Article

Enjoyment Mediates Effects of a School-Based Physical-Activity Intervention

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States
Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 04/2005; 37(3):478-87. DOI: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000155391.62733.A7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated whether targeted changes in factors influencing enjoyment of physical education (PE), physical activity enjoyment, and self-efficacy beliefs about participating in physical activity mediated the effect of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP) intervention on participation in physical activity.
High schools (N=24) paired on enrollment size, racial composition, urban or rural location, and class structure were randomized into control (N=12) or experimental (N=12) groups. Of the 4044 girls enrolled and eligible, 2087 (51.6%) participated in the measurement component of the study. There were 1038 girls in the control group and 1049 girls in the experimental group.
LEAP was a comprehensive school-based intervention emphasizing changes in instruction and school environment designed to increase physical activity among black and white adolescent girls. It was organized according to the Coordinated School Health Program and included a PE component with core objectives of promoting enjoyment of PE, physical activity enjoyment, and self-efficacy.
Latent variable structural equation modeling indicated that: 1) the intervention had direct, positive effects on physical activity and factors influencing enjoyment of PE, which subsequently explained the effects of increased physical activity enjoyment and self-efficacy on increased physical activity; and 2) an additional, indirect effect of physical activity enjoyment on physical activity operated by an influence on self-efficacy.
Increases in enjoyment partially mediated the positive effect of the LEAP intervention. To our knowledge, we have provided the first experimental evidence from a randomized controlled trial linking increased enjoyment with increased physical activity among black and white adolescent girls.

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    • "Research shows that pupil enjoyment derived from physical activity during PE lessons might also be important in motivating people to lead a physically active life and to choose physical activity, which has a beneficial effect on health and wellbeing (Molt, et al., 2001). Pleasure (enjoyment, free from fear of assessment) is a positive influence factor, which generalises feelings and motivates participation in physical activity during PE lessons (Dishman, et al., 2005; Hashim, Grove, & Whipp, 2008; Topolski, et al., 2006). Indeed, Carroll and Loumidis (2001) observed that PE lessons might have a positive role for later physical activity if they were grounded in pleasure, not in fear of normative performance assessment, and if they had a fundamental objective such as promoting pupils' physical competence, intrinsic motivation and enjoyment. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    • "Research shows that pupil enjoyment derived from physical activity during PE lessons might also be important in motivating people to lead a physically active life and to choose physical activity, which has a beneficial effect on health and wellbeing (Molt, et al., 2001). Pleasure (enjoyment, free from fear of assessment) is a positive influence factor, which generalises feelings and motivates participation in physical activity during PE lessons (Dishman, et al., 2005; Hashim, Grove, & Whipp, 2008; Topolski, et al., 2006). Indeed, Carroll and Loumidis (2001) observed that PE lessons might have a positive role for later physical activity if they were grounded in pleasure, not in fear of normative performance assessment, and if they had a fundamental objective such as promoting pupils' physical competence, intrinsic motivation and enjoyment. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article draws from a study exploring the relationship between the Physical Education (PE) programme in the former Soviet State of Lithuania (more than 20 years ago) and present-day physical activity levels of Lithuanian citizens aged 35 years and older. Discussion embraces the differences in attitudes among physically active people aged 35+ and those who are not physically active to the assessment of achievements, to social characteristics of teacher’s assessment, to the influence of assessment on past and present physical activity, enjoyment experienced during PE lessons and the past and present benefit of those lessons, as well as physical activity motivation during the PE lessons in former Soviet Union times. Research findings reveal that insufficient engagement during PE lessons increases the chance of future physical inactivity by 1.65 times. The absence of any positive correlation between the assessment mark and the positive relationship between an individual and the PE teacher increases the chance of future physical inactivity by 2.12 times. Lack of, or inadequate understanding of, the benefits of physical activity to the quality of life and a healthy lifestyle increases the chance of future physical inactivity by 2.20 times.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Kinesiology
    • "Thesefindingshaveimportantimplicationsforphysicaleducators.Mostnotably,ourresults encouragePEinstructorstoimplylearning-orientedteachingpracticesthatemphasiseself- improvementandtaskmasteryratherthanperformance-orientedteachingpracticesthatfocus oncompetitionandnormativecomparisons.Inaddition,thisstudysupportsthepreviousfindings (Dishmanetal.,2005)andsuggestions(Wallhead&Buckworth,2004),indicatingthatenjoyment inPEmaybethepsychologicalmediatorthatcarriespositivePEexperiencesovertoincreased out-of-schoolPAparticipation.Giventhesefindings,webelievethatPEactivitiesshould(a) matchstudentneeds,skillsandpreferences,(b)beperceivedasexcitingandchallengingby thestudents,and(c)offerawiderangeofinvolvementchoices.Ithasbeenarguedthatfailure toconsiderthesecharacteristicscouldpotentiallyleadtoalackofenjoymentforPE(Ntoumanis, Pensgaard,Martin,&Pipe,2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of teacher-initiated motivational climate on cognitive, affective, and behavioural student outcomes has been highlighted as an area of future research. This study, grounded in self-determination and achievement goal theories, examined how teacher-initiated motivational climate can increase student motivation and positive affective responses in physical education (PE) along with their physical activity (PA) participation, and whether motivational climate has a longitudinal effect across middle school. In addition, we aimed to examine the role of positive affect in explaining the relationship between motivation in PE and out-of-school PA participation. Our sample comprised 540 adolescents (277 boys, 263 girls, median age 13) and they responded to self-report questionnaires measuring their perception of motivational climate in PE classes (Motivation Climate in Physical Education Questionnaire), motivational regulations (Physical Education Motivation Scale), enjoyment (Sport Enjoyment Scale), and PA participation (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Research Protocol) twice at both Grades 7 and 9. Structural equation model analyses produced three main findings. First, the study showed that intrinsic motivation was the vital component of motivation that transferred the effect of learning-oriented climate to long-lasting enjoyment in PE context. Second, performance-oriented climate had a long-lasting effect on introjected and extrinsic regulations and amotivation. Finally, the study showed enjoyable experiences in PE to transfer intrinsic motivation into PA participation. The findings of the study extend our understanding on how teacher-initiated motivational climate in PE can lead to an increase in PA participation during middle school.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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