Solvatochromism of 3-[2-(4-diphenylaminophenyl) benzoxazol-5-y]alanine methyl ester - A new fluorescence probe
The photophysical properties of 3-[2-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)benzoxazol-5-yl]alanine methyl ester (1b) and its Boc derivative (1a) were studied in a series of solvents. Its UV-Vis absorption spectra are less sensitive to the solvent polarity than the corresponding fluorescence spectra which show pronounced solvatochromic effect leading to large Stokes shifts. Using an efficient solvatochromic method, based on the molecular-microscopic empirical solvent polarity parameter E(T)(N), a large change of the dipole moment on excitation has been found. From an analysis of the solvatochromic behaviour of the UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectra in terms of bulk solvent polarity functions, f(epsilon(r),n) and g(n), a large excited-state dipole moment (mu(e) = 11D), almost perpendicular to the smaller ground-state dipole moment, was observed. This demonstrates the formation of an intramolecular charge-transfer excited state. Large changes of the fluorescence quantum yields as well as the fluorescence lifetimes with an increase of a solvent polarity cause that the new non-proteinogenic amino acid, 3-[2-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)benzoxazol-5-yl]-alanine methyl ester, is a new useful fluorescence probe for biophysical studies of peptides and proteins.
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ABSTRACT: The synthesis of N-Boc-3-[2-(2-quinoxalinyl)benzoxazol-5-yl]alanine methyl ester (1) and 3-[2-(2-quinoxalinyl)benzoxazol-5-yl]alanine (2), useful in peptide chemistry, are described. The influence of metal ions and pH on spectroscopic properties of compounds studied is presented. The compounds studied are very weak bases in the ground state and their basicity increases in the excited state. Among ions studied, in the ground state only Cu(II) and Al(III) and Pb(II) ions form stable complexes with (1), whereas in the excited state – only Ni(II) ion. Contrary to the most fluoroionophores the fluorescence intensity of ligand (1) in acetonitrile increases with the increase of Ni(II) ion concentration, whereas the fluorescence intensity of (2) in water is totally quenched by H3O+ ion.
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigates how solution conditions, especially solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding, affect the fluorescence of ellipticine, a natural plant alkaloid with anticancer activity. A total of 16 solvents that cover a wide range of polarities were tested. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption and fluorescence emission of ellipticine were found to be solvent dependent. The absorption and emission maximum shifted to higher wavelengths (red shift) with increased solvent polarity. The difference in absorption and emission maximum (Stokes' shift) was large, approximately 10,000-11,000 cm-1, in polar solvents (with orientation polarizability Deltaf>0.2) but unusually small, approximately 8900 cm-1, in nonpolar solvents (hexane and cyclohexane). Large Stokes' shifts were due to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), which was enabled by large solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding of ellipticine with the solvents. Two transitions were found in the Lippert-Mataga plot between (1) nonpolar and semipolar solvents and between (2) semipolar and polar solvents. The first transition reflected the formation of hydrogen bonds between ellipticine and the solvents whereas the second transition indicated that ellipticine underwent an ICT. In addition, the larger extinction coefficients and the longer lifetime of ellipticine obtained in protic solvents were attributed to the formation of stronger hydrogen bonds. The photophysical response of ellipticine to changes in solvent polarity and hydrogen bond formation could be used to infer the location of ellipticine in a heterogeneous medium, namely liposomes in aqueous solution. A relatively large red shift of emission in liposomes indicated that ellipticine may be in a more polar environment with respect to the lipid bilayer, possibly close to the hydrophilic interface.
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