Article

Personality and comorbidity of common psychiatric disorders. Br J Psychiatry

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 04/2005; 186(3):190-6. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.186.3.190
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We know little about the degree to which comorbidity, socommonly seen among psychiatric disorders, arises from variation in normal personality.
To study the degree to which variation in normal personality accounts for the comorbidity of eight common psychiatric and substance use disorders.
Internalising disorders (major depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorders, phobias), externalising disorders (alcohol and drug dependence, antisocial personality and conduct disorders) and personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion and novelty seeking were assessed in 7588 participants from a population-based twin registry. The proportion of comorbidity explained by each personality dimension was calculated using structural equation modelling.
Neuroticism accounted for the highest proportion of comorbidity within internalising disorders (20-45%) and between internalising and externalising disorders (19-88%). Variation in neuroticism and novelty seeking each accounted for a modest proportion (10-12% and 7-14%, respectively) of the comorbidity within externalising disorders. Extraversion contributed negligibly.
High neuroticism appears to be a broad vulnerability factor for comorbid psychiatric disorders. Novelty seeking is modestly important for comorbid externalising disorders.

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    • "Neuroticism has been shown in a number of studies to be a potent predictor of relationship satisfaction, even over a span of 50 years (Kelly & Conley, 1987 ). Furthermore , neuroticism correlates substantially with depression and anxiety (Kendler, Neale, Kessler, Heath, & Eaves, 1993; Khan, Jacobson, Gardner, Prescott, & Kendler, 2005) and these conditions have also demonstrated associations with rumination (Nolan, Roberts, & Gotlib, 1998) and catastrophizing (Goubert, Crombez, & Van Damme, 2004). Research has also shown that neuroticism is related to decreased forgiveness through angry hostility (Brose, Rye, Lutz-Zois, & Ross, 2005) and vengeful ruminations (Berry, Worthington, O'Connor, Parrott, & Wade, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Two studies examine whether specific cognitive tendencies and underlying personality traits inhibit the tendency to forgive and, in turn, decrease relationship satisfaction among emerging adults in committed romantic relationships (median relationship duration 1–2 years). In Study 1 (N = 355), trait forgiveness had a positive, direct association with later relationship satisfaction and mediated the effect of neuroticism on relationship satisfaction. In Study 2 (N = 354), forgiveness had a positive, direct association with relationship satisfaction and mediated the association between catastrophic rumination and relationship satisfaction. Forgiveness mediated changes in relationship satisfaction over time, with greater trait forgiveness predicting higher relationship satisfaction. Implications for research on forgiveness and for applied work on couple preventive interventions are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    • "Neuroticism is a personality trait that describes how individuals react to external stressors, and is regarded as a measure of emotional instability. High neuroticism accounts for a large proportion of variance in the incidence of mood and anxiety disorders (Khan et al., 2005), especially major depressive disorder (Kendler et al., 2006), and therefore likely shares neurobiological correlates with these disorders. Since serotonin is involved in mood and anxiety disorders (Schildkraut, 1965), neuroticism may have serotonergic mechanisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may be a trait-like phenomenon and partly explained by higher neuroticism in patients with affective disorders. The link between personality traits and 5-HT1A receptors should be studied in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
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    • "Although the latter is not an aim of screening, an examination of such specific disorders may elicit information pertaining to the extent by which individual disorders are associated with MASQ dimensions (Bredemeier et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2006; Tully and Penninx, 2012). Indeed, this advantage is offset by evidence that certain depression and anxiety disorders, and symptoms, tend to cluster together beyond simple depression and anxiety taxonomic boundaries (Kendler et al., 2003; Khan et al., 2005; Krueger, 1999; Watson, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large sample. Methods A sample of 2981 persons underwent structured psychiatric interview; n=652 were without lifetime depression and anxiety disorder history. Participants also completed a neuroticism scale (Revised NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]), and the 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-D30) measuring anhedonic depression, anxious arousal and general distress. Maximal sensitivity and specificity was determined by the Youden Index and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) in ROC analysis. Results A total of 2624 completed all measures (age M=42.4 years±13.1, 1760 females [67.1%]), including 1060 (40.4%) persons who met criteria for a distress-disorder, and 973 (37.1%) who met criteria for a fear-disorder. The general distress dimension provided the highest ROC values in the detection of the distress-disorders (AUC=.814, sensitivity=71.95%, specificity=76.34%, positive predictive value=67.33, negative predictive value=80.07). None of the measures provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders with specificity values <75%. Limitations Over sampling of depression and anxiety disorders may lead to inflated positive- and negative predictive values. Conclusions The MASQ-D30 general distress dimension showed clinically suitable operating characteristics in the detection of distress-disorders. Neither neuroticism nor the MASQ-D30 dimensions provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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