Readers should be cautioned that this study: (1) consists of a small sample, (2) reveals statistical associations and not causal relationships, and (3) does not conclude that talking on cellular phones while driving is inherently dangerous.
Article
This case involves a homemaker 43 years of age who is addicted to using the Internet. This case was selected as it demonstrates that a nontechnologically oriented woman with a reportedly content home life and no prior addiction or psychiatric history abused the Internet which resulted in significant impairment to her family life. This paper defines addictive use of the Internet, outlines the subject's progression of addictive on-line use, and discusses the implications of such addictive behavior on the new market of Internet consumers.
Article
Because of a belief that the use of cellular telephones while driving may cause collisions, several countries have restricted their use in motor vehicles, and others are considering such regulations. We used an epidemiologic method, the case-crossover design, to study whether using a cellular telephone while driving increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision. We studied 699 drivers who had cellular telephones and who were involved in motor vehicle collisions resulting in substantial property damage but no personal injury. Each person's cellular-telephone calls on the day of the collision and during the previous week were analyzed through the use of detailed billing records. A total of 26,798 cellular-telephone calls were made during the 14-month study period. The risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used (relative risk, 4.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 6.5). The relative risk was similar for drivers who differed in personal characteristics such as age and driving experience; calls close to the time of the collision were particularly hazardous (relative risk, 4.8 for calls placed within 5 minutes of the accident, as compared with 1.3 for calls placed more than 15 minutes before the accident; P<0.001); and units that allowed the hands to be free (relative risk, 5.9) offered no safety advantage over hand-held units (relative risk, 3.9; P not significant). Thirty-nine percent of the drivers called emergency services after the collision, suggesting that having a cellular telephone may have had advantages in the aftermath of an event. The use of cellular telephones in motor vehicles is associated with a quadrupling of the risk of a collision during the brief time interval involving a call. Decisions about regulation of such telephones, however, need to take into account the benefits of the technology and the role of individual responsibility.
Article
While the addictive potential of Internet usage is a topic that has attracted a great deal of attention, as yet little research has addressed this topic. Preliminary data from the Internet Usage Survey shows that most of the 563 users reported instances of Internet use interfering with other aspects of their lives, most commonly problems with managing time. A subgroup of users endorsed multiple usage-related problems, including several similar to those found in addictions. Younger users tended to have experienced more problems.
Article
As computer game playing is a popular activity among adolescents, a questionnaire study was undertaken with 387 adolescents (12-16 years of age) to establish their "dependence" using a scale adapted from the DSM-III-R criteria for pathological gambling. Analysis indicated that one in five adolescents were currently "dependent" upon computer games. Boys played significantly more regularly than girls and were more likely to be classified as "dependent." The earlier children began playing computer games it appeared the more likely they were to be playing at "dependent" levels. These and other results are discussed in relation to research on other gaming dependencies.
Article
A case-control study was conducted to determine statistical associations between traffic fatalities and the use or presence of a cellular phone, given involvement in a collision. The hypothesis of this study does not imply that cellular phones directly affect fatalities, but that phones increase the risk of certain accident characteristics in fatal collisions more than those same characteristics in non-fatal collisions. Analysis employed data from 223,137 traffic accidents occurring between 1992 and 1995. Information on collision characteristics and cellular phone involvement for each fatality was compared with the same information for each non-fatality (controls). Statistically adjusting for other collision variables (age, gender, alcohol use, speed, inattention and driving left of center), an approximate nine-fold increased risk was found for a fatality given the use of a cellular phone. An approximate two-fold increased risk for a fatality was found given the presence of a cellular phone in the vehicle. Combined effects of reported phone use, driving to the left of center and inattention increased the risk of a fatal collision more than phone use did by itself. This analysis implies a statistical, but not necessarily a causal, relationship. A multitude of factors are involved in any traffic collision, and the exact cause of an accident and its severity level is difficult to disentangle.
Article
A number of theories have been proposed to explain the substantial comorbidity between the eating disorders and the substance-related disorders. Among them is the claim that self-starvation--exacerbated by excessive exercising--is itself an addiction to the body's endogenous opioids. While efforts have also been made to identify an "addictive personality," attempts to establish whether eating-disordered patients share these characteristics have met with mixed success. The present study was designed to determine the degree to which anorexic and bulimic patients display addictive personality characteristics, and whether these traits are useful in predicting the severity of the patient's weight preoccupation and their degree of excessive exercising. Results confirmed that both anorexic and bulimic patients had high scores on the Addiction Scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and that addictiveness and obsessive-compulsiveness were related simultaneously to weight preoccupation and excessive exercising in both patient groups. Findings are discussed within the framework of the auto-addiction opioid theory, and they highlight the similarities and differences in the personality structure of the eating-disorder subtypes.
Article
Extraversion has been suggested as a factor associated with addiction. This claim was tested in relation to exercise addiction. Twelve exercise addicts were compared with 12 nonaddicted individuals who were committed to regular exercise and with 12 nonexercising individuals drawn from the same student population. Addicted exercisers did not differ from nonaddicted exercisers in extraversion, although exercisers as a group were more extraverted than nonexercisers. The results are interpreted as evidence against the claim that extraversion is a component of the addictive personality profile.
Article
This study was aimed at investigating drivers' ability to detect a car ahead decelerating, while doing mobile phone related tasks. Nineteen participants aged between 20 and 29 years, (2000-125000 km driving experience) drove at 80 km/h, 50 m behind a lead car, on a 30 km section of motorway in normal traffic. During each trial the lead car started to decelerate at an average of 0.47 m/s2 while the participant either looked at the car in front (control), continuously dialed series of three random integers on a numeric keypad (divided visual attention), or performed a memory and addition task (non-visual attention). The results indicated that drivers' detection ability was impaired by about 0.5 s in terms of brake reaction time and almost 1 s in terms of time-to-collision, when they were doing the non-visual task whilst driving. This impairment was similar to when the drivers were dividing their visual attention between the road ahead and dialing numbers on the keypad. It was concluded that neither a hands-free option nor a voice controlled interface removes the safety problems associated with the use of mobile phones in a car.
Article
Studies have examined possible effects of concurrent mobile phone use on driving performance. Although interference is often apparent, determining the implications of such findings for 'real world' driving is problematic. This paper considers some relevant methodological issues including the definition of procedures and terms, operationalization of task elements, sampling of task components, and the provision of experimental controls. Suggestions are made about how methodological rigor could be improved.